中考英语介词精讲及精练

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2021年4月18日23:04:41 6917字阅读23分3秒

介词精讲及精练(含答案)

介词是一种虚词,它在句中的作用却非常重要。常考点包括一些固定搭配和一些近义词。固定搭配如:on one's way home,help...with,send for,be interested in..., be late for, be angry with,be good at等。当然这需要你好好记忆了。
1. 介词的功能
介词是一种虚词,用来表示名词或相当于名词的其它词语句中其它词的关系,不能单独使用。介词可与名词或相当于名词的其它词构成介词短语。介词短语可在句中作定语,状语,表语和宾语补足语。例如:
The boy over there is John’s brother. (定语)
The girl will be back in two hours.  (状语)
Our English teacher is from Australia. (表语)
Help yourself to some fish.   (宾语补足语)

  1. 常用介词的用法辨析
    (1)表时间的介词
    1)at, in on
    表示时间点用at。例如:at six o’clock, at noon, at midnight。表示在某个世纪,某年,某月,某个季节以及早晨,上午,下午,晚上时,用in。例如:in the ninettenth century, in 2002, in may, in winter, in the morning, in the afternoon等。表示具体的某一天和某一天的上午,下午,晚上时,用on。例如:on Monday, on July 1st, on Sunday morning等。
    2)since, after

由since和after 引导的词组都可表示从过去某一点开始的时段,但since词组表示的时段一直延续到说话的时刻,因而往往要与现在完成时连用。而after词组所表示的时段纯系过去,因而要与一般过去时连用。例如:
I haven’t heard from him since last summer.
After five days the boy came back.
3)in, after
in与将来时态连用时,表示“过多长时间以后”的意思,后面跟表示一段时间的词语。After与将来时态连用时,后面只能跟表示时间点的词语。After与过去时态连用时,后面才能跟表示一段时间的词语。例如:
He will be back in two months.
He will arrive after four o’clock.
He returned after a month.
4)for,since:for表示多长时间。since后接时间起点,其终点往往为现在,常与完成时连用。牢牢记住哟。
5)after, in :这两个介词都可以表示时间"在以后"的意思。其区别是:after 以过去为起点,表示过去一段时间之后,常用于过去时态的句子;in 以现在为起点,表示将来一段时间以后,常用于将来时态的句子。

(2)表示地点的介词
1)at, in, on
at一般指小地方;in一般指大地方或某个范围之内;on往往表示“在某个物体的表面”。例如:

He arrived in Shanghai yesterday.
They arrived at a small village before dark.
There is a big hole in the wall.
The teacher put up a picture on the wall.
2)over, above, on
over, on和above都可表示“在……上面”,但具体含义不同。Over表示位置高于某物,在某物的正上方,其反义词是under。 above也表示位置高于某物,但不一定在正上方,其反义词是below。On指两个物体表面接触,一个在另一的上面。例如:
There is a bridge over the river.
We flew above the clouds.
They put some flowers on the teacher’s desk.
3)across, through
across和through均可表示“从这一边到另一边”,但用法不同。Across的含义与on有关,表示动作在某一物体的表面进行。Throgh的含义与in有关,表示动作是在三维空间进行。例如:
The dog ran across the grass.
The boy swam across the river.
They walked through the forest.
I pushed through the crowds.

in front of, in the front of
in front of 表示“在某人或某物的前面”,在某个范围以外;in the front of 表示“在……的前部”,在某个范围以内。例如:
There are some tall trees in front of the building.
The teacher is sitting in the front of the classroom.

(3)表示方式、手段的介词
by,with,in:by表示"以...的方式,方法,手段" 和 "乘某种交通工具";with指"借助于具体的手段或工具";in 表示"以......方式,用语言,文字等媒介"。
(4)表示对象的介词
for和of:试比较:It's impossible for me to watch TV after eleven o'clock. It's kind of you to help me.
两句中介词的选择依据其前形容词而定,一般来说,of之前的形容词往往是用于描写人的品质的好坏,人自身的特点,如聪明与否,细心与粗心等;for之前的形容词用于描写事物的特点,如可能性,必然性,难易程度等。

  1. 介词的固定搭配
    介词往往同其他词类形成了固定搭配关系。记住这种固定搭配关系,才能正确使用介词。
    (1)介词与动词的搭配
    listen to , laugh at, get to, look for wait for, hear from, turn on, turn off, worry about, think of, look after, spend…on…, 等。

(2)介词与名词的搭配
on time, in time, by bus, on foot, with pleasure, on one’s way to, in trouble, at breakfast, at the end of, in the end等。
(3)介词与形容词的搭配
be late for, be afraid of, be good at, be interested in, be angry with, be full of, be sorry for等。

考点精练

  1. Sally is very happy. There is a big smile________her face.
    on B. to C. in D. a
    【答案】A

    2. -It's very important________us to make a plan before a new term.
    -Yes. You must try to make it carefully.
    A. of B. for C. to
    【答案】B
    3. It's very kind _______you.Thank you for your help
    A.of B.for C.to D.on
    【答案】A

    4. All of us went to the park______Bob.He had to look after his sister.
    A.besides B.with C.except
    【答案】C

    5. -We'll have a hiking trip,but when shall we meet?
    -Let's make it _________half past eight _______the morning of June 21.
    A.at;in B./;on C./;in
    【答案】B

