人教版初中英语九年级第十三单元知识点

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2021年1月21日14:25:05 12977字阅读43分15秒

人教版九年级英语第十三单元知识点总结

Unit13.We’re trying to save the earth!

  • 单词

litter bottom fisherman coal ugly advantage cost wooden plastic takeaway bin shark fin cruel harmful be harmful to  at the top of chain the food chain ecosystem industry law scientific take part in afford turn off reusable pay for take action transportation recycle napkin throw away put sth to good use pull...down upside gate bottle president inspiration iron work metal bring back creativity

二.1.现在进行时

定义:表示说话时(瞬间)正在进行的动作,也表示目前或现阶段一直进行的动作。

结构: ① 肯定句: 主语 + am/is/are + V-ing

② 否定句: 主语 + am/is/are + not + V-ing

③ 疑问句: Am/Is/Are + 主语 + V-ing

用法:1)表示说话时正在进行的,目前正在发生的动作。

① Look! The big bird is flying away. ② He is watching a movie now.

  • 表示目前一段时间内正在进行,但说话时可能没有进行的动作。

Right now I am studying Chinese by distance learning. 我现在正通过远程教育学习汉语。

1) 2)常带有表示目前时刻的时间副词, 如:now, right now, at the (very) moment, for the time being, at present, these days 及Look! Listen! ...

  • 与always, constantly, forever, all the time等副词连用,表示动作反复或习惯。此时句子常含有说话者的强烈情感在内。表达较强的“责备”或“表扬”之意

① You are always changing your mind. 你总是主意不定。(太烦人了)

② He is always helping others.他总是帮助别人。(他真是个好人)

  • 对于come, go, leave, arrive, start,fly,drive等表示位置移动的动词常可用进行时态表将来。

① He is leaving on Wednesday.   ② Mary isn’t here at the moment. She is coming later.

  1. used to do见第四单元及use用法
  2. 被动语态 见第五单元

注意:接双宾语的词的被动语态;make /let /have sb do的被动语态;see/ hear /notice /find /observe sb do 的被动语态;It’s said/reported/believed/supposed/well-known;及无被动语态的三种情况(感官动词、不及物动词、sell/write等)

  1. 现在完成时:

用法:①过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果:强调结果

Yesterday I finished my homework, that’s to say, I have finished my homework now.

②过去已经开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态:强调继续

I have lived here since 1990.

现在完成时的构成 have/has+过去分词

现在完成时的四个基本句型

肯定句    He has finished the work.         一般疑问句    Has he finished the work?

否定句    He has not finished the work.    两回答    Yes ,he has.  No, he hasn’t.

特殊疑问句    What has he done?

在下列情形下用现在完成时

1九词语

①already 已经 肯定句中或句尾 I have already found my pen. = I have found my pen already.

②yet已经 否定句疑问句句尾 I have not finished the work yet.

Have you bought a computer yet?

③ever曾经  句中 Have you ever seen pandas?

④never从不  句中 I have never been to Beijing.

⑤just刚刚  句中   I have just done my work.

⑥before以前 句尾  I have never been there before.

⑦so far到目前为止  So far he has learned 200 words.

⑧how long多久 How long have you lived here?

⑨how many times多少次 How many times has he been to Beijing?

2两词组

have<has>gone to去了某地   例:He has gone to Beijing   (去了北京,没回)

have<has>been to去过某地   例:He has been to Beijing.   (去过北京,回了)

3两结构

for two months  for +一段时间 Jim has lived here for 2 months.
since last year since +过去时间点 Lucy has been in Beijing since 3 years ago.
since 3 years ago
since 1990
since he came here since +过去时态句子 He has been in China since he came here.

 

4如果句子里面没有时间状语,汉语意思能够加“已经”,往往用现在完成时态。

Have you lost your library book? 你已经弄丢了从图书馆借的那本书吗?

5现在完成时态还常常用于下列句型

They have planted many trees in the last/past few years.

This is the best book I have ever read.

It is the first time I have played the computer games.

