初中英语语法被动语态(知识点+练习题)

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2020年4月7日19:48:06 11146字阅读37分9秒

被动语态全解

语态是动词的一种形式,表示句子中主语和谓语动词的关系,主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。只有及物动词才能用于被动语态。

一.被动语态的时态:
1.一般现在时的被动语态:  am /is/ are +动词的过去分词
2.一般过去时的被动语态:  was /were +动词的过去分词
3.一般将来时的被动语态:  will be +动词的过去分词
4.现在进行时的被动语态:  am /is /are +being +动词的过去分词
5.现在完成时的被动语态:  have /has +been +动词的过去分词
6.情态动词的被动语态:   情态动词 + be +动词的过去分词

二.被动语态的基本用法:

(1) 需要强调动作的承受者时

The Great Wall is enjoyed by millions of people all over the world

English is widely spoken in the world now.

(2) 不知道或没必要指出动作的执行者时

Mr. Wang is invited to the meeting today .

The problem is dealt with now .

(3) 当说话人需要强调客观时

It is said that she was a beauty when she was young .

三.主动主动语态变被动语态的变法:
口诀:宾变主,主变宾,谓变be done ,时不变,数格必须随被变。
注:1.主动、被动的时态要一致。
2.主动、被动的句式要一致。
3.变成的被动语态的主语与谓语在单复数上保持一致。
语态转换不被动语态的步骤

1, 把原主动句中的宾语转换为被动语态的主语

2, 把动词改为被动语态形式即"be+过去分词"。

3, 原来主动语态句子中的主语,如果需要就放在by的后面以它的宾格形式出现(因为by是介词,后面需跟宾格作介词的宾语。)以指明做事的人或物,如果没有必要,可以省略。

4, 其它成分不变

5, 被动语态中"by+宾语"的省略

被动语态句式中的"by+宾语"表示及物动词所表示动作的执行者,但是在遇到以下情况时,表示动作执行者"by +宾语"常常被省略。

(1) 动作执行者不确定时

Paper is made from wood .

Many people are killed in traffic accidents every year .

(2) 不必表明动作执行者时

English is also spoken as the second language as well as one of the official languages

Football is played in most schools。

(3 ) 动作执行者为一般大众时

Both English and Spanish are spoken in this area.

一般过去时的被动语态的基本句式

(1) 肯定式:主语+ was /were +过去分词+by

It was made in Beijing Ren'ai Education Institute .

(2) 否定式:主语+was /were + not + 过去分词+ by

She was not given a paniting by him .

This question was not discussed at the meeting yesterday .

(3) 一般疑问句:Was /Were + 主语+过去分词+by ?

Was it made of bamboo?

(4) 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+was/were + 过去分词+by

What was is made of ?

教你一招

如果句子为一般现在时,主动语态用do/does ,被动语态用is/am /are

如果句子为一般过去时,主动语态用did ,被动语态用was /were .

由情态动词构成的被动语态的基本句式

(1) 肯定式:主语+情态动词+be+ 过去-Water can be changed into ice.

She ought to tidy up her bedroom----Her bedroom ought to be tidied up.

You should buy a dictionary at once ----A dictionary should be bought at once by you.

(2) 否定式:主语+ 情态动词+not +be +过去分词+by

You must not take out any books .- Any books mustn't be taken out by you .

They needn't look after the little child ----The little child needn't be looked after (by them)

(3) 疑问句:情态动词+主语+be +过去分词+by

Can you use it ?------Can it be used ?

常见的情态动词有:can,may, ought to, must , dare , need,should.

主动语态不能变为被动语态的情况:

1, 当宾语是反身代词时 The man introduced himself as Mr.Parker .

2,当谓语是表示状态的及物动词时 Does the pair of new shoes suit you?

