人教版八年级上册英语第二单元语法

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2020年6月27日18:28:19 7937字阅读26分27秒

What do you usually do on weekends?你周末通常做什么?   I always exercise.总是锻炼身体。

What do they do on weekends?他们周末干什么?          They often help with housework.他们经常帮助干家务活。

What does she do on weekends? 她周末干什么?          She sometimes goes shopping.她有时购物。

How often do you go to the movies? 你多久看电影一次?

I go to the movies maybe once a month.可能一个月看一次。

How often does he watch TV? 他多久看电视一次?         He hardly ever watches TV.他几乎不看电视。

Do you go shopping? 你购物吗?                        No, I never go shopping.不,我从来就不购物。

 

三、习惯用法、搭配

 

  1. 0 help sb. with sth   帮助某人做某事
  2. 0 How about…? =What about…?  ….怎么样?
  3. 0 want sb. to do sth.  想让某人做某事
  4. 0 How many + 可数名词复数+ 一般疑问句…有多少
  5. 0 主语+ find+ that 从句      …发现…
  6. 0 It’s + adj.+ to do sth.   做某事是….的
  7. 0 spend time with sb.    和某人一起度过时光
  8. 0 ask sb. about sth.   向某人询问某事
  9. 0 by doing sth.    通过做某事
  10. What’s your favorite…..?   你最喜欢的……是什么?

11 start doing sth.    开始做某事

  1. the best way to do sth.  做某事的最好方式

 

 

四、词语辨析

Section A

  1. help with housework   帮助做家务 (教材第9页)

(1) help with sth. 意为“帮助做某事”拓展:help sb. with sth.= help sb. (to) do sth.  帮助某人做某事

Eg: I often help him with his English.= I often help him (to) learn English.  我经常帮他学习英语。

(2)housework 意为“家务劳动”。不可数名词。

  1. They have housework to do.A. many           B. much
  2. sometimes 有时(教材第9页)

辨析:sometimes ,some times ,sometime , some time

sometimes  有时候。=at times也是“有时”的意思。提问用how often

some times  几次。time作可数名词时可作“次数”解;表示“时间”时是不可数名词。How mang times

sometime  某个时候。可指过去或将来的某个时候。提问用when

some time  一段时间。常与for连用。对它提问用how long 。

口诀记忆:分开“一段时间” ;相聚“某个时候”

Eg:Sometimes I get up very late.  有时我起床很晚。

I will go to shanghai sometime next week.  下周某个时候我要去上海。

He reads the story some times.  他读这个故事几遍了。

I’ll stay here for some time.  我将会在这儿呆一段时间。

练习:

① We plan to stay in Hainan for                                  .   我们打算在海南呆一段时间。

② I am sure that we have met                                  before. 我肯定我们之前见过几次了。

③ I                                 have letters from him.  有时我会收到他的来信。

  1. hardly ever  几乎不 (教材第9页)

hardly ever相当于hardly

eg:There is hardly any food left. 几乎没有食物剩下。

辨析:hardly 与hard

hardly  几乎不,一般位于动词之前。   hard  努力,位于动词之后。

eg:He hardly works.  他几乎不工作。  He works hard.  他工作努力。

  1. use the Internet  用互联网(教材第10页)

use sth. to do sth.  用某物做某事eg:I use a knife to cut bread.  我用刀切面包。

短语:on the Internet  在网上   , surf the Internet  网上冲浪,上网

  1. What’s your favorite program? 你最喜欢的节目是什么?(教材第10页)

句型:What’s your favorite...?=What... do you like best?你最喜欢的......是什么?

1.What’s your favorite animal?你最喜欢的动物是什么?= __________________________________________

  1. Are you free next week? 你下周有空吗?(教材第10页)

free 意为“空闲的,有空的”,反义词busy。 be free 意为“闲着,有空”

eg::He is free now.他现在有空。

拓展:free还可译为“免费的”

Eg:The tickets are free. 票是免费的。

  1.  ... next week is quite full for me...     …下周对我来说相当忙… (教材第10页)

quite full  很忙,相当忙.

