Unit13.We’re trying to save the earth!
litter bottom fisherman coal ugly advantage cost wooden plastic takeaway bin shark fin cruel harmful be harmful to at the top of chain the food chain ecosystem industry law scientific take part in afford turn off reusable pay for take action transportation recycle napkin throw away put sth to good use pull...down upside gate bottle president inspiration iron work metal bring back creativity
结构: ① 肯定句: 主语 + am/is/are + V-ing
② 否定句: 主语 + am/is/are + not + V-ing
③ 疑问句: Am/Is/Are + 主语 + V-ing
① Look! The big bird is flying away. ② He is watching a movie now.
Right now I am studying Chinese by distance learning. 我现在正通过远程教育学习汉语。
1) 2)常带有表示目前时刻的时间副词, 如：now, right now, at the (very) moment, for the time being, at present, these days 及Look! Listen! ...
- 与always, constantly, forever, all the time等副词连用，表示动作反复或习惯。此时句子常含有说话者的强烈情感在内。表达较强的“责备”或“表扬”之意
① You are always changing your mind. 你总是主意不定。(太烦人了)
② He is always helping others.他总是帮助别人。(他真是个好人)
- 对于come, go, leave, arrive, start,fly,drive等表示位置移动的动词常可用进行时态表将来。
① He is leaving on Wednesday. ② Mary isn’t here at the moment. She is coming later.
- used to do见第四单元及use用法
- 被动语态 见第五单元
注意：接双宾语的词的被动语态；make /let /have sb do的被动语态；see/ hear /notice /find /observe sb do 的被动语态；It’s said/reported/believed/supposed/well-known；及无被动语态的三种情况（感官动词、不及物动词、sell/write等）
Yesterday I finished my homework, that’s to say, I have finished my homework now.
I have lived here since 1990.
肯定句 He has finished the work. 一般疑问句 Has he finished the work?
否定句 He has not finished the work. 两回答 Yes ,he has. No, he hasn’t.
特殊疑问句 What has he done?
①already 已经 肯定句中或句尾 I have already found my pen. = I have found my pen already.
②yet已经 否定句和疑问句句尾 I have not finished the work yet.
Have you bought a computer yet?
③ever曾经 句中 Have you ever seen pandas?
④never从不 句中 I have never been to Beijing.
⑤just刚刚 句中 I have just done my work.
⑥before以前 句尾 I have never been there before.
⑦so far到目前为止 So far he has learned 200 words.
⑧how long多久 How long have you lived here?
⑨how many times多少次 How many times has he been to Beijing?
have<has>gone to去了某地 例：He has gone to Beijing (去了北京，没回)
have<has>been to去过某地 例：He has been to Beijing. (去过北京，回了)
|for two months||for +一段时间||Jim has lived here for 2 months.|
|since last year||since +过去时间点||Lucy has been in Beijing since 3 years ago.|
|since 3 years ago|
|since he came here||since +过去时态句子||He has been in China since he came here.|
Have you lost your library book? 你已经弄丢了从图书馆借的那本书吗？
They have planted many trees in the last/past few years.
This is the best book I have ever read.
It is the first time I have played the computer games.
例：He has bought the book for 3 years.（错）
因buy这个一次性动词不能和一段时间for 3 years连用, 改正的办法有：
He has bought the book.. (去掉一段时间for 3 years)
He bought the book 3 years ago (改为一般过去时，使句子的意思不变)
It’s/It has been 3 years since he bought the book. = 3 years has passed since he bought the book. （改为固定句型 It is/It has been ---since---）
He has had the book for 3 years. （用延续性动词have代替buy）
①come/arrive/get to/reach → be here
I have come here for 3 years.（错） 改为：I have been here for 3 years.
②leave/go →be away
He has left for 3 hours.（错） 改为：He has been away for 3 hours.
③begin/start →be on
The film has begun for 3 minutes.（错） 改为：The film has been on for 3 minutes.
