人教版七年级英语下册第九单元词汇、句型解析及练习

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2020年5月25日17:17:24 评论 249 次浏览 8263字阅读27分32秒

人教版七年级英语下册unit9词汇、句型解析及练习

01词汇讲解

 

  1. build

(1)build作名词意为“体格,体型”。例如:

a man of strong build 一个体格健壮的人

(2)build 作动词意为“建造,建设,建立”。例如:

We are building a house.

我们正在建造一个房子。

 

  1. a little bit , a bit&a little

作状语表示“有点,一点”时,三者可以通用。但a little bit 的程度比后两者稍弱一些。例如:

Today is a little bit/ a bit / a little hot. 今天有点热。

a bit 加上of可以和a little 一样修饰不可数名词,例如:

He only has a little / a bit of money. 他只有一点钱。

 

  1. short

short 作形容词,意为“短的,矮的”。

(1)short 作“短的”讲时,可以指距离、时间、物体的“短”,反义词是long(长的)。例如:

This pencil is short, but that one is long. 这支铅笔短,但是那支长。

(2)short 作“矮的”讲时,可以指人的个子矮,反义词是tall(高的)。例如:

He is a short man. 他是一个身材矮小的人。

 

  1. straight

(1)straight 作形容词,意为“直的”,可用来形容头发,也可用来形容其他事物,在句子中可以作定语也可以做表语。例如:

a straight line  一条直线

She has long straight hair. 她长着长长的直发。

(2)straight 还可以作副词,意为“直地,直接地”,常在动词短语后修饰动词。例如:

Let’s go straight home. 让我们直接回家。

Sit up straight, please. 请坐直。

 

  1. maybe&may be

(1)maybe是副词,主要用于非正式场合,口语中常用,意为“也许,大概”。它通常放在句子的开头,在句子中作状语。例如:

Maybe they won’t come here tonight. 他们大概今晚不会来这儿。

Maybe she is happy. 也许她是幸福的。

(2)may be是“情态动词may+动词原形be”构成的,在句中做谓语,意为“可能是、大概是”。例如:

She may be at home. 她可能在家。(也可以说:Maybe she is at home.)

You may be right. 你可能是对的。(也可以说:Maybe you are right.)

 

  1. glasses

(1)glasses 意为“眼镜”,常用复数形式,表示“一副眼镜”时用a pair of glasses。例如:

Her grandma always wears a pair of glasses.

她祖母总是戴着一副眼镜。

(2)glass作“玻璃杯”讲时,是可数名词,其复数形式是glasses; 作“玻璃”讲时,是不可数名词。例如:

Be careful of the glass. 小心玻璃。

There are two glasses of water on the table. 桌子上有两杯水。

 

  1. each&every

(1)each和every都可以用作形容词,作定语,修饰单数可数名词,但each强调个体,而every强调整体。例如:

Each child gets a present. 每一个孩子都得到一份礼物。

Every student has a pen. 每个学生都有一支钢笔。

= All students have pens.

(2)each指两个或两个以上中的每一个;而every指三个或三个以上中的每一个,不能指两个中的。例如:

There are trees on each side of the road.

马路的两边都有树。

I go out for a walk every day.

我每天都出去散步。

(3)each可作代词,作主语或宾语,可与of直接连用,而every则只能作形容词。例如:

Each of us has a ticket. 我们每人都有一张票。

口诀:

every指全体each强调单,each两个以上every三。

every指定each却不限,each同位every它不管。

every复合不接of短,each不与not句中现。

every,not句中若相连,部分否定理解难。

other可与every,each连,含义有别记心间。

 

  1. person&people

person 可数名词,有单、复数形式,着重指个人方面,可与不定冠词a或数词连用。例如:

He is a good person. 他是一个好人。

people 是一个集合名词,着重指全体方面。只用来表示复数概念,不能与不定冠词或数词one连用。例如:

Some people are playing games. 一些人在做游戏。

 

  1. tall&high
tall 常指人、动物、树、建筑物等高,其反义词为short。 a tall man 一个高个子男人

a tall building 一幢高楼

a tall tree 一棵高大的树

high 多指山高,也指空间的位置或程度上高,还可指抽象意思上的“高”,如物价、速度、温度等方面的“高”,其反义词为low。 a high mountain 一座高山

high prices 高价

  1. heavy

heavy 既可修饰物体,表示“沉重的”,也可以修饰人,表示“体胖的、重的”。用fat表达人胖时不太礼貌,委婉的说法是heavy,反义词为thin。例如:

The box is heavy. 这个箱子很重。

His sister is a little heavy. 他妹妹有一点胖。

拓展:heavy 还有“大(量)的,猛烈的”之意,用来表示雨或者雪很大,其副词为heavily。例如:

It’s raining heavily. 现在雨下的很大。

There will be a heavy snow. 将有一场大雪。

 

  1. enjoy

enjoy是及物动词,意为“享受……的乐趣; 欣赏;喜欢”。其用法如下:

enjoy  sth.(名词或代词)

enjoy  oneself(反身代词)=have a good time

enjoy doing sth.(只接v.-ing形式,不接 to do sth.)