拓展:①full 还可译为“满的,充满的”。

Eg:The bus was full when they got there. 翻译________________________________________

②full 还可译为“饱的”。

Eg:I can’t eat any more,I am quite full. 我不能再吃了,我相当饱了。

  1.  How come? 怎么会? 怎么回事?表示某件事情很奇怪,有点想不通;可单独使用,也可引导一个问句, 相当于疑问句 why, 但 how come 开头的特殊疑问句使用的仍然是陈述语序。

How come Tom didn’t come to the party? = Why didn’t Tom come to the party?

  1. I have dance and piano lessons. 我要上舞蹈课和英语课。(教材第10页)

have 在此意为“上……课”。

Eg: They’re having an English lesson.  他们正在上英语课。

扩展:have lessons 上课  ,  Lesson One  第一课

  1. Well ,how about Tuesday? 哦,那周二呢?(教材第10页)

How about...?  (=What about...?) 意为“……怎么样?”,用来征求对方的意见。

Eg: How about this book?  这本书怎样?

How / What about doing sth. ...?   做……怎么样?

Eg:---What will we do on Sunday? 星期天我们什么?

---How about visiting the museum? 去参观博物馆咋样?

  1. It’s sunny today,What about ________(play)tennis?
  2. I go to the movies maybeonce a month.  我大概每月去看一次电影。(教材第11页)

go to the movies ________________

maybe 意为“也许,大概,可能”,常位于句首。

Eg:Maybe he knows Tom.   也许他认识Tom。

辨析:maybe 和may be

maybe  “也许,大概,可能”。(一般放句首) Maybe you are right.  也许你是对的。
may be “可能是,也许是”。 为“情态动词+be动词”结构。(位于句中) You may be right. 你也许是对的。

Lily                         an English teacher.   Lily可能是一名英语老师。

=________________________________________

  1. He plays at least twice a week.  他至少每周踢两次(球)。(教材第11页)

at least 意为“至少”。其反义词为at most “最多”。

Eg:There are at least 1,500 students in our school. _____________________________________。

Section B

  1. But my mother wants me to drink it. 但我妈妈想让我喝它。(教材第12页)

want sb. to do sth. 意为“想让某人做某事”,否定形式为want sb. not to do sth. 意为“不想让某人做某事”。

Eg:She wants me to bring him some pens.  她想让我给她带些钢笔。

拓展:1.want sth. 想要某物Do you want any story books?你想要些故事书吗?

2.want to do sth. 想要做某事I want to visit my uncle.  我想去看望我的叔叔。

Do you want                    (tell)me anything?

  1. She says it’s good for my health. 她说它对我的健康有好处。(教材第12页)

be good for 意为“对……有益”。反义词为be bad for “对……有害”。

Eg: Vegetables are good for you.  蔬菜对你有好处。

拓展:be good at   擅长...     be good at doing sth. 擅长做...

1.I am good at                    (play)basketball.

  1. Last month we asked our students about their free time activities. 上个月我们向学生询问了他们

业余活动的情况。(教材第12页)

ask sb. about sth.  “询问某人关于某事”

Eg:I asked my teacher about today’s homework. ____________________________________。

  1. Here are the results.  这是(调查)结果。(教材第13页)

here 位于句首,句子要倒装。当主语是名词性短语时,要用全倒装,即“here +谓语+主语”;

当主语是人称代词时,要用半倒装,即“here+ 主语+谓语”。

Eg:Here is your jacket.  这是你的夹克。Here he comes. 他来到这儿。Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。

5.…twenty percent students don’t exercise at all.  …百分之20的学生根本不锻炼。(教材第13页)

①. 百分数由percent来表示,构成:基数词+percent 。

Eg:Seventy percent of the boys like playing computer games. 男生中70%喜欢完电脑游戏。

② not... at all  意为“一点儿也不,根本不”。

Eg:I don’t  know about it at all.  对那件事我一点也不知道。

拓展:not at all = you are welcome 意为“不用谢,不客气”

Eg:--Thank you for your help.                 --Not at all.

  1. Althoughmany students like to watch sports,game shows are the most popular. 尽管许多学生喜

欢看运动类节目,但游戏类节目是最受欢迎的。(教材第13页)

although  连词。意为“虽然,尽管”。but 意为“但是”。英语中,although与but不能同时使用。

Eg:Although it rained,the boys still played outside.

= It rained,but the boys still played outside.   尽管天下雨了,但男孩们仍在外面玩耍。

  1. My cousin knows a lot about geography, he is only four years old.
  2. because                     B. so                        C. although
  3. It is good to relax by usingthe Internet or watching game shows.

