初中定语从句总结用法大全

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2020年7月15日10:10:38 评论 77 次浏览 6965字阅读23分13秒

   

 

走进中考

定语从句的难点在于学生分析不清楚先行词,不能正确使用关系代词和关系副词,不能正确理解定语从句中的一些特殊用法。中考对于定语从句的掌握要求如下:

  1. 掌握关系代词的用法,特别是that, which, who, whom, whose作主语、表语和定语的用法。
  2. 掌握关系副词when, where, why引导定语从句的用法;
  3. 掌握“介词+关系代词”的用法,尤其是介词的选取和使用;
  4. 掌握关系代词that和which的用法的异同;
  5. 掌握表示地点或时间的名词充当先行词时,关系代词和关系副词的选择问题。

思维导图

 

 

  1. 定语从句的概念和位置

在句子中起定语作用的从句成为定语从句。定语从句在句子的作用相当于形容词,故又称为形容词从句。(在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句)。

e.g.: Do you know the girl who is singing on the stage?

This is the museum which was built last year.

  1. 先行词和关系代词

被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。

引导定语从句的词叫关系词,指代先行词,放在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又充当定语从句的某一个成分(主语、宾语、表语、状语等);

 

e.g.: The man who has an umbrella in his hand is my uncle.

      先行词  关系代词(在从句中做主语)

The train which has just left is for Shenzhen.

先行词    关系代词(做主语)

Let’s find a place where we can have a picnic.

            先行词  关系副词(地点状语)

 

 

 

 

 

定语从句的构成:

He has a car. + The car has 7 seats.

== He has a car and it has 7 seats.

== He has a car which has 7 seats.

 

 

The hotel is very clean. + We stayed here.

== The hotel where we stayed was very clean.

 

 

We met a man. + The man directed us to the factory.

=>We met a man and he directed us to the factory.

=>We met a man who directed us to the factory.

  1. 关系代词引导的定语从句

出题点:A 指代人的关系代词充当主语、宾语、表语的用法;

        B 指代物的关系代词充当主语、宾语、表语的用法。

关系代词在句子中起连接、替代的作用,在句子中充当一定的成分,修饰前面的先行词。引导定语从句的关系代词that,which,who,whom,whose,主要用法如下表格:

先行词 主语 宾语 所有格
Who/that Whom/that Whose
事物、动词 Which/that Which/that Whose
人+动物

人+事物

that that  

关系代词与普通代词的区别:

普通代词只起替代作用。

关系代词替代先行词,在定语从句中充当一定的成分,同时把先行词与定语从句联系在一起,起连词的作用。

  1. That引导的定语从句

That 可以指人也可以指物,在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语。作宾语时可以省略。作介词宾语时,介词不可提到that之前,若介词提到前面,指物用which指人用whom

e.g.: Views that are entirely new may also be hard to accept.

    We need a person that is right for the job.

    The picture (that) we are studying was drawn by a fifteen-year-old student.

  1. Which引导的定语从句

Which一般指物,在定语从句中作主语和宾语。作宾语的关系代词which可以省略(放介词后除外):

e.g.: The river which runs through the center of the city was polluted seriously.

The story (which) he told was very popular.

The house in which I used to live has become a shoe shop.

  • Who,whom引导的定语从句

二者都用于指人。Who在定语从句中作主语、宾语;whom在定语从句中作宾语。作宾语的关系代词who,whom可以省略(介词后作宾语的关系代词除外)

e.g.: ---We are proud of Mo Yan.

---Yes. He is a great writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012.

      e.g.: Her sister married a man (who/whom) she met on a plane.

      注意:先行词为one, ones, anyone 或those 时,定语从句中的关系代词用who

      e.g.: God helps those who help themselves. 自助者天助之。

      重点提醒: whom在定语从句中作介词的宾语,且介词提到whom前面时,不能用who代替:e.g.: The person to who you just talked is Deep.(错误)

                    应该为to whom

      或者可以这样表达:The person who/whom you just talked to is Deep. (正确)

      在现代英语中,定语从句中作宾语的关系代词whom可以用who代替,但who不用于介词之后。在非限定性定语从句中,whom不可用who代替。

  1. Whose引导的定语从句

Whose可以指人也可以指物,在定语从句中作定语。

e.g.: Do you know the girl whose Japanese is excellent?

I’d like a room whose window looks out over the sea.

      重点提升:有时“whose+名词”可用“限定词+名词+of which/whom”或者“of which/whom+限定词+名词”来替代。

      e.g.: He lives in a house whose windows face south.

      === He lives in a house whose windows face south.

      === He lives in a house the windows of which face south.

:whose+名词引导定语从句时,名词前不能再接限定词,只有转换为“限定词+名词+of which/whom”或“of which/whom+限定词+名词”时,名词前面可以有限定词。

 

  1. 关系副词引导的定语从句

出题点:关系副词when,where,why的用法

关系副词在定语从句中充当状语,一般不可省略。常用的关系副词有when,where,why等。选择哪一个关系副词要看其前面的先行词。

关系副词 先行词 在从句中充当的成分
Where 表示地点的名词 地点状语
When 表示时间的名词 时间状语
Why Reason 原因状语

 

e.g. I remember the day. + We first met then.

== I remember the day when we first met.

                   关系副词作时间状语,相当于on which

  • when引导定语从句

when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。它的先行词通常为time,day,week等表示时间的名词。此时时常可用on which,in which,during which等替代。

e.g.: April the first is the day when people make fun of others.

      I still remember the time when I first travelled by plane.