例如:I enjoy the songs sung by Jay Chou. 我喜欢周杰伦的歌。

We enjoyed ourselves at the party.

昨晚的聚会,我们玩得很高兴。

In my class, most of the students enjoy singing English songs.

在我们班,大多数学生喜欢唱英语歌。

  1. turn

(1)turn 做动词时,可以做行为动词也可以做连系动词。做行为动词时,意为“转弯,转身,翻转,旋转”;作连系动词时,意为“变得……”,主要强调变化或转变成与以前不同的东西。例如:

Turn left at the end of the road. (行为动词)

在路的尽头左转。

The leaves turn yellow. 叶子变黄了。(连系动词)

(2)turn 还可以作名词,意为“轮流,顺序”。例如:

It’s your turn to clean the room.

轮到你打扫房间了。

练一练:

Ⅰ. 根据句意,用划线单词的反义词或对应词填空。

  1. Jim lives in a small house but Tom lives in a _______ one.
  2. Tom’s hair is curly, but his sister’s hair is ______.
  3. There is a short boy under the ______ tree.
  4. My hair is long, but her hair is ______.
  5. Mr. Black is old, but his brother is ______.

Ⅱ. 根据句意、汉语意思或首字母提示补全单词。

  1. T______ right at the second crossing and you’ll find the cinema.
  2. My sister has a m______ build, and she has long hair.
  3. She wants to be a great a______ because she likes acting.
  4. I have to go on a diet (节食) because I’m already a little h______.
  5. Her eyesight (视力)isn’t good, so she wears g______.
  6. Open your m______. Let me have a look.
  7. I am a girl. I have a r______ face and a small n_____.
  8. He is going to learn painting. To be an a______ is his dream.
  9. Who is your favorite s______? Why do you like his or her song?
  10. Let’s go to the cinema t_______. We’ll meet at the gate after school.

Ⅲ. 用括号中所给单词的适当形式填空。

  1. I _____________(real) like black.
  2. She enjoys _______ (listen) to the music after class.
  3. What does Tom______ (look) like?
  4. He wants to be an ______ ( act).
  5. We each ______ (have) a pen.
  6. The man speaks English quite _______ (difference) from others.
  7. The boy often goes _______ (swim) in that river in summer.
  8. Nobody ______ (like) his new look.
  9. There are three ______ (person) in my family.
  10. What’s your ______ (high)?

Ⅳ.选词填空。

  1. Paul has _______ (little/few) friends here, so he often feels lonely.
  2. There is only_______(a little/ a bit) water in the bottle.
  3. The ______ (person / people) in a sweater is a worker.
  4. The Chinese ______ (persons / people) are hard-working and friendly.
  5. There are many trees and flowers on ______ (each/ every) side of the street.
  6. In our school, the students _______ (every / each) has an ID card.
  7. ______(Maybe/May be) he is a teacher.
  8. He ______ (maybe/ may be) a teacher.
  9. The mountain is very ______ (tall/high).
  10. Most British high school children_______ (dress/ wear/ put on) uniforms(制服) at school.

 

参考答案:

Ⅰ. 根据句意,用划线单词的反义词或对应词填空。

  1. big/large  2. straight   3. tall  4. short  5. young

Ⅱ. 根据句意和首字母提示补全单词。

  1. Turn  2. medium 3. actress  4. heavy  5. glasses
  2. mouth  7. Round,nose  8. artist
  3. singer  10. together/tonight

Ⅲ. 用括号中所给单词的适当形式填空。

  1. really  2. listening  3. look  4. actor
  2. has    6. different 7. swimming
  3. likes   9. persons  10. height

Ⅳ.选词填空。

  1. few  2. a little  3. person  4. people   5. each
  2. each  7. Maybe  8. may be  9. high  10. wear

02句式精讲

 

  1. Excuse me.
  2. Then Joe draws a picture of the criminal, and the police put it in newspaper and on television to find him.

本句中的put是及物动词,意为“把……放在;摆,搁,安置”,常用于以下结构;

(1)put + 名词/代词+介词短语    例如:

Please put the book on the desk. 请把书放在桌子上。

(2)put + 名词/代词+副词(短语)例如:

Put the chair here, please. 请把那张椅子放在这里。

拓展:put的相关短语

put on 穿上(衣服)

put away 放好,把……收起来

put up 举起,张贴,搭建

put down 放下,写下

 

  1. He is of medium height.

He is of medium height/build.= He has a medium height/build.两句意思一样,但侧重点不同“be + of + 名词”结构,表示人或事物的特点,性质,相当于“be + 表示人物或者事物的特点、性质的形容词”。例如:

It is of great importance for us = It is important for us.

对于我们来说它很重要。

He has a medium build/height.

表示他有中等身材或身高,侧重于现状。

 

  1. Are you going to the movie tonight?

这是个现在进行时表示将来意义的句子。现在进行时可以表示将要发生的,计划或安排好的事情,这时使用的动词常为趋向性动词和表示位置转移的动词,如:come, go, arrive, leave, start, return等。另外,用现在进行时表示将来的句子里常有一个表示将来时间的状语,如:tonight, this afternoon, this evening, tomorrow等。例如:

The train is arriving soon. 火车就要到站了。

They’re leaving for Hong Kong this afternoon.

