定 语 从 句
- 掌握关系代词的用法，特别是that， which， who， whom， whose作主语、表语和定语的用法。
- 掌握关系副词when， where， why引导定语从句的用法；
e.g.: Do you know the girl who is singing on the stage?
This is the museum which was built last year.
e.g.: The man who has an umbrella in his hand is my uncle.
The train which has just left is for Shenzhen.
Let’s find a place where we can have a picnic.
He has a car. + The car has 7 seats.
== He has a car and it has 7 seats.
== He has a car which has 7 seats.
The hotel is very clean. + We stayed here.
== The hotel where we stayed was very clean.
We met a man. + The man directed us to the factory.
=>We met a man and he directed us to the factory.
=>We met a man who directed us to the factory.
e.g.: Views that are entirely new may also be hard to accept.
We need a person that is right for the job.
The picture (that) we are studying was drawn by a fifteen-year-old student.
e.g.: The river which runs through the center of the city was polluted seriously.
The story (which) he told was very popular.
The house in which I used to live has become a shoe shop.
e.g.: ---We are proud of Mo Yan.
---Yes. He is a great writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012.
e.g.: Her sister married a man (who/whom) she met on a plane.
注意：先行词为one, ones, anyone 或those 时，定语从句中的关系代词用who
e.g.: God helps those who help themselves. 自助者天助之。
重点提醒: whom在定语从句中作介词的宾语，且介词提到whom前面时，不能用who代替：e.g.: The person to who you just talked is Deep.(错误)
或者可以这样表达：The person who/whom you just talked to is Deep. （正确）
e.g.: Do you know the girl whose Japanese is excellent?
I’d like a room whose window looks out over the sea.
重点提升：有时“whose+名词”可用“限定词+名词+of which/whom”或者“of which/whom+限定词+名词”来替代。
e.g.: He lives in a house whose windows face south.
=== He lives in a house whose windows face south.
=== He lives in a house the windows of which face south.
另：whose+名词引导定语从句时，名词前不能再接限定词，只有转换为“限定词+名词+of which/whom”或“of which/whom+限定词+名词”时，名词前面可以有限定词。
e.g. I remember the day. + We first met then.
== I remember the day when we first met.
when指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。它的先行词通常为time，day，week等表示时间的名词。此时时常可用on which，in which，during which等替代。
e.g.: April the first is the day when people make fun of others.
I still remember the time when I first travelled by plane.
where指地点，在定语从句中作状语。它的先行词常为place，house，country等表示地点的名词。此时常可以用in which，at which等替代。
e.g.: Last year my parents went to the farm where they worked 30years ago.
先行词 关系副词作地点状语，相当于in which
Keep the books in a place where you can find them easily.
先行词 关系副词作地点状语，相当于at which
e.g.: I know the reason why she left you.
Please tell me the reason why she is crying so badly.
先行词是anything，everything，nothing，few，all, none, little, some等，或者由every， any, all, some, no, little, few, much等不定代词修饰时，关系代词用that不用which。
e.g.: Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li has said?
Any man that doesn’t have a sense of duty can’t do the thing well.
e.g.: The first thing that my brother is going to do this afternoon is to study physics.
I have found the best way that could finish the test.
e.g.: He was watching the children and parcels that filled with the car.
Jack took photographs of the things and people that he was interested in.
e.g.: Who is the person that is standing at the gate?
Which is the bike that you lost?
e.g.: This is the very dictionary that I want to buy.
After the fire, the old car was the only thing that he owned.
e.g.： Here is the book that you are looking for.
只用that的情况：the only，the very，the same，no，any先行词即有人又有物，高级，不定和序数。
e.g.: I’m looking for a container in which I can put all these peaches.
A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition.
e.g.: I don’t like that which he did.
What is that which is on the ground?
e.g.: Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world.
Their house was washed away by the floods, which made them sad.
e.g.: The man who is playing football is my PE teacher.
I love singers who write their own music.
“One of + 复数可数名词”充当先行词时，定语从句的谓语动词用复数形式；“the only/very/right one of + 复数可数名词”充当先行词时，定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。
e.g.: Tom is one of the students who were awarded.
Tom is the only one of the students who was awarded.
e.g.: This is the factory that/which I visited last year.
This is the factory where I used to work.
e.g.: Is this the museum (that/which) you visited a few days ago?
Is this the museum where the exhibition was held?
e.g.: This is the house of which I spoke.
Is this the car for which you paid a high price?
This is the camera with which he often takes photos.
This is the pilot by whom my son was saved.
重点提醒：有些“动词+介词”，如look for，look after，call on等不可拆开，不可把介词置于关系代词之前。
e.g.: It is the book for which she was looking. (╳)
which she was looking for(√)
the babies after whom the nurses are looking are very healthy. (╳)
whom the nurses are looking after(√)
e.g.: I’ll never forget the time during which (= during the time) I spent my childhood in the country.