注意:当表示时间的先行词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时,关系代词不能用when。

  • where引导的定语从句

where指地点,在定语从句中作状语。它的先行词常为place,house,country等表示地点的名词。此时常可以用in which,at which等替代。

e.g.: Last year my parents went to the farm where they worked 30years ago.

                            先行词  关系副词作地点状语,相当于in which

    Keep the books in a place where you can find them easily.

先行词  关系副词作地点状语,相当于at which

  • why引导的定语从句

why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语,它的先行词通常为reason,此时常可以用for which来代替。

e.g.: I know the reason why she left you.

先行词   关系副词作原因状语

    Please tell me the reason why she is crying so badly.

注意:先行词是the reason,关系副词why在定语从句中充当原因状语。但是当先行词在定语从句中作主语或宾语时,关系代词不能用why,要用that或which引导。

 

  1. 定语从句中的注意事项

出题点:A. 只用that不用which的情况

B.只用which不用that的情况

C.定语从句中的主谓一致

D.“介词+关系代词”结构中介词的选择

(1) 只用that不用which的情况;

A. 先行词时不定代词或者被不定代词修饰时

先行词是anything,everything,nothing,few,all, none, little, some等,或者由every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much等不定代词修饰时,关系代词用that不用which。

e.g.:  Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li has said?

Any man that doesn’t have a sense of duty can’t do the thing well.

  1.  先行词时序数词或者形容词最高级或者被其修饰时

e.g.: The first thing that my brother is going to do this afternoon is to study physics.

I have found the best way that could finish the test.

  1.  先行词既有指人的名词又有指物的名词时

e.g.: He was watching the children and parcels that filled with the car.

Jack took photographs of the things and people that he was interested in.

  1.  当主句是以who或者which开头的特殊疑问句时

e.g.: Who is the person that is standing at the gate?

Which is the bike that you lost?

  1.  先行词前有theonly,thevery等修饰时

e.g.: This is the very dictionary that I want to buy.

After the fire, the old car was the only thing that he owned.

注意

当主语是以here,there开头且先行词是指物的名词时,用that而不用which引导。

e.g.: Here is the book that you are looking for.

口诀记忆:

只用that的情况:the only,the very,the same,no,any先行词即有人又有物,高级,不定和序数。

(2)只用which不用that的情况

  1. 关系代词前有介词且指物时

e.g.: I’m looking for a container in which I can put all these peaches.

A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition.

  1.  先行词本身就是that时

e.g.: I don’t like that which he did.

What is that which is on the ground?

  1.  引导非限定性定语从句时

非限定性定语从句的关系代词或关系副词与先行词之间常用逗号隔开。

e.g.: Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world.

Their house was washed away by the floods, which made them sad.

另:限定性定语从句即我们初中阶段所学的定语从句,定语从句和先行词之间的关系密切,不用逗号隔开,说明先行词的性质、身份、特征等,不能去掉。

非限定性定语从句主要起补充说明的作用,往往用逗号与先行词隔开,去掉后不影响主句的意义。

(3)定语从句中的主谓一致

这里指关系代词在定语从句中做主语时,定语从句中谓语动词的单复数形式要与先行词一致的问题。先行词时单数时,从句的谓语动词用单数;先行词是复数时,从句的谓语动词用复数。

e.g.: The man who is playing football is my PE teacher.

I love singers who write their own music.

要点提升:

“One of + 复数可数名词”充当先行词时,定语从句的谓语动词用复数形式;“the only/very/right one of + 复数可数名词”充当先行词时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。

e.g.: Tom is one of the students who were awarded.

Tom is the only one of the students who was awarded.

 

(4)“介词+关系代词”结构中介词的选择

  1. 根据定语从句中的谓语动词判断

一般定语从句的谓语动词如果是及物动词,后面没有宾语时就用关系代词;如果是不及物动词就用关系副词。

e.g.: This is the factory that/which I visited last year.

This is the factory where I used to work.

小贴士:定语从句中究竟用关系代词还是用关系副词,把握好一个原则:弄清楚它在从句中充当什么成分,充当状语,即用关系副词,反之则用关系代词。

B. 根据定语从句中所缺少的成分判断

分析定语从句缺失何种成分(主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语),如果缺少主语、宾语、表语、定语用关系代词;缺少状语用关系副词。

e.g.: Is this the museum (that/which) you visited a few days ago?

Visited 后面缺少宾语

Is this the museum where the exhibition was held?

Was held后面缺少地点状语

(5) “介词+关系代词”的用法

有时定语从句中的介词可以提到关系代词之前,形成“介词+关系代词”结构,该结构中个关系代词可用which,whose,whose,whom,不可以用that和who。该结构中的介词可以根据定语从句中谓语的搭配、与先行词的搭配或者句子意义来确定。

e.g.: This is the house of which I spoke.

Is this the car for which you paid a high price?

This is the camera with which he often takes photos.

This is the pilot by whom my son was saved.

注意:介词在定语从句句尾,可以省略作宾语的关系代词,而如果介词在定语从句前面时,不能省略作宾语的关系代词。

重点提醒:有些“动词+介词”,如look for,look after,call on等不可拆开,不可把介词置于关系代词之前。

e.g.: It is the book for which she was looking. ()

which she was looking for()

   the babies after whom the nurses are looking are very healthy. ()

whom the nurses are looking after()

小贴士:

“介词+关系代词”结构中,介词的选择可根据与先行词搭配的具体含义而定。

e.g.: I’ll never forget the time during which (= during the time) I spent my childhood in the country.

定语从句的分类

 

根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去。非限制性定语从句与主句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。

 

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