初中语法各种时态总结

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2021年4月18日23:09:17 11296字阅读37分39秒

一般现在时

  1. 一. 一般现在时有三种形式
  2. 谓语是be(am/is/are)的一般现在时。

①肯定形式:主语+be+表语(形容词、名词充当表语)。

I am hungry.

You are beautiful.

He is a doctor.

②否定形式:主语+be+not+表语(形容词、名词充当表语)。

I am not hungry.

You aren't beautiful.

He isn't a doctor.

③一般疑问句形式:Be+主语+表语(形容词、名词充当表语)?

肯定回答:Yes,主语+be.  否定回答:No, 主语+ be+not.

—Are you hungry?

—Yes,I am./No,I'm not.

—Is he a doctor?

—Yes, he is./No, he isn,t.

④特殊疑问句形式:特殊疑问词+Be开头的一般疑问句?

—What is he?

—He is a doctor.

注意:be要随着主语变。

 

  1. 谓语动词是实义动词(及物动词或不及物动词)的一般现在时。

①肯定形式:“主语+及物动词+宾语”或“主语+不及物动词”。

She has a little brother.

The sun rises in the east.

②否定形式:“主语+don't/doesn't+及物动词+宾语”或“主语+don't/doesn't+不及物动词”。

She doesn't have a little brother.

I don't eat every morning.

③一般疑问句形式:“Do/Does+主语+及物动词原形+宾语”或“Do/Does+主语+不及物动词原形”。

肯定回答:Yes,主语+do/does.  否定回答是:No, 主语+ don't/doesn't.

—Do you eat every morning?

—Yes, I do./No, I don't.

—Does she have a little brother?

—Yes, she does./No, she doesn't.

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+do/does开头的一般疑问句?

What do you like?

When do you go to school?

注意:根据主语确定用do还是does。

 

  1. 谓语是情态动词can/may...+动词原形的一般现在时。

①肯定形式:主语+情态动词can/may.....+动词原形+宾语。

 

I can finish my homework.

②否定形式:主语+情态动词can/may.....+not+动词原形+宾语。

I can't finish my homework.

③一般疑问句形式:情态动词Can/May.....+主语+动词原形+主语+宾语。

肯定回答是:Yes,主语+情态动词.  否定回答是:No, 主语+ 情态动词+not.

—Can you finish your homework?

—Yes,I can./No, I can't.

④特殊疑问句形式:特殊疑问词+情态动词can/may.....开头的一般疑问句?

—What can you do?

—I can do my homework.

注意:情态动词can/may.....+动词原形。

 

一般现在时的用法

  1. 一般现在时表示现在的状态 ;表示经常性或习惯性的动作;表示主语具备的性格和能力;表示客观事实或普遍真理等。

He is twelve.

I go to school at seven every day.

They can speak Japanese.

  1. 一般现在时常和表示时间的频度副词连用。如:often, usually, sometimes, always, never等。

I often read books in the evening.

Do they usually go to school by bike?

He doesn’t like milk. He never drinks it.

Sometimes my mother gets back at five.

  1. 一般现在时也常和以下时间表达法连用。如:in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, at noon, at night, every day, on Sunday(s), at seven 等。

Do they have math in the morning?

She sleeps nine hours every night.

It takes me two hours to do my homework every day.

They don’t have classes on Sundays.

 

  1. 一般现在时表示将来含义
  2. 下列瞬时动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

例如:The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

----When does the bus star? ----It stars in ten minutes.

  1. 在主从复合句中,当主句是一般将来时,时间或条件状语从句的谓语动词只能用一般现在时来表示将来要发生的动作,即所谓的“主将从现”

例如:When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 。

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

 

  1. 三. 动词第三人称单数的构成
  2. 动词原形后面直接加-s

 

look—looks read—reads play—plays     stop—stops

  1. 在以字母s, x,ch,sh,o结尾的动词后加-es

miss—misses  fix—fixes   watch—watches  wash—washes  go—goes   do—does

 

  1. 辅音字母加y结尾的动词变y为i,再加-es

carry–carries  study–studies hurry–hurries cry–cries

 

  1. 特殊变化

have-has

be-is

 

一般过去时

一般过去时的基本结构

  1. 肯定句形式:主语+动词过去式+其他

I was an English teacher one year ago.

I bought a yellow dress yesterday afternoon.