④open →be open / close → be closed
The shop has opened for 3 years.(错) 改为：The shop has been open for 3 years.
⑤die →be dead
His father has died for 3 years.(错) 改为：His father has been dead for 3 years.
⑥finish/end→ be over
He has finished the work for 3 days.(错) 改为：The work has been over for 3 days
⑦join I have joined the army for 3 years.（错）
改为：I have been in the army for 3 years. 或I have been a soldier for 3 years.
⑧buy /catch → have
I have bought the bike for 3 years.（错） 改为：I have had the bike for 3 years.
He has caught a cold for 3 days.（错） 改为：He has had a cold for 3 days.
⑨borrow → keep
I have borrowed the book for 3 years. （错） 改为：I have kept the book for 3 years.
break → be broken get up → be up marry → be married become → be lose → be lost
1) 情态动词本身有一定的词义，表示说话人的情绪、态度或语气，但不能单独作谓语，只能与其他动词构成谓语。常见的有：can (could), may (might), must, need, shall (should), will (would)等。
2) 情态动词无人称和数的变化, 后接动词原形。否定式是在情态动词后面加not。个别情态动词有过去式形式, 也可用来表达更加客气、委婉的语气。
(1)can/could 表示“能力；许可；可能性”等。could 为 can 的过去式。如：Can I use your bike?
(2)can 用在疑问句中，表示征求意见、请求许可，答语仍用 can; could 用在疑问句中，比can 更委婉、客气，是一种礼貌的说法，并不表示过去时态，答语用can，而不能用could。 如：—Could you tell me the way to the zoo?—Sorry. I can't. I'm new here。
[注意] can 和could 只能用于现在时和过去时两种时态，将来时中用 be able to。另外， can't 可表示否定推测。如：That ______ be Mr Wang. He has gone to Beijing。
may/might 意为“可以”，表示同意、许可或请求对方许可，也可表示祝愿。may的否定形式为 may not。might 是may 的过去式，有两种用法：一种表示过去式；一种表示虚拟语气，使语气更加委婉、客气，或表示可能性更小。以may开头的一般疑问句，其否定回答用mustn't, 而不用 may not。如：______ I use your pen? 我可以用你用的钢笔吗？
You may put on more clothes. May you be happy!
Might I borrow some money now?He might be alive.
must 意为“必须，一定，准是”，表示说话人认为有必要做某事，或命令、要求别人做某事以及对事物的推测。否定形式mustn't, 表示“不得”，“一定不要”。如：
I ______ finish my work today。You mustn't drive after drinking。
(1)must 与 have to 的区别： must 表示说话人的主观意愿；have to 表示客观需要。如：
I must do my homework first。It is raining hard outside; I _____ stay at home。
①肯定回答：Yes, …must. 如：
—Must I go home now? —Yes, you must.
②否定回答：No，…needn't./No，…don't/doesn't have to.
—Must I go home now? —No, you __ ____.
(3)must 表示对事物的推测，意为“想必；一定”，只用于肯定句中；表“推测”时，情态动词与动词原形，(常为be动词)连用，如：The man must be our teacher。
(1)need 表示“需要，必须”，主要用于否定句和疑问句中。其否定形式为needn't，表示“没有必要，不必”；对由need构成的疑问句进行回答时，其肯定回答用must，否定回答用 needn't。如
—Need we do some cleaning now?—Yes, you must. —No, you needn't.
①need to do sth“需要做某事”。如I need to learn more.
②need doing “某物需要被做”=need to be done。
如：My hair needs cutting. =My hair needs to be cut.
③need +名词或代词。如：All living things need water.
shall 用于第一人称的句子中，表示提建议或请求； should用于各种人称的句子中，强调义务或责任，意为“应该”。 如：______ we go out for a walk?
You should study hard at school。
should have done主要有两个用法：
用于推测过去已经发生的情况。如：He should have arrived by now.