在现在完成时中,一次性动词不能和一段时间状语连用

例:He has bought the book for 3 years.(错)

因buy这个一次性动词不能和一段时间for 3 years连用, 改正的办法有:

He has bought the book..              (去掉一段时间for 3 years)

He bought the book 3 years ago         (改为一般过去时,使句子的意思不变)

It’s/It has been 3 years since he bought the book. = 3 years has passed since he bought the book.                                (改为固定句型 It is/It has been ---since---)

He has had the book for 3 years.        (用延续性动词have代替buy)

另外

①come/arrive/get to/reach → be here

I have come here for 3 years.(错)      改为:I have been here for 3 years.

②leave/go →be away

He has left for 3 hours.(错)           改为:He has been away for 3 hours.

③begin/start →be on

The film has begun for 3 minutes.(错)          改为:The film has been on for 3 minutes.

④open →be open / close → be closed

The shop has opened for 3 years.(错)        改为:The shop has been open for 3 years.

⑤die →be dead

His father has died for 3 years.(错)            改为:His father has been dead for 3 years.

⑥finish/end→ be over

He has finished the work for 3 days.(错)           改为:The work has been over for 3 days

⑦join   I have joined the army for 3 years.(错)

改为:I have been in the army for 3 years. 或I have been a soldier for 3 years.

⑧buy /catch → have

I have bought the bike for 3 years.(错)         改为:I have had the bike for 3 years.

He has caught a cold for 3 days.(错)           改为:He has had a cold for 3 days.

⑨borrow → keep

I have borrowed the book for 3 years. (错)     改为:I have kept the book for 3 years.

还有其它的归纳如下:

break → be broken     get up → be up   marry → be married                  become → be                         lose → be lost

  1. 情态动词

1) 情态动词本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪、态度或语气,但不能单独作谓语,只能与其他动词构成谓语。常见的有:can (could), may (might), must, need, shall (should), will (would)等。

2) 情态动词无人称和数的变化, 后接动词原形。否定式是在情态动词后面加not。个别情态动词有过去式形式, 也可用来表达更加客气、委婉的语气。

1.can和could的用法

(1)can/could 表示“能力;许可;可能性”等。could 为 can 的过去式。如:Can I use your bike?

(2)can 用在疑问句中,表示征求意见、请求许可,答语仍用 can; could 用在疑问句中,比can 更委婉、客气,是一种礼貌的说法,并不表示过去时态,答语用can,而不能用could。 如:—Could you tell me the way to the zoo?—Sorry. I can't. I'm new here。

[注意] can 和could 只能用于现在时和过去时两种时态,将来时中用 be able to。另外, can't 可表示否定推测。如:That ______ be Mr Wang. He has gone to Beijing。

2.may和might的用法

may/might 意为“可以”,表示同意、许可或请求对方许可,也可表示祝愿。may的否定形式为 may not。might 是may 的过去式,有两种用法:一种表示过去式;一种表示虚拟语气,使语气更加委婉、客气,或表示可能性更小。以may开头的一般疑问句,其否定回答用mustn't, 而不用 may not。如:______ I use your pen? 我可以用你用的钢笔吗?

You may put on more clothes. May you be happy!

Might I borrow some money now?He might be alive.

3.must的用法

must 意为“必须,一定,准是”,表示说话人认为有必要做某事,或命令、要求别人做某事以及对事物的推测。否定形式mustn't, 表示“不得”,“一定不要”。如:

I ______ finish my work today。You mustn't drive after drinking。

(1)must 与 have to 的区别: must 表示说话人的主观意愿;have to 表示客观需要。如:

I must do my homework first。It is raining hard outside; I _____ stay at home。

(2)回答由must 引导的疑问句的提问

①肯定回答:Yes, …must. 如:

—Must I go home now? —Yes, you must.

②否定回答:No,…needn't./No,…don't/doesn't have to.

—Must I go home now? —No, you __ ____.