We will have a meeting .
四.特殊情况的被动语态:
1.带双宾语的被动语态:
动词+ sb(间宾) +sth(直宾)
口诀:如遇双宾语,一般变间宾,若把直宾变,to /for 间宾连。
1).give/pass /show 与介词to 搭配。
give sb sth —— sb +be given sth 或 sth +be given +to sb .
2).buy/make/cook 与介词for 搭配。
buy sb sth —— sb +be bought + sth 或 sth +be bought +for sb
He gave me a book
I ______ ______ a book by him.
A book ____ ____ _____ me by him .
My mother made me a cake .
I ____ _____ a cake by my mother
A cake ____ ____ ____ me by my mother .
2.带省to 的不定式作宾补的被动语态:动词+ sb + do sth .
口诀:感使动词真叫怪,to来to去记心怀,主动语态to离去被动语态to回来。
动词:make / let /have /see /hear /feel /watch
make sb do sth ----sb + be +made +to do sth
The boss made the workers work all day
The workers ____ ____ ____ work all day by the boss.
3. see /hear /notice /keep +sb +doing sth 句型中变被动语态时doing 不变。
I heard Tom singing just now  Tom _____ _____ _____ by me just now .
4.以动词短语作谓语的主动语态变被动语态时,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。
We should take care of the old .  The old should ______ _____ _____ _____ .
五.注意事项:
1.有些及物动词或动词短语不能用于被动语态:
last ,have ,own …..belong to ,suit…fine ,
2.不及物动词是没有被动语态:
happen ,take place ,appear , hold (容纳)
3.系动词是没有被动语态:Look, feel ,sound ,smell ,taste ….
The dish tastes good .
4.有些词组没有被动语态:sell well , write well ,ride well ,drive well
This kind of skirt sells well.
5.need表示需要时,后面常接doing 形式表示被动意义,相当于to be done .
All the computers need repairing .=
All the computers need _____ _____ _____ .
6.在too…to…及enough to …结构中有时表示被动意义。
The problem is too difficult to solve.

(一)

一、单项选择

( )1.—Do you often clean your classroom?

—Yes. Our classroom ___ every day.

  1. clean B.cleans C.is cleaned D.is cleaning

( )2.A talk on developments in science and technology___in the school hall next week.

  1. given B.will be given C.has been given D.give

( )3.His new book___ next month.

  1. will be published      B. is publishing
  2. is being published     D. has been published

( )4.—Did you go to Jack’s birthday party?

—No,I____.

  1. am not invited          B.wasn’t invited

C.haven’t invited          D.didn’t invite

( )5.—Mum,can I go to the zoo with Jack?

—When your homework___,you can.

  1. is done B.was done C.does D.did

( )6.Twenty—year—olds should not____to drive in China.

A.allow B.be allow C.be allowed D.allowed.

( )7.Seeing him rush into the room with tears in his eyes,I asked him what___.

A.would happen B.had happened C.happened D.was happened.

( )8.The book Business@the Speed of Thought ___in 1999.

A.writes  B.is written  C.wrote  D.was written.

( )9.Trees and flowers__every year to make our country more beautiful.

A.is planted B.was planted C.are planted D.were planted.

( )10.China’s sports stars Yao Ming and Liu Xiang___Good Will Ambassadors(亲善大使)for Shang hai.

A.has been named B.have been named C.has named D.have named.

( )11.The earth is our home.It ___well.

A.must be protected    B.should protect

C.need protect        D.should protected.

( )12.In recent years, many children are made ___ what they are not___.

A.to do;interested in   B.to do;interested

C.do;interested        D.do;interested.

( )13.___a new library____in your school last year?

A.Is;built B.Was;built C.Does;built D.Did;built.

( )14.An accident___on this road last week.

A.has been happened B.was happened C.is happened D.happened.

( )15.Cotten ____in the southeast of China.

A.is grown B.are grown C.grows D.grow.

( )16.So far, the moon___by man already.

  1. is visited B.will be visited C.has been visited D.was visited.

( )17.How many trees ___this year?

A.are planted B.will plant C.have been planted D.planted.

( )18.A lot of things ___by people to save the little girl now.

A.are doing B.are being done C.has been done D.will be done.

( )19.Neither of them ___ in China

A.is made B.are made C.were made D.made.

( )20.Look! A nice picture___for our teacher.

  1. is drawing B.is being drawn C.has been drawn D.draws.

( )21.Your shoes___.You need a new pair.

A.wear out B.worn out C.are worn out D.is worn.

( )22.The doctor___for yet.

A.isn’t sent B.hasn’t been sent C.won’t be sent D.wasn’t sent.

( )23—When ___this kind of computer___?

—Last year.  A.did;use B.was;used C.is;used D.are;used

( )24.The Great Wall__about all over the world.

A.knows B.knew C.is known D.was known.

( )25.I___in summer.