用于指本该发生而实际上未发生的情况。如：You should have told me so before.
will用于第二人称疑问句时，表示征求意见或提建议； would 为 will 的过去式，可用于多种人称，表示意愿。如：Will you have a little soup?
would have done主要有两个用法：
I guess the poet would have been about twenty when she wrote her first poem.
I would have written before but I have been ill.本来我是会写信的，但是由于我生病了。
- have to
have to 的陈述句形式
肯定式：have to + 动词原形I have to tidy my room.我得整理房间.
否定式：don't (doesn't) + have to + 动词原形You don't have to go if you don't want to.
have to 的一般疑问句形式及简略答语
have to的一般疑问形式必须借助助动词 do 或 does：
Do you have to look after your sister? Yes,I do./ No,I don't.
have to 的特殊疑问句形式What do you have to do on Sundays?
have to 可用于各种时态
- 一般现在时：I have to visit Mr Wang.
- 一般过去时：That night we had to walk home because there was no bus.
C、一般将来时：We'll have to ask Zhang Ming instead.
D、与may 连用：I think he may have to help his Dad in the garden.
- ought to
ought to的肯定式 应当, 应该
You don't look well. You ought to go to see the doctor.
One ought not (oughtn't) to cross the street against the red light.
—Ought we to do it at once? —Yes, you ought to.
He ought to be here now, shouldn't (oughtn't) he?
“ought to + have + done”表示过去应做某事而实际未做
You ought to have told me that (but you didn't).这时ought to和should可以互换使用。
另：waste time in doing sth
- at the bottom of在...底部/at the top of在...顶部
He shouted at the top of his voice in order that he might be heard.
1). have the (an) advantage over (of) 优于，比……占有优势。如：
You have the advantage over (of) me in experience. 你经验比我丰富。
有时用动词 gain, get 等。如：
They gained an advantage over the enemy. 他们比敌人占优势。
2). take advantage of=make (full) use of
(1) 利用(机会、时机等)。They took advantage of the fine weather to play tennis.
(2) 利用(某人的处境、弱点等)。He always took full advantage of the mistakes made by his rivals.
(3) 欺骗(某人)，捉弄(某人)，占(某人的)便宜。He has always been taking advantage of me.
3). to sb’s advantage对某人有利。It will be to your advantage to study abroad.
- be harmful to=do harm to
Smoking is harmful to the health.= Smoking does harm to your health
- afford to do sth担负得起干某事 [常与can, could, be able to 连用]
He told me that the firm could not afford to pay such large salaries.
- turn 短语
turn in 归还You must turn in your equipment before you leave the army. turn on 打开 could you turn on the light, please？turn off 关掉（煤气，水，电，收音机，电视机等） Don’t forget to turn off the light when you leave. turn up ①出现，到达 ②开大音量 He promised to come but hasn’t turned up yet. I can’t hear the radio very well; could you turn it up a bit？turn down ①关小 ②拒绝 Can you turn the TV down? I’m trying to get some sleep. He tried to join the army but was turned down because of poor health. turn out (to be) +adj./n.证明是，结果是The experiment turned out to be a great success. turn into 把……变成，译成 Turn the following sentences into Chinese, please. turn to 翻到，求助于 1)Please turn to page10. 2)The child turned to his mother for comfort. turn over 翻身，翻转 She turned over and went to sleep.
- throw away扔掉,丢弃 错过(机会、优势或好处)
He threw away the old sofa. Don't throw away this opportunity.
work n.工作；（音乐、艺术）作品；工厂 v. 工作
He has much work to do.(U)
The man gained his wealth by printing works of famous writers.
The glass works is/are near the station.
manner 方式，方法 manners 礼貌，礼仪 arm 胳膊 arms 武器
water 水 waters 海水，水域 wood 木头 woods 森林
- bring back归还； 使想起
These books must be brought back within a week．
Your article brought back sad memories for me.
bring up：抚养长大 bring in：引进 bring forward：提出bring about：带来，造成
- inspiration n inspire v激励
- try to do =try one’s best to do 努力去做某事。
Every student should try to study hard in order to study in a university.