 

  1. The little elephant is afraid to go alone.He always walks _______his mother.
    beside B.behind C.below D.under
    【答案】A

    7. Marie Curie,the first woman to win the Nobel Prize,was born _______November,1867,in the city of Warsaw in Poland.
    A.at B.on C.in D.to
    【答案】C

    8. The famous actor often plays ________his children in the park.
    A.about B.in C.at D.with
    【答案】D

    10. Peter,can you tell me the differences_______the four words?
    -Sorry,I don't know.
    A. between B. among C. for

【答案】B

11-Frank,when will the short meeting begin?
-You should come _______2:30 .If you come 10 minutes ________that time ,the meeting will be over.
A.at;before B.at;after C.after;before
【答案】B

12.-I joined the League _______May,2008 .What about you?
-I've been a League member _______three years.
A.in;for B.on;in C.on;for D.in;since
【答案】A

13. Mr Black is strongly _______keeping animals in the zoo,because he thinks amimals should also have the right to enjoy freedom.
A.up B.for C.against D.down
【答案】C

 

  1. My uncle has gone to Singapore. He will be______in a week.
    out B.off C.back
    【答案】C
  2. This kind of dress is______this year, and I______reaiiy want to get one
    A.in danger B.in trouble C. in style
    【答案】C
    16. If you try to sit on two chairs,you will fall______them .For life,you must choose one chair.
    A between B under C among D into
    【答案】A

    17. Don't forget _________an umbrella _______you.It's going to rain.
    A.to take;to B.taking;to C.to take;with D.taking;with
    【答案】C

    18. While I was standing ______the window,I saw several boys running _______the street.
    A.at;along B.on;at C.in;on D.to;in
    【答案】A

 

  1. The Olympic Games was beld __________August 8,2008 in Beijing.
    on B.in C.at D.to
    【答案】A

    21. The weather here is very hot_______summer.
    A.at B.on C.in D.of
    【答案】C

    22. He ran very fast _______he could catch up with others.
    A.in order that B.in order to C.so as to D.in order
    【答案】A

23.-When did the Shanghai Expo open?
24.-_______May 1st, 2010.
A.In B.On C.At D.By

【答案】B
25. The car accident happened ____ a cold winter morning. Luckily, no one was hurt.
A. in B. on C. at D. of

【答案】B

  1. -When was Michael Phelps born?
    -He as born _______June,1985.
    A.in B.on C.at
    【答案】A

    27. Li Yan is my best friend. She comes ______ a small village.
    A. on B. with C. of D. from
    【答案】D

    28- We're all here ________ Lily . Where's she ?
    - She's gone to the library .
    A. beside B. besides C. except D. of
    【答案】C

  2. Some volunteers from Beijing arrived in Shanghai _____ April 29 to work for the World Expo.
    A. on B. at C. of D. to
    【答案】A

 

  1. China lies_____the east of Asia.
    in B. on C. To D. of
    【答案】A

    31-How beautiful the Christmas card is!
    -Yes,it's _________my cousin.I received it this morning.
    A.from B.to C.for
    【答案】A

    32. Shen Xue and Zhao Hongbo won the gold medal for China so we're proud _____them.
    A.in B.on C.of D.for
    【答案】C

    34-Would you like some coffee?
    -Yes, and please get me some milk. I prefer coffee _______ milk.
    A. with B. to C. of D. on

【答案】A
35. My brother is two metres in height.It's very difficult to find clothes big enough ____ him.

about B.at C.with D.for
【答案】D

36. Liu Xiang came third ______ the 110-meter-hurdle race last month in Shanghai.
A.in B.from C.across D.through
【答案】A

37. The Gulf of Mexico(墨西哥湾) is being polluted seriously. That has affected _________ several hundred kinds of sea animals there.
A. at least B. at once C. at birth D. at times
【答案】A

38. The plane will take off _________ three hours. I must get to the airport right now.
A. in B. for C. on D. at
【答案】A

39. The_____World Table Tennis Championship began_____the morning of May 25, 2010_____Moscow, Russia.

Fifty; in; in B. Fiftieth; on; in C. Fiftieth; in; on D. Fifty; on; in
【答案】B

40. ________a terrible rainy night, many farmers' houses were destroyed.
A. In B. For C. On D. At
【答案】C

41. Remember to spend some time ______ your loved ones, because they're not going to be around forever.
A. from B. with C. in D. on
【答案】D

42. You'd better not always look up the new words ______ the dictionary while reading. Sometimes we need to guess.
A. in B. on C. at D. from
【答案】A

43. _____the afternoon of April 30th,many foreign visitors arrived___Shanghai.
A.In;at B.On;in C.On;to

 

【答案】B

44. Mr. Yang's daughter is pretty good ______ drawing pictures and won many prizes.
A. with B. for C. in D. at
【答案】D
45. The earthquake which happened in Yushu________ 14th April 2010 was a big disaster.
A.at B.on C.in D.to
【答案】B

46. People _______the southwest of China were in great need of water a couple of months ago.
A. in B. at C. to D. on
【答案】A

  1. The famous writer Willian Shakepeare was born______1564.
    A.in B. on C.at D.of
    【答案】A

 

  1. If you get on well______your classmates, you'll enjoy your school life more.
    o B. at C. with D. in
    【答案】C

 

 

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