他们今天下午将动身去香港。

 

  1. 询问外貌和描述外貌的常用句型

(1)What+do/does+主语+look like?这个句型是用来询问某人的外貌特征,它的意思是“某人看上去怎么样?”,对这个句子的回答经常用“主语+be+形容词”或者“主语+have/has+名词”两种方式来回答。例如:

-What does your father look like? 你的爸爸看上去怎么样?

-He is short and thin. 他又矮又瘦。

拓展:What’s sb. like? 用来询问人的品质;What’s sth. like?用来询问事物的性质,特别是用来谈论天气状况。例如:

What’s Lily like? 莉莉是怎样的一个人?

What’s the weather like today? 今天天气怎么样?

(2)描述外貌常用的句型有:

1)主语+be+形容词    例如:

She is tall. 她很高。

2)主语+have/has +形容词+头发/五官    例如:

She has long hair. 她留着长发。

3)主语+be of+形容词+build/height    例如:

She is of medium build. 她中等身材。

 

  1. See you later then.

(1)See you later. 是英文中常用的告别语,英文初中常见的表示“再见”的说法有:

goodbye 再见(正式)

bye-bye 再见(非正式)

see you 再见(口语)

see you later 回头见(亲切)

so long再见(口语)

(2)句中的later是副词,意为“以后”,单独使用时,表示从过去算起的“以后”。例如:

Let’s stop now and finish it later. 现在停下来,以后再完成它。

later可以用于一段时间之后,可以表示从过去算起的多长时间“以后”,相当于“after+时间段”; later还可以用于一段时间之后,表示从将来算起的多长时间“以后”。例如:

I called again a week later/ after a week.

周后我又打了电话。

I’ll call her on March 8 and call again a week later.

我将在3月8日给她打个电话,过一周后我将再打个电话。

 

练一练:

Ⅰ. 仔细阅读对话,选择方框内的句子填空格,使对话意思连贯正确。

A: No, he isn’t.

B: What does he look like?

C: Yes, that’s him.

D: I think I know him.

E: Is he very tall?

F: You are right.

G: It’s very kind of you.

A: Do you know I have a pen pal in America?

B:   1 

A: He has long hair and big eyes.

B:   2  

A:   3   . He is of medium height.

B:   4    He always wears a pair of glasses on his nose.

A:   5    His name is Jack.

Ⅱ. 句型转换,每空一词。

  1. He is not short or tall. (改为同义句)

He is _____ _____ _____.

  1. Does your mother work in a bank? (用in a hospital 完成选择疑问句)

_________________

  1. My friend has long curly hair. (就划线部分提问)

______ does your friend look ______?

  1. Jenny is tall. She has long curly blond hair. (合并为一句)

Jenny is a _____ girl _____ long curly blond hair.

  1. I think she is beautiful. (改为否定句)

I_____ _____ she ______ beautiful.

  1. The twins are of medium height. (就划线部分提问)

_____ _____ the twins look like?

  1. The student has short hair. (改为否定句)

The student _____ _____ short hair.

  1. Because she was ill, she didn’t go to school. (改为同义句)

She was ill, ______ she didn’t go to school.

  1. She is not too heavy or too light. (改为同义句)

She is ______ ______ ______.

  1. She wears a blue sweater today. (改为一般疑问句)

_____ she _____ a blue sweater today?

Ⅲ. 根据汉语意思,完成句子,每空一词。

  1. 汤姆正在穿衣服。

Tom is ____ ____ his clothes.

  1. 我们明天就要到达北京了。

We ____ ____ ____ Beijing tomorrow.

  1. 一周以后我又拜访了她。

I visited her ____ ____ _____.

  1. 他的个子不高,但是有点重。

He isn’t ____, but a ____ bit ____.

  1. 请向我们描述一下那个人。

Please ____ the person ____us.

  1. 我认为数学有点难。

I think maths is _____ ______ difficult.

  1. 她留着美丽的黑色长发。

She has ____ _____ _____ hair.

  1. 首先,在电影院前面和他碰面。

First, ____him in front of the ____.

  1. 我们今晚打算去看电影。

We are ____ ____ ____ _____ _____.

  1. 那么稍后见。

_____ ______ _____ _____.

 

参考答案:

Ⅰ. 补全对话,每空一词。

1-5:B E A D C

Ⅱ. 句型转换,每空一词。

  1. of medium height
  2. Does your mother work in a bank or in a hospital?
  3. What, like  4. tall, with
  4. don’t think, is   6. What do
  5. doesn’t have  8. so
  6. of medium build 10. Does, wear

Ⅲ. 根据汉语意思,完成句子,每空一词。

  1. putting on  2. are arriving in
  2. a week later/ after a week
  3. tall, little, heavy    5. describe, to
  4. a little / a bit  7. beautiful long black
  5. meet, cinema    9. going to the movies tonight
  6. See you later then

 

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