(3)must 表示对事物的推测,意为“想必;一定”,只用于肯定句中;表“推测”时,情态动词与动词原形,(常为be动词)连用,如:The man must be our teacher。

4.need的用法

(1)need 表示“需要,必须”,主要用于否定句和疑问句中。其否定形式为needn't,表示“没有必要,不必”;对由need构成的疑问句进行回答时,其肯定回答用must,否定回答用 needn't。如

—Need we do some cleaning now?—Yes, you must. —No, you needn't.

(2)need 还可作实义动词,常用于下列结构:

①need to do sth“需要做某事”。如I need to learn more.

②need doing “某物需要被做”=need to be done。

如:My hair needs cutting. =My hair needs to be cut.

③need +名词或代词。如:All living things need water.

5.shall和should的用法

shall 用于第一人称的句子中,表示提建议或请求; should用于各种人称的句子中,强调义务或责任,意为“应该”。 如:______ we go out for a walk?

You should study hard at school。

should have done主要有两个用法:

用于推测过去已经发生的情况。如:He should have arrived by now.

用于指本该发生而实际上未发生的情况。如:You should have told me so before.

6.will和would的用法

will用于第二人称疑问句时,表示征求意见或提建议; would 为 will 的过去式,可用于多种人称,表示意愿。如:Will you have a little soup?

would have done主要有两个用法:

表“猜测过去”

I guess the poet would have been about twenty when she wrote her first poem.

表“过去本会发生,而实际并未发生”,没有责备之意。

I would have written before but I have been ill.本来我是会写信的,但是由于我生病了。

(用来说明某一情况,没有责备之意)

  • have to

have to 的陈述句形式

肯定式:have to + 动词原形I have to tidy my room.我得整理房间.

否定式:don't (doesn't) + have to + 动词原形You don't have to go if you don't want to.

have to 的一般疑问句形式及简略答语

have to的一般疑问形式必须借助助动词 do 或 does:

Do you have to look after your sister? Yes,I do./ No,I don't.

have to 的特殊疑问句形式What do you have to do on Sundays?

have to 可用于各种时态

  • 一般现在时:I have to visit Mr Wang.
  • 一般过去时:That night we had to walk home because there was no bus.

C、一般将来时:We'll have to ask Zhang Ming instead.

D、与may 连用:I think he may have to help his Dad in the garden.

  • ought to

ought to的肯定式 应当, 应该

You don't look well. You ought to go to see the doctor.

ought to的否定式和疑问式

ought to的否定形式是ought后直接加not构成,其否定形式可缩写为oughtn't。

One ought not (oughtn't) to cross the street against the red light.

ought to的疑问式是将ought提到句首构成。

—Ought we to do it at once? —Yes, you ought to.

He ought to be here now, shouldn't (oughtn't) he?

“ought to + have + done”表示过去应做某事而实际未做

You ought to have told me that (but you didn't).这时ought to和should可以互换使用。

三.1.litter/rubbish/garbage/waste

garbage和rubbish含义相同,garbage美国英语,而rubbish英国英语。这两个词词义较为具体,指必须及时清除的剩余物,比如厨房里的垃圾,生活垃圾等等。

litter指公共场所丢弃的小片/块垃圾,如纸片、塑料袋、易拉罐、饮料瓶等。

waste作名词用时可表“废物”的总称。

另:waste time in doing sth

  • at the bottom of在...底部/at the top of在...顶部

He shouted at the top of his voice in order that he might be heard.

3.advantage

1). have the (an) advantage over (of) 优于,比……占有优势。如:

You have the advantage over (of) me in experience. 你经验比我丰富。

有时用动词 gain, get 等。如:

They gained an advantage over the enemy. 他们比敌人占优势。

2). take advantage of=make (full) use of

(1) 利用(机会、时机等)。They took advantage of the fine weather to play tennis.

(2) 利用(某人的处境、弱点等)。He always took full advantage of the mistakes made by his rivals.

(3) 欺骗(某人),捉弄(某人),占(某人的)便宜。He has always been taking advantage of me.

3). to sb’s advantage对某人有利。It will be to your advantage to study abroad.