  1. 否定句形式:①was/were+not;   ②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词

I wasn't an English teacher one year ago.

I didn't buy a yellow dress yesterday afternoon.

  1. 一般疑问句:①was/were提到句首; ②Did+主语+动词原形+其他?

Were you an English teacher one year ago?

Did you buy a yellow dress yesterday afternoon?

  1. 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

What were you one year ago?

When did you buy a yellow dress?

 

一般过去时的基本用法

  1. 表示在过去某个时间所发生的动作或所处的状态(与现在无关).常与yesterday, last week, in 1989, just now, a moment ago, the other day等过去具体时间状语连用。

He was here just now. What did you do yesterday?

  1. 在过去一段时间内的经常性或习惯性动作。

We often played together when we were children.

注:表示过去经常发生的动作还可用used to 和would。

He used to smoke a lot, but he doesn’t now.

Whenever we were in trouble, he would help us.

  1. 表示主语过去的特征或性格。

At that time she was very good at English. 那时她英语学得很好。

  1. 一般过去时有时可以表示现在,多与 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等动词连用,使语气更委婉。

I wondered if you could help me.

  1. 有时用一般过去时也是时态一致的需要。

I didn’t know you were here.

6.【注意】

(1)表示一系列的动作,尽管有先后,都用一般过去时,最后两个动词之间用and连结。

He opened the door, rushed out and then disappeared.

(2)注意在语境中理解“我刚才/原来还不……”。

——Your phone number again? I didn’t quite catch it.

 

 

动词过去式的变化规则

  1. 规则变化

①一般情况下,直接加ed

work—— worked   look——looked   walk——walked

②以e结尾的单词,直接加d

live ——lived     hope——hoped    use——used

③以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i加ed

study——studied    carry——carried

④以元音字母+y结尾的,直接加ed

enjoy ——enjoyed   play——played

⑤以重读、一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节结尾的动词,双写最后的辅音字母+ed

stop—— stopped  plan——planned  prefer——preferred

 

一般将来时

一般将来时的含义

一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或状态,或将来经常发生的动作或状态。

一般将来时的基本结构

  1. will/shall+动词原形

will 在陈述句中用于各种人称;shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

I will/shall do a better job next time.

Oil and water will not mix

否定式:will not=won't;shall not=shan't

一般疑问式:will/shall+主语+动词原形+其他?

—Will he help you with your English tonight?

—Yes, he will./No, he won't.

特殊疑问式:特殊疑问词+一般疑问式?

—When will you arrive for America?   —Tomorrow.

 

  1. am/is/are going to +动词原形

He is going to spend his holidays in London.

Look at the dark clouds. There is going to be a storm.

否定式:am/is/are not going to +动词原形

一般疑问式:am/is/are +主语+ going to + 动词原形+其他?

Is he going to collect any data for us?

特殊疑问式:特殊疑问词+一般疑问式?

What are you going to do tomorrow?

 

 

一般将来时的用法

will+动词原形与am/is/are going to +动词原形的用法虽然都表示将来发生动作或情况,一般情况下能互换。但它们的用法是有区别的。

  1. will主要用于在以下三个方面:

(1)表示主观意愿的将来。

 

They will go to visit the factory tomorrow.

I’ll come with Wang Bing, Liu Tao and Yang Ling.

(2)表示不以人的意志为转移的客观的将来。

Today is Saturday. Tomorrow will be Sunday.

He will be thirty years old this time next year.

(3)表示临时决定,通常用于对话中。

—Mary has been ill for a week.

—Oh, I didn't know. I will go and see her.

 

  1. be going to主要用于一下两个方面:

(1)表示事先经过考虑、安排好打算、计划要做某事。

Dad and I are going to watch an opera this afternoon.

(2)表示根据目前某种迹象判断,某事非常有可能发生,表示推测。

Look! There come the dark clouds. It is going to rain.

 

用其他时态表示将来含义的情况

  1. 用现在进行时表示将来。

瞬时动词和持续动词都可以用其现在进行时表达将来的含义,主要表示按规定或时间预计要发生的事。(瞬时动词的进行时任何时候都表示将来的含义,持续动词的进行时只有在含有将来的时间状语或将来语境的条件下才表示将来)

The bus is coming.

The students are leaving on Sunday.

We’re having a party next week.