通过上网或看游戏类节目是很好的放松方式。(教材第13页)

句中it 为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动词不定式短语。

此句型结构为:It’s+adj+(for sb.)+to do sth.  意为 “(对某人来说)做某事是……的”。

Eg:It’s very important to listen carefully in class.  上课认真听讲很重要。

It’s easy for us to swim.  对我们来说游泳很容易。

It’s very hard for him to study English. _____________________________________

---I often have hamburgers for unch.

---You’d better not. It’s bad for you                     too much junk food.

A.eat               B.to eat               C.eating            D. ate

8.Exercise such as playing sports is fun,and you can spend time with your friends and family as

you play together.  比如进行体育活动这方面的锻炼就是有趣的,当你们一起运动的时候你

可以和朋友、家人一起度过时光。(教材第13页)

such as  意为“比如,例如”。

Eg: I have a lot of hobbies, such as reading and singing. 我有许多爱好,比如读书和唱歌。

spend  意为“度过” 或“花费(时间、金钱)”。

Eg: Come and spend the weekend with us.  来和我们一起度过周末吧。

重点:① spend time\money on sth.   在......上花费时间或金钱

He didn’t spend much time on his homework.  他没在作业方面花很多时间。

I spend 200 yuan on a new coat.  ____________________________________

spend time\money (in) doing sth. 花费时间或金钱做某事

Don’t spend too much time watching TV.  不要花费太多时间看电视。

He always spend his time playing football.  ________________________________

Eg: I enjoy playing computer games,but I can’t              too much time              that.

A.take, doing      B.spend, doing   \C.spend, for doing     D.take, to do

  1. However,she has some bad habits,too.  然而她也有一些坏习惯。(教材第15页)

however 意为“然而,不过”。可以位于句首、句中、句末。但要用逗号与句子的其他部分隔开。

Eg: She was ill. However, she still went to work.  她病了,然而她依然去上班。

辨析:but和however

but 并列连词 “然而,但是”。 可直接连接前后两个句子,表转折关系。

However 副词 “然而,但是”。 不能直接连接句子,必须用逗号与句子隔开。

Eg:1.It began to rain,                 ,we went out to look for the boy. 天开始下雨了,但我们还是出去寻找那个男孩了。

  1. It a sunny morning,very cold.  这是个晴朗的早晨,但是却很冷。

10.She usually watches TV for more than two hours a day.  她通常每天看两个多小时的电视。(教材第15页)

more than 相当于over。意为“超过,多余”。

There are more than 2000 books.  ________________________________

  1. She says she is afraid.  她说她害怕。(教材第15页)

afraid 意为“担心的,害怕的”。

①.be afraid to do sth.  害怕做某事          Eg:I am afraid to travel by plane. 我害怕乘飞机旅行。

.be afraid of sb.\ sth.  害怕某人\某物

be afraid of doing sth.  害怕做某事       Eg:She is afraid of the dog.  她害怕那只狗。

Don’t be afraid of asking questions.  不要怕问问题。

be afraid to do sth.=                                                 害怕做某事

  1. Less than six.  少于6小时。(教材第16页)

Less than 意为“不到,少于”。其反义词为 more than \ over “多余,超过”

Eg:She sleeps less than seven hours every night.  他每晚的睡眠时间不到7小时。

We know Tom for                          20 years.  我们认识Tom超过20年了

  1.  how often多久一次,用来提问动作发生的频率。回答用:once,twice, three times 等词语。

How often do you play sports?   Three times a week.

how long  多长,用来询问多长时间,也可询问某物有多长。

How long does it take to get to Shanghai from here?  How long is the ruler?

how for 多远, 用来询问距离,指路程的远近。 How far is it from here to the park?  It’s about 2 kilometers.

14.stay up late  指“熬夜到很晚,迟睡”。 Don’t stay up late next time.

stay up 指“熬夜,不睡觉”。 He stayed up all night to write his story.

15.find + 宾语 +名词, 发现  : We have found him (to be) a good boy.

find + 宾语 + 形容词, 发现: He found the room dirty.

find + 宾语 + 现在分词, 发现 : I found her standing at the door.

find +it +形容词+to do sth. I found it difficult to work out this math proble.

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