A.born B.was born C.have been born D.am born.

( )26.He says that Mr Zhang___to the factory next week.

A.is sent B.would send C.was sent D.will be sent.

( )27.Who ___this book__?

A.did;written B.was;written by C.do;written D.was;written

( )28.Mary ___show me her new dictionary.

A.has asked to B.was asked to C.is asked D.asks to

( )29. A story __ by Granny yesterday.

A.was told us B.was told to us C.is told us D.told us

( )30.The monkey was seen____out of the tree.

A.jump B.jumps C.jumped D.to jump

(二)

二、单项选择

1 ( ) 1 The People's Republic of China ___ on October 1, 1949.

  1. found B. was founded C. is founded D. was found

( ) 2 English ____ in Canada.

  1. speaks B. are spoken C. is speaking D. is spoken

( ) 3 This English song___ by the girls after class.

  1. often sings B. often sang C. is often sang D. is often sung

( ) 4 This kind of car ___ in Japan.

A, makes B. made C. is making D. is made

( ) 5 New computers ___ all over the world.

  1. is used B. are using C. are used D. have used

2 ( ) 1 Our room must ___ clean.

  1. keep B. be kept C. to be kept D. to keep

( ) 2 -I'd like to buy that coat.

-I'm sorry. ___.

  1. it sold B. it's selling C. It's been sold D. it had been sold

( ) 3 A new house ___ at the corner of the road.

  1. is building B. is being built C. been built D. be building

( ) 4 The key ___ on the table when I leave.

  1. was left B. will be left C. is left D. has been left

( ) 5 Doctors ___ in every part of the world.

  1. need B. are needing C. are needed D. will need

3( ) 1 Japanese ___ in every country.

  1. is not spoken B. are spoken C. is speaking D. is not speaking

( ) 2 These papers___yet.

  1. have not written B. have not been written
  2. has not written D. has not been written

( ) 3 The sports meet ___ be held until next week.

  1. didn't B. won't C. isn't D. doesn't

4 ( ) 1 -My shoes are worn out.- ___.

  1. Can't they be mended? B. Let me have a look at it.
  2. How much do they cost? D. Can't they mended?

( ) 2 ___ the watch been repaired yet? I badly need it.

  1. Does B. Has C. Is D. Are

( ) 3 ___ these desks be needed?

  1. Will B. Are C. Has D. Do

5( ) 1 Why ___ to talk about it yesterday?

  1. didn't a meeting hold B. wasn't a meeting held
  2. wasn't held a meeting D. a meeting wasn't held

( ) 2 Who was the book___?

  1. write B. wrote C. written D. written by

( ) 3 Where ___ these boxes made?

  1. was B. were C. is D. am

6( ) 1 The flowers___often.

  1. must be water B. must be watered C. must watered D. must water

( ) 2 The books may___ for two weeks.

  1. be kept B. be borrowed C. keep D. borrow

( ) 3 The broken bike____ here by Mr Smith.

  1. can mend B. can mended C. can be mend D. can be mended

7( ) 1 The old bridge in my hometown___ next month.

  1. is going to be rebuilt   B. will rebuilt
  2. are going to be rebuilt  D. are going to rebuilt

( ) 2 The play ___ at the theatre next Sunday.

  1. is going to be shown B.will shown C. will show D. is shown

( ) 3 The old stone bridge ___ next week.

  1. is going to be rebuilt  B. will be rebuild
  2. are going to be rebuilt  D. will rebuild

8( ) 1 Now these magazines___ in the library for a long time.

  1. have kept B. are keeping C. have been keeping D. have been kept

( ) 2 The pot ___ for ___ hot water.

  1. used; keeping B. was used; keepingC. is used; to keep D. are used; keep

( ) 3 Tea ___ in the south of China.

  1. grows B. is grown C. were grown D. will grow

( ) 4 The bridges___ two years ago.

  1. is built B. built C. were built D. was built

( ) 5 Wet clothes are often__up near a fire in rainy weather.

  1. hang B. hanged C. hanging D. hung

9( ) 1 The river smells terrible. People must __ dirty things into it.

  1. be stopped to throw   B. be stopped from throwing
  2. stop to throw         D. stop from throwing

( ) 2 The teapot ___ water.

  1. is filled with B. filled of C. fulling of D. filled

( ) 3 Old people must be looked after well and ___ politely.