 

  1. 用一般现在时表示将来。

(1)come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等瞬时位移动词的一般现在时可以表示将来含义,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

(2)在时间或条件状语从句中。(主将从现)

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we will have a party in the park.

There be结构的一般将来时

肯定式:There will be;There is/are going to be

否定式:There won't be;There is/are not going to be

一般疑问式:Will there be...;Is/are there going to be...

特殊疑问式:特殊疑问词+一般疑问式

There will be a basketball match this afternoon.

=There is going to be a basketball match this afternoon.

There won't be a basketball match this afternoon.

=There isn't going to be a basketball match this afternoon.

Will there be a basketball match this afternoon?

=Is there going to be a basketball match this afternoon?

When will there be a basketball match?

=When is there going to be a basketball match?

现在进行时的基本结构

肯定式:am/is/are+doing(现在分词)

They’re having a meeting now.

否定式:am/is/are not +doing(现在分词)

They aren't having a meeting now.

一般疑问式:Am/Is/Are + 主语 +doing(现在分词)+ 其他

Are they having a meeting now?

特殊疑问式:特殊疑问词+一般疑问式

What are they doing now?

 

现在进行时

现在进行时的基本用法

  1. 表示此时此刻正在发生的事情。常与now,at the moment,look,listen等词连用。

The little boy is watching TV now. 这个小男孩现在正在看电视。

Listen!She is playing the guitar in the next room. 听!她正在隔壁房间弹吉他。

  1. 表示现阶段一直在进行着或是重复发生着的动作,不强调此时此刻正在做。常与表示时间段的时间状语连用。

I am studying computer this term. 这个学期我一直在学习计算机。

  1. 表示说话人褒义或贬义的情感色彩,如赞许、批评、喜欢、厌恶等。此时常与alway、often等频度副词连用。

He is always thinking of others , not of himself. 他总是为他人着想,而不为自己。(表示赞许)

One of my roommates is often leaving things about. 我的一个室友经常乱扔东西。(表示不满)

  1. 表示在近期按计划或安排要发生的动作。(现在进行时表示一般将来的含义。)

① 瞬时动词的进行时在任何情况下都表示将来含义。这些动词包括go , come , leave,arrive , return等。

I am leaving.

I am leaving tomorrow.

② 持续动词的进行时,只有在有将来时间状语或将来语境的情况下才可以表示将来含义。

An American professor is giving a lecture this afternoon.

An American professor is giving a lecture.

 

 

现在分词(doing)的变化规则

  1. 一般在情况下,在动词词尾加-ing。

go——going    play——playing   know——knowing

  1. 以不发音的字母e结尾动词,先去e再加-ing。

make——making    arrive——arriving    come——coming

  1. 以重读闭音节结尾,且动词词尾只有一个辅音字母时,先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ing。

run——running        stop——stopping       swim——swimming

put——putting         sit——sitting          dig——digging

begin——beginning    plan——planning       cut——cutting

get——getting        chat——chatting        regret——regretting

  1. 以-ie结尾,先将-ie改成y,再加-ing。

tie——tying          die——dying       lie——lying

 

 

过去进行时

过去进行时,是表示过去某个时刻或时间段正在进行的事情或动作。

  1. 二. 结构

过去进行时谓语动词结构:was/were +doing (现在分词)

  1. 三. 用法
  2. 过去进行时表示过去某段时间内持续进行的动作或者事情。

常用的时间状语this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等。

We were watching TV from seven to nine last night.

What was he researching all day last Sunday?

My brother fell and hurt himself while he was riding his bicycle.

It was raining when they left the station.

When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.

  1. 过去进行时可以表示在过去某个时间点发生的事情。

时间点可以用介词短语、副词或从句来表示。

What was she doing at nine o'clock yesterday?

She was doing her homework then.

When I saw him he was decorating his room.

  1.  在复合句中,如果主要动作和背景动作都是延续的或同时发生的,那么主从句的动词都可用过去进行时。

When he was waiting for the bus, he was reading a newspaper. (两个动作都是延续的)

He was cleaning his car while I was cooking.

 

现在完成时

基本结构

肯定句:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词+其他

否定句:主语+have/has+not+动词的过去分词+其他

一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词+其他

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他)

 

现在完成时的用法

  1. 现在完成时用来表示过去已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果。也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在,强调的是现在。

I  have already posted the photo.