  • 四个花费句型
  • be harmful to=do harm to

Smoking is harmful to the health.= Smoking does harm to your health

  • 四个参加辨析
  • afford to do sth担负得起干某事 [常与can, could, be able to 连用]

He told me that the firm could not afford to pay such large salaries.

他告诉我公司无法支付如此巨额的工资。

  • turn 短语

turn in 归还You must turn in your equipment before you leave the army.  turn on 打开 could you turn on the light, please?turn off 关掉(煤气,水,电,收音机,电视机等) Don’t forget to turn off the light when you leave. turn up ①出现,到达 ②开大音量 He promised to come but hasn’t turned up yet. I can’t hear the radio very well; could you turn it up a bit?turn down ①关小 ②拒绝 Can you turn the TV down? I’m trying to get some sleep. He tried to join the army but was turned down because of poor health. turn out (to be) +adj./n.证明是,结果是The experiment turned out to be a great success.  turn into 把……变成,译成 Turn the following sentences into Chinese, please.  turn to 翻到,求助于 1)Please turn to page10. 2)The child turned to his mother for comfort. turn over 翻身,翻转 She turned over and went to sleep.

  • throw away扔掉,丢弃  错过(机会、优势或好处)

He threw away the old sofa.   Don't throw away this opportunity.

  • work

work  n.工作;(音乐、艺术)作品;工厂  v. 工作

He has much work to do.(U)

The man gained his wealth by printing works of famous writers.

(做“作品”讲,为可数名词,但常用复数)

The glass works is/are near the station.

玻璃厂在车站附近。(做“工厂”讲,只用复数形式,但谓语动词单复均可)

英语中有些名词,单复数形式意义有差别。

manner 方式,方法   manners 礼貌,礼仪   arm  胳膊               arms 武器

water 水           waters 海水,水域       wood 木头              woods 森林

  • bring back归还; 使想起

These books must be brought back within a week.

Your article brought back sad memories for me.

bring up:抚养长大  bring in:引进 bring forward:提出bring about:带来,造成

  • inspiration n  inspire v激励
  • try to do =try one’s best to do 努力去做某事。

Every student should try to study hard in order to study in a university.

14.be related to  与…有关I am not related to him in any way. 我和他无任何关系。

  1. play a part in doing sth  在……方面起作用

A good diet plays a large part in helping people live longer.

  • turn… into…

(使)变成  Joan is turning into quite a skilled musician.

译成 Please turn this into English.

  1. make a difference (to…) 表示(对……)产生影响或作用The new teacher always encourages little Tom. This has made a big difference to him.
  2. no longer意思是“不再”

有两个短语和no longer同义,即not…any longer和not…any more,但他们侧重的方面不同。

no longer和not…any longer侧重时间。

e.g. He no longer lives here.= He doesn’t live here any longer.

他不在这儿居住了。(一个时间以前他住在这儿,过了这个时间,他就离开了。)

not…any more =no more侧重侧重程度和数量

You can drink no more. = You can’t drink any more.

你不能再喝了。(喝酒的量到了一定程度,不能再继续下去了。)

19.not only…but also…“不仅……而且……”;

其中的also有时可以省略。

若连接两个成分作主语,其谓语通常与靠近的主语保持一致。

Not only you but also he has to leave. 不只是你,他也得离开。

not only放在句首,后接句子时要用倒装结构。

Not only did my aunt teach at school, but (also) she wrote articles for newspapers.

20.The number of......的数量,谓语用原形 a number of...大量的,谓语用单三

当表示数值的高或低时,number要用high或low修饰。

In that country, the number of children going to school is higher in cities than in towns and village.在那个国家,城市儿童入学人数比乡镇及农村要高。

常与number搭配的动词有grow, fall等。

The number of families that own cars has been growing quickly recently.