  1. speak to  B. spoken  C. speak  D. spoken to

( ) 4 Old people must ___.

  1. look after well     B. be looked well after
  2. looked well after   D. be looked after well

10( ) 1 Newly-born babies___in hospital.

  1. are taken good care   B. are taken good care of
  2. take good care of     D. take good care

( ) 2 They were___ at the sudden noise.

  1. frightening  B. frightened C. frighten D. frightens

( ) 3 These walls___stones.

  1. are made of B. made of C. are made into D. made into

11( ) 1 Jane ___ to sing us an American song last Saturday.

  1. called B. was asked C. told D. was said

( ) 2 The papers ___ to them.

  1. were shown B. show  C. shown /  D. have shown

( ) 3 The coat___her sister.

A.made to B.were made for C.was made for D.was made to

12 ( ) 1 I ___ five minutes to decide whether I should go or not.

  1. gave B. was giving C. had given D. was given

( ) 2 Good care____such things.

  1. should take of    B. should be taken
  2. should be taking   D. should be taken of

( ) 3 She will____good care____.

A.take;of  B.be taken;of C. take;for you D. be taken;of you

13( ) 1 The teacher made him___ his homework.

  1. to do  B. do  C. did  D. done

( ) 2 The boy___ streets without pay in the old days.

  1. was made to clean  B. made clean
  2. made to clean   D. was made clean

( ) 3 These children____dance.

  1. were seen to B. were seen for C. were seen D. saw to

14( ) 1 These stones___well.

  1. are fitted  B. fit  C. fits  D. is fitted

( ) 2 The bike ___ 500 yuan.

  1. was cost  B. costed  C. cost  D. is costed

( ) 3 The important meeting ___ on a cold morning last year.

  1. was had  B. was held  C. held  D. had

15 ( ) 1 Great changes___ in the past ten years in China.

  1. took place B. have taken place C. were taking place D. had taken place

( ) 2 You can't use the computer, it____.

A.was broken down  B.is wrong  C.is bad  D.has broken down

( ) 3 Great changes___in our country during the past 20 years.

  1. have happened B. happened C. have been happened D. were happened

( ) 4 The watch has often ___ down.A. sat B. lain C. broken D. fell

16 ( ) 1 Please pass me another cup. This one___.

  1. is broken  B. is breaking  C. broke  D. broken

( ) 2 The story books___ by the writer in the 1960s.

  1. are written B. were written  C. are writing D. were writing

( ) 3 What time ___ the door ___ every day?

  1. does; closed B. does; close C. is; closed D. /; close

17 ( ) 1 Can he___ himself?

  1. get dress B. get dressed C. gets dressed D. instead of

( ) 2 He fell from his bike and ___.

  1. is hurt  B. gets hurt  C. got hurt  D. hurt

( ) 3 Lookout, please keep away from the fire,or your trousers will__.

  1. burnt  B. burn  C. burning  D. get burnt

18 ( ) 1 The apple___very sweet.

  1. is tasted  B. taste  C. tastes  D. are tasting

( ) 2 You___ more beautiful in the light blue shirt.

  1. see  B. watch  C. look  D. look at

( ) 3 What you said ___ like a good idea.

  1. heard  B. listened  C. sound  D. sounded

19 ( ) 1 -What do you think of the TV play?

-Wonderful. It is worth___ a second time.

  1. watching  B. watched  C. seen  D. seeing

( ) 2 How dirty the tables are! They need___.

  1. to clean B. clean C. cleaning D. cleaned

( ) 3 The book is worth ___.

  1. seeing B. reading C. seen D. read

 

(一)参考答案

1~5CBABA 6~10CBDCB 11~15AABDA 16~20CCBAB 21~25CBBCB 26~30DBBBD

 

(二)参考答案:

  1. 1-5 B D D D C2. 1-5 B C B B C3. 1-3 A B B 4. 1-3 A B A
  2. 1-3 B D B6. 1-3 B A D7. 1-3 A B A  8. 1-5 D B B C D
  3. 1-4 B A D D10. 1-3 B B A11. 1-3 B A C 12. 1-3 D D B
  4. 1-3 B A A14. 1-4 B C B15. 1-4 B D A C 16. 1-3 A B C
  5. 1-3 B C D18. 1-3 C C D19. 1-3 A C B

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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