与此种用法连用的时间状语时一些模糊的过去时间状语,如already(肯定句句中), yet(否定句/疑问句句尾), just, before, recently,still, lately,never等。

  1. 现在完成时也可用来表示动作或状态发生在过去某一时刻,持续到现在并且有可能会继续持续下去。

He has lived here since 1978.

此种用法常与for(+时间段),since(+时间点或过去时的句子)连用。谓语动词必须是延续性动词。

有些瞬间动词可变为延续动词:

go out----be out    finish----be over    open----be open

die----be dead      buy---have        fall ill---be ill

come back----be back   catch a cold----have a cold

 

 

 

过去完成时

概念与结构

概念:表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去( past-in-the-past )”。

构成:“助动词 had +   过去分词”,其中 had 通用于各种人称。

They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel.在到达旅馆之前,他们已经吃过了早饭。

She had finished writing the composition by 10:00 this morning. 今天早晨10点之前,她已经写完了作文。

 

  1. 二. 过去完成时的用法

用法1. 表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,即发生在“过去的过去”。

When I woke up, it had stopped raining.

用法2. 表示某一动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,而且动作尚未结束,仍然有继续下去的可能。

By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years.

 

  1. 三. 过去完成时的判断依据
  2. 由时间状语来判定

一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:

(1)by + 过去的时间点

I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.

(2)by the end of + 过去的时间点,

We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.

(3)before + 过去的时间点,

They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.

  1. 由“过去的过去”来判定

过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指在过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:

(1)宾语从句中

当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。

She said that she had seen the film before.

(2)状语从句中

在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。

When I got to the station, the train had already left.

注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。例如:

Where did you study before you came here?

After he closed the door, he left the classroom.

(3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…",例如:

We had thought that you would come, but you didn't.

  1. 根据上、下文来判定

I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.

 

 

 

过去将来时

含义

表示在过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。过去将来时常用于宾语从句中。

I didn’t know if he would come.

They never knew that population would become a big problem.

She didn’t tell me where she would go.

Betty said she would visit the Great Wall next Saturday.

  1. 二. 过去将来时的结构及用法

1.“would+动词原形”常表示主观意愿的将来。

He said he would come to see me.

He told me he would go to Beijing.

2.“was/ were+going to+动词原形”常表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。

She said she was going to start off at once.

I was told that he was going to return home.

 

此结构还可表示根据某种迹象来看,很可能或即将发生的事情。

It seemed as if it was going to rain.

  1. come, go, leave, arrive, start等瞬时动词动词可用过去进行时表示过去将来的含义。

He said the train was leaving at six the next morning.

She told me she was coming to see me.

  1. 条件状语从句和时间状语从句中须用一般过去时代替过去将来时。

The teacher said that it would be very difficult to make progress if I didn’t work hard.

 

  1. 三. 过去将来时典型错误例析
  2. 我们不知道他是否要在会上发言。

误:We didn’t know whether he is going to speak at the meeting.

正:We didn’t know whether he was going to speak at the meeting.

析:该句主句为过去时,且宾语从句表示从过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作,所以从句要用过去将来时态。

  1. 老师问汤姆长大后准备干什么。

误:The teacher asked Tom what he was going to be when he would grow up.

正:The teacher asked Tom what he was going to be when he grew up.

析:在时间状语从句中,常用一般过去时表示在过去看来将要发生的动作。

  1. 他们说如果下星期天不下雨他们就去农场。

误:They said that they were going to the farm if it would not rain the next Sunday.

正:They said that they were going to the farm if it didn’t rain the next Sunday.

析:在条件状语从句中,也常用一般过去时表示在过去看来将要发生的动作。

  1. 王林打电话告诉她妈妈,她要买一些书。

误:Wang Lin rang up to tell her mother that she should buy some books.

正:Wang Lin rang up to tell her mother that she would buy some books.

析:过去将来时可以由“助动词should/would+动词原形”构成,但should一般只用于第一人称。而would可用于各种人称。

 

参考答案:1—5 BABDB 6—10 CDDBA 11—15 BBCCD 16—20 CBDCC

参考答案:21-25 BDDDA 26—30 BCBAD 31—35 BCCCD 36—40 BDACB

参考答案:41-45 BDCAC 46—50 BDDCA 51—55 DACBB 56—60 CCDCD

 

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