近来拥有轿车的家庭数量增长很快。

21.put sth. to good use  好好利用

22.build/make ... out of 用……建造/制造

He built a model ship out of wood.  他用木头造了个模型船。

23.The top of the house is an old boat turned upside down.

turned upside down 意为“被翻转过来的;被颠倒过来的”,做后置定语修饰boat。

  • be made of和be made from
  • be known for 因……而著名 be known as 作为……而著名

be known to 对于某人来说是著名的

26.bring sb/sth back to life 使复活,给…以活力;

27.. Rethink, Reuse, Recycle !

re-是最常用的前缀之一re-表示以下三方面的意义:

1)表示“回”或“向后”的意思。return(回来)recall(回忆,召回)retract(缩回,取回)

2)表示“再”、“重新”、“重复”的意思。rethink(再思考)reuse(再运用)restart(重新开始)recycle(再利用)

3)表示“相反”、“反对”的意思。rebel(反叛,谋反)reverse (反转,颠倒)resist(反抗,抵抗)

  1. She is a most unusual woman.

un-前缀,第一,表示否定意义。第二,表示“反动作”。即“相反的动作”。

uncomfortable不舒服的 unending无尽的 unfortunate不幸的 unusual不平常的 unkind不仁慈的 unbind解开,释放 uncover揭开……的盖子 unearth由地下掘出 unbutton 解开钮扣

29.-ive是形容词后缀 一般表示有......的create ﹢ -ive  =  creative

30.recent ﹢-ly  = recently形容词加 ly变副词

31.Amy is an inspiration (n.灵感) to us all.

后缀-tion附在动词后面构成名词

1)当单词最后是t, d, te, de时,变名词加tion或者ation, ition;

2)当单词最后是元音字母时,变名词加sion等。

  1. cut down 砍倒,减少The little boy cut down the young tree with an axe

The doctor told me to cut down smoking and drinking.

cut up 切碎

cut off切断,停止

33.especially  be full of  noise/air/water pollution throw...into... Cause the problem write to sb  clean up used to do   too much/too many/much too  close down   play a part in  cut down     instead of+doing   make a difference  around here=near here   lead to  idea for doing sth

Solve the problems   take the+交通工具 help/work起作用 remember to do/doing

hear of /about/from   be harmful to   the food chain  the whole +n=all +n  be in danger=be endangered  fall by over 90 percent (increase by 是增加了多少increase to 是增加至多少)in the last 20 years   begin with sth  add up   stop to do/doing  take action  pull…down set up   way to do sth

  1. 它过去是那么干净。

我们镇上的每个人都应该尽一份力把这条河清理干净。

这附近的空气被严重污染了。

为了减少空气污染, 我们应该乘公汽或地铁,而不要开车。

它不耗费任何东西。

但事实上,每年大约七千万条鲨鱼被抓来用作商业交易。

有些种类的鲨鱼数量在过去的二三十年里,下降了百分之九十以上。

到目前为止,没有科学研究证明显示鱼翅对健康有益, 所以为什么要吃呢?

回收再利用纸很容易。

但是停止开小汽车是很难的。

我们不该用餐巾纸。

当你离开房间时关掉灯。

你曾经考虑过怎样能充分利用这些东西吗?

艾米并不是唯一善于回收利用的人

她做这事已经有好几年了。

艺术不仅能带给别人快乐,而且也说明了只需要一点创造力,即使是冰冷、坚硬的铁也可以产生活力。

 

Write a letter to the city major about the problem and your suggestions.

In your letter, describe the environmental problems in your town/city.

① What are the problems?② Where are they?③ What or who is causing these problems?

Then, give suggestions or possible ways to solve the problems.

I think that… We should/ could… I suggest…

Dear Sir/ Madam,

Environmental problems are becoming more and more serious all over the world. With the development of the society, there are too many cars on the streets in our city. Cars have made the air unhealthy for people to breathe. Black smoke and poisonous gas are given off by factories. Factories also put waste into the river. And wherever we go, we can find rubbish.

Now more and more people have realized these problems. I think that governments should close down the factories and develop laws to stop people from driving cars every day. I suggest everyone in this town should help to clean up the river and the streets. We should call on everyone in the town to throw rubbish in the dustbins.

I hope the problem will be solved in the near future and our home will become better and better.

 

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weinxin
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