初中英语语法现在完成时

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2020年4月13日21:23:02 2916字阅读9分43秒

初中英语语法——现在完成时

现在完成时表示目前为止已经完成的动作或存在的状态。现在完成时时一种发生于过去,着眼于现在的时态;动作发生在过去,而强调点落在对现在的影响上,或描述从过去一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

1.现在完成时谓语动词的结构形式

(1)现在完成时谓语动词的结构形式:助动词have/has+过去分词。has用于主语为第三人称单数的句子中国,其他各人称用have。如:

I have lived Wuhan for years.

She has finished her homework already.

(2)现在完成时一般疑问句、否定句、特殊疑问句结构及一般疑问句的答语:

*一般疑问句为:将have/has在句子开头,且首字母要大写,句末用问号。

*肯定回答为:Yes,+主语的相应代词+have或has;

*否定回答为:No,+主语的相应代词+haven't或hasn’t;

*否定句为:在have,has后加not+过去分词。Have和has可以和not缩写为haven't,hasn't。

*特殊疑问句为:特殊疑问词+have/has+主语+过去分词+......?如:

—Have you read the article in today's newspaper?(一般疑问句)

—Yes,I have./No,I haven’t.(肯定、否定回答)

—Have your mother finish cooking ?(一般疑问句)

—Yes,she has./No,she hasn’t.(肯定、否定回答)

They haven’t written to their parents.(否定句)

Where have you been all this afternoon?(特殊疑问句)

 

2.现在完成时的用法

(1)现在完成时表示目前为止已经完成的动作,常与just,already,yet,ever,never,recently,before,twice,three times等时间状语连用。这种用法的特点在于动作发生在过去,而强调的是目前的结果或状态。如:

I have seen the film already.

Have you seen my bag?

He has bought a new car recently?

I haven’t heard from Jane lately.

注意:

现在完成时不能和明确表示过去时间的状语连用,如ago,yesterday,last year,at that time,then等表示过去的时间及when等引导的时间状语从句。

(2)现在完成时还用于表示过去开始,一直持续到现在的动作或状态,常与for,since引起的时间或how long连用。如:

 I have collected coins for many years.

George has been in business since he finished college.

I have studied English since 2005.

How long have you stayed in the city?

注意:

①短暂动作的动词leave(离开),arrive(到达),come(来),go(去),return(归还),join(参加),die(死),buy(买),borrow(借),begin(开始),lose(丢失),marry(结婚),stop(停)等,在完成时态的肯定句中的不能与for或since等引导的表示“段”的时间连用,但在否定句中可以。如:

(误)He has arrived here for three days.

(正)He has been here for three days.

(正)I haven’t met him for two years.

②为了汉语表达的需要,短暂动作的动词与for,since引起的时间或how long连用时,要用相应的另一个延续性动词来代替。如:

I have bought a mobile phone from the shop.

I have had the mobile phone for a week.

He has become a doctor.

He has been a doctor for a year.

I have borrowed the book from the library.

I have kept the book for three days.

His grandfather has died.

His grandfather has been dead for a year.

Zhang Hui has joined the League.

Zhang Hui has been a League member for half a year.

Our teacher has left the school.

Our teacher has been away from school for two hours.

(3)部分相互替代的非延续性动词和延续性动词。

买buy—have 借borrow—keep 到达arrive—stay
穿put on—have on/wear 结婚merry—be married 认识get to know—know
回来come back—be back 离开leave—be away 参加join—be a member
死亡die—be dead 关闭turn off—be off 来/去come/go—be in
打开turn on—be on 动身leave for—be off 感冒catch a cold—have a cold
成为become—be 返回return—be back 开始begin—be on
入睡go to sleep—be asleep 睡觉go to bed—sleep 到达get to/arrive/reach—be in

 

3.have gone to与have been to的区别

*“have gone to+某地”,意为“某人到某地去了”,指某人可能在去某地的路上,或者已到达某地,也许在返回途中,总之,某人已不在说话地点。如:

Ha has gone to Beijing.(他不在这里了)

He has gone to Hong Kong.(他现在已不在本地)

*“have been to+某地”,意为“某人曾经去过某地”。指某人以前去过,现在不在那里。如:

Has has been to Beijing.(现在他已回来了)

Have you been to Hong Kong?(现在已不在香港)

4.现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

*一般过去时所表示的事情纯属过去,与现在情况没有关系,现在完成时所表示的事情与现在情况有关系,是过去发生的事情对现在产生的结果或现在的影响,或一直持续着。如:

Did you go to Canada last year?(表示去年发生的行为)

Have you been to Canada?(问现在的情况,即你对那里了解多少)

*现在完成时表示过去某时发生的动作,其结果影响或持续到现在。如:

I have learned the lesson by heart.(我现在可以背诵了)

I have lost my watch.(我现在仍然没有表)

=I lost my watch and I have no watch now.

He bought a house ten years ago.(现在是否还拥有那栋房子就说不定了)

He has bought a house.(到说话的时候他仍然拥有那栋房子)

 

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