14.be related to 与…有关I am not related to him in any way. 我和他无任何关系。
- play a part in doing sth 在……方面起作用
A good diet plays a large part in helping people live longer.
- turn… into…
(使)变成 Joan is turning into quite a skilled musician.
译成 Please turn this into English.
- make a difference (to…) 表示(对……)产生影响或作用The new teacher always encourages little Tom. This has made a big difference to him.
- no longer意思是“不再”
有两个短语和no longer同义，即not…any longer和not…any more，但他们侧重的方面不同。
no longer和not…any longer侧重时间。
e.g. He no longer lives here.= He doesn’t live here any longer.
not…any more =no more侧重侧重程度和数量
You can drink no more. = You can’t drink any more.
19.not only…but also…“不仅……而且……”;
Not only you but also he has to leave. 不只是你，他也得离开。
Not only did my aunt teach at school, but (also) she wrote articles for newspapers.
20.The number of......的数量，谓语用原形 a number of...大量的，谓语用单三
In that country, the number of children going to school is higher in cities than in towns and village.在那个国家，城市儿童入学人数比乡镇及农村要高。
The number of families that own cars has been growing quickly recently.
21.put sth. to good use 好好利用
22.build/make ... out of 用……建造/制造
He built a model ship out of wood. 他用木头造了个模型船。
23.The top of the house is an old boat turned upside down.
turned upside down 意为“被翻转过来的；被颠倒过来的”，做后置定语修饰boat。
- be made of和be made from
- be known for 因……而著名 be known as 作为……而著名
be known to 对于某人来说是著名的
26.bring sb/sth back to life 使复活，给…以活力;
27.. Rethink, Reuse, Recycle !
- She is a most unusual woman.
uncomfortable不舒服的 unending无尽的 unfortunate不幸的 unusual不平常的 unkind不仁慈的 unbind解开，释放 uncover揭开……的盖子 unearth由地下掘出 unbutton 解开钮扣
29.-ive是形容词后缀 一般表示有......的create ﹢ -ive = creative
30.recent ﹢-ly = recently形容词加 ly变副词
31.Amy is an inspiration (n.灵感) to us all.
1)当单词最后是t, d, te, de时，变名词加tion或者ation, ition；
- cut down 砍倒，减少The little boy cut down the young tree with an axe
The doctor told me to cut down smoking and drinking.
cut up 切碎
33.especially be full of noise/air/water pollution throw...into... Cause the problem write to sb clean up used to do too much/too many/much too close down play a part in cut down instead of+doing make a difference around here=near here lead to idea for doing sth
Solve the problems take the+交通工具 help/work起作用 remember to do/doing
hear of /about/from be harmful to the food chain the whole +n=all +n be in danger=be endangered fall by over 90 percent (increase by 是增加了多少increase to 是增加至多少)in the last 20 years begin with sth add up stop to do/doing take action pull…down set up way to do sth
Write a letter to the city major about the problem and your suggestions.
In your letter, describe the environmental problems in your town/city.
① What are the problems?② Where are they?③ What or who is causing these problems?
Then, give suggestions or possible ways to solve the problems.
I think that… We should/ could… I suggest…
Dear Sir/ Madam,
Environmental problems are becoming more and more serious all over the world. With the development of the society, there are too many cars on the streets in our city. Cars have made the air unhealthy for people to breathe. Black smoke and poisonous gas are given off by factories. Factories also put waste into the river. And wherever we go, we can find rubbish.
Now more and more people have realized these problems. I think that governments should close down the factories and develop laws to stop people from driving cars every day. I suggest everyone in this town should help to clean up the river and the streets. We should call on everyone in the town to throw rubbish in the dustbins.
I hope the problem will be solved in the near future and our home will become better and better.