初中英语语法现在分词用法总结

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2020年6月30日17:00:19 4191字阅读13分58秒

现在分词

一、基础知识:

现在分词(也叫动名词):表示主动和进行。

基本形式:doing       否定式:not doing

被动式:being done     完成式:having done

二、具体用法:

1.动名词作主语和宾语:

(1)把一个动词变成-ing形式可以当做名词来用,表示一种经常性、习惯性的动作,可在句中充当主语和宾语。

eg: Working with you is a pleasure.

I like reading in my free time.

(2)可以用it做形式主语或形式宾语放在前面,再用动名词做真正的主语或宾语放在后面,这种用法常用于以下句式:

① It is/was no use/good doing sth.  做某事是没用的/没有好处的。

eg: It’s no use begging for his mercy.

It’s no good smoking too much.

② It is/was a waster of time doing sth.  做某事是浪费时间的。

eg: It is a waste of time copying others’ homework.

③ It is/was worth doing sth.  做某事是值得的。

eg: It was worth making the effort.

④ There is/was no sense in doing sth.   做某事是没有道理的/意义的。

eg: There is no sense in arguing with your wife.

⑤ There is/was no point (in) doing sth.   做某事是没用的/无意义的。

eg: There is no point in getting angry.

⑥ There is no shame in doing sth.   做某事是不丢脸的。

eg: There is no shame in saying sorry to your friends.

⑦ There is no telling…    无法预言会…

eg: There is no telling what will happen.

※注意:动名词作主语时,其前可用名词所有格和形容词性物主代词修饰,即one’s doing sth.作主语。

eg: Toms being late again made his teacher angry.

My going to Beijing University is my parents’ biggest dream.

(3)动名词作宾语分为两种情况:动名词后的宾语和介词后的宾语

①有些动词后只能接动名词作宾语,常见的有:

avoid, advise, allow, admit, appreciate, consider, deny, enjoy, keep, finish, suggest, dislike, delay, risk, escape, imagine, mind, miss, permit, practice, fancy, can’t help, be busy, give up, can’t stand, feel like等。

eg: You must avoid being hurt when crossing the road.

②有些动词后即可接动名词也可接不定式作宾语,常见的有:

A: start, begin, intend, attempt, continue等后接doing和to do无区别。

B: like, love, prefer, hate等后接doing和to do略有区别,后接doing侧重经常习惯性的行为,后接to do侧重具体的某一次行为。

eg: I like swimming in summer but today I like to see a film at home

C: forget, remember, regret, stop, try, mean, go on, can’t help, be used to等后接doing和to do的区别较大:

remember/forget doing 记得/忘记做过某事   regret doing 后悔做过某事

remember/forget to do 记得/忘记要做某事     regret to do 遗憾要做某事

stop doing  停止做某事                    try doing  尝试做某事

stop to do  停下来做另一件事               try to do   努力做某事

mean doing  意味着做某事                 go on doing  继续做原来的事

mean to do  想要做某事                   go on to do  继续做另一件事

can’t help doing 禁不住做某事              be used to doing  习惯于做某事

can’t help to do 不能帮忙做某事             be used to do    被用来做某事

③介词to后接doing作宾语用于以下短语中:

stick to, lead to, devote to, see to(照顾,负责), look forward to, look up to(抬头看,尊敬,仰慕), pay attention to, get down to(着手做某事), object to(反对), make contributions to(为…做贡献), be equal to(等于,胜任)

④固定搭配:

need/want/require doing sth. = need/want/require to be done   意为“需要(被)做”

eg: Your hair needs cutting/to be cut.

2.动名词作定语:

用来修饰名词,分为前置定语和后置定语。

(1)单个动名词做前置定语,即放在所修饰名词的前面,既可以表示被修饰名词的作用或功能,也可以表示被修饰名词所发出的动作或所处的状态(主动)。

eg:  drinking water   饮用水(表示用途)

running water   流动的水(表示动作)

(2)动名词短语做后置定语,即放在所修饰名词的后面,在意思上相当于一个定语从句。

eg: The man standing there is Peter’s father.

= The man who is standing there is Peter’s father.

(3)动名词短语还可做后置定语的同时做插入语,该短语前后都用逗号和句子其他部分隔开,去掉该短语后句子结构仍完整。

eg: His brother, working as a teacher, lives in Beijing.

3.动名词做宾语补足语:

(1)基本句型结构:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(doing)

(2)动名词做宾语补足语表示一个正在进行的主动性动作或状态。

eg: We found a snake eating an egg.

I saw a bag lying on the ground on my way home.

(3)能后接动名词做宾语补足语的几类动词:

①感官动词:see, hear, find, notice, smell, feel, observe, look at, listen to等

②使役动词:make, have, keep, get, catch, leave等

(4)感官动词后接宾语补足语既可以是现在分词形式,也可以是动词原形,接现在分词表示动作正在进行,接动词原形表示该动作的全过程。

eg: I saw a boy playing in the street just now.

I heard some students sing a beautiful song together.

(5)如果宾语补足语是短暂性动作,则doing形式表示反复发生的动作,而动词原形表示某一次动作。     eg: I heard the clock beat/beating.

4.动名词做表语:

放在系动词后,用以说明主语的身份、性质或情况,注意与现在进行时的区别,进行时表示主语发出的动作正在进行。

eg: Her hobby is painting.  (表语)

The artist is painting in the park.  (进行时)

My job is teaching English.  (表语)

I am teaching Class 15 and Class 16 now.  (进行时)

5.现在分词作状语:

(1)现在分词作状语,用来修饰谓语动词或整个句子。

(2)表示动作发生的原因、时间、方式、结果、条件、让步、伴随状况等,即可做原因状语、时间状语、方式状语、结果状语、条件状语、让步状语、伴随状语等,相当于相应的状语从句。

(3)现在分词可直接做各种状语,也可放在when, while, before, after, if(如果), whether(无论), though, because, for, with(随着)等后做相应的状语。

eg: Hearing the news, they couldn’t help jumping.

After turning off the TV set, he began to go over his lessons.

Though raining heavily outside, he decided to attend the activity in the park.

Whether waking or sleeping, he always keeps the book beside his pillow.

(4)现在分词作状语的各种形式的用法:

①一般式(doing)表示与谓语动作同时发生。

eg: She sat by the window, enjoying the beautiful sights outside.

②完成式(having done)表示该动作发生在谓语动作之前,或表示该动作持续了一段时间。

eg: Having finished his homework, he went to bed.

Having staying at home a whole day, she went to the KTV at night.

③被动式的一般式(being done)表示与谓语动作同时发生的一个被动的动作;被动式的完成式(having been done)表示发生在谓语动作之前的一个被动的动作。

eg: Being asked to sing a song for the class, Mary’s face turned red at once.

Having been given such a good chance, he finally became a successful manager in the company.

 

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