人教版英语八年级下册重点词组、句型及语法点汇总

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2020年4月1日14:49:43 评论 266 次浏览 25495字阅读84分59秒

Unit 1  Whats the matter? 怎么了?

一、重点词组

  1. have a fever/ cough /cold 发烧 /咳嗽 /受凉;感冒
  2. have a toothache/stomachache 牙疼/胃疼
  3. have a sore back/throat 背疼 /喉咙痛
  4. talk too much 说得太多
  5. drink enough water 喝足够的水
  6. take risks(take a risk) 冒险
  7. in a difficult situation 在困境中
  8. give up 放弃
  9. make a decision 做出决定
  10. lie down and rest 躺下来休息
  11. hot tea with honey 加蜂蜜的热茶
  12. see a dentist 看牙医
  13. get an X-ray 拍X 光片
  14. take one’s temperature 量体温
  15. put some medicine on sth. 在……上面敷药
  16. feel very hot 感到很热
  17. sound like 听起来像
  18. all weekend 整个周末
  19. in the same way 以同样的方式
  20. go to a doctor 看医生
  21. go along 沿着……走
  22. on the side of the road 在马路边
  23. shout for help 大声呼救
  24. without thinking twice 没有多想
  25. get off 下车
  26. have a heart problem 有心脏病
  27. to one’ s surprise 使……惊讶的;出乎……意料
  28. thanks to 多亏了;由于
  29. in time 及时
  30. save a life 挽救生命
  31. get into trouble 造成麻烦(或烦恼)
  32. right away 立刻;马上
  33. because of 由于
  34. get out of 离开;从……出来
  35. hurt oneself 受伤
  36. put a bandage on sth. 用绷带包扎
  37. fall down 摔倒
  38. feel sick 感到恶心
  39. have a nosebleed 流鼻血
  40. cut his knee 割伤他的膝盖
  41. put her head back 把她的头向后仰
  42. have problems breathing 呼吸困难
  43. mountain climbing 登山运动
  44. be used to doing sth. 习惯做某事
  45. run out (of) 用完;耗尽
  46. so that 以便
  47. so… that 如此……以至于……
  48. be in control of 掌管;管理
  49. keep on doing sth. 继续或坚持做某事

二、重点句型

  1. What’ s the matter?怎么了?

What’ s the matter with you?

= What’s the trouble with you?

= What’ s wrong with you? 你怎么了?

  1. What should she do?她该怎么办呢?

Should I take my temperature? 我该量一下体温吗?

主语+ should/shouldn’t + 动词原形

① You should lie down and rest. 你应该躺下休息一会儿。

② You shouldn’t go out at night. 你晚上不应该出去。

  1. Do you think it comes from a newspaper or abook?你认为它是来自报纸还是书呢?
  2. I think I sat in the same way for too long withoutmoving.我想我以同样的姿势一动不动地坐太久了。
  3. She said that the man had a heart problem and should go to the hospital. 她说男人有心脏病,应该去医院。

三、语法点

一、 询问某人的健康问运及遭到麻烦的表达方法

(1)询问某人患了何种疾病或遇到了何种麻烦时,常用以下几种结构来表达:

What’s the matter (with sb.)?(某人)怎么了?

What’s wrong (with sb.)?(某人)怎么了?

What’s the trouble (with sb.)?(某人)出什么事了?

What happened (to sb.)?(某人)发生了什么事?

Are you OK?你没事吧?

Is there anything wrong with sb.?某人有什么事吗?

(2)要表达身体疼痛或不舒服,可用以下结构:

①某人+have/has+病症.

The twins have colds.双胞胎感冒了。

Sb.+have/has+a+headache/toothache/stomachache/backache/earache.

She had a stomachache last night.她昨晚肚子痛。

③某人+have/has+a+sore+发病部位. He has a sore throat.他喉咙痛。

④某人+hurt(s)+身体部位或反身代词. He hurt his leg.他的腿受伤了。

⑤某部位+hurt(s).

My head hurts badly.我头痛得厉害。

⑥某人+have/has+a pain+in one’s+身体部位, I have a pain in my chest.我胸口痛。

⑦(There is)something wrong with one’s+身体部位.

There is something wrong with my right eye..我的右眼有毛病。

⑧其他表达方式

She has a heart trouble.她有心脏病。

He got hit on the head他头部受到了撞击。

She cut her finger.她割破手指了。

二 情态动词should的用法

1.Should为情态动词,意为“应该;应当”,否定式为shouldn’t,其后接动词原形,无人称和数的变化。常用来表示征询意见、建议、劝告、要求或义务等。 You should drink hot water with honey.你应该喝加有蜂蜜的开水。 He should put his head back他应该把头后仰。

We should try our best to help him.我们应当尽力去帮助他。 You shouldn‘t watch TV.你不应该看电视。

2.Should用于主语为第一人称的疑问句,表示征询意见。 Should I put some medicine on it?我应当给它敷上药吗? Should we tell her about it?我们应该告诉她这件事吗?

【拓展】在英语中,表示建议的说法有很多,而且都是中考考查的重点。主要结构有:

①Would you like (to do) sth.?你想要/愿意(做)某事吗?

Would you like to play basketball with me?你想要和我一起打篮球吗?

②Shall I/we do sth ?我/我们做„„好吗?

Shall we go to the zoo tomorrow?明天我们去动物园,好吗?

③Why not do sth ?为什么不„„呢?

Why not join us?为什么不加入到我们当中来呢?

④How/What about doing sth ?做某事怎么样? How about going swimming?去游泳怎么样?

⑤Let’s do sth让我们做„„吧。Let’s go home.咱们回家吧。

⑥You’d better (not) do sth你最好(不)要做某事。

You’d better not go there alone.你最好不要独自去那儿。

 

Unit 2  Ill help to clean up the city parks.

我将帮忙打扫城市公园。

一、重点词组

  1. Clean-Up Day 清洁日
  2. an old people’s home 养老院
  3. help out with sth. 帮助解决困难
  4. used to 曾经……;过去……
  5. care for 关心;照顾
  6. the look of joy 快乐的表情
  7. at the age of 在……岁时
  8. 8. clean up 打扫(或清除)干净
  9. cheer up (使)变得更高兴;振奋起来
  10. give out 分发;散发
  11. come up with 想出;提出
  12. make a plan 制订计划
  13. make some notices 做些公告牌
  14. try out 试用;试行
  15. work for 为……工作;为……效力
  16. put up 建造;举起;张贴
  17. hand out 分发;散发;发给
  18. call up 打电话;召集
  19. put off 推迟;延迟
  20. for example 比如;例如
  21. raise money 筹钱;募捐
  22. take after 与……相像;像
  23. give away 赠送;捐赠
  24. fix up 修理;修补;解决
  25. be similar to 与……相似
  26. set up 建立;设立
  27. disabled people 残疾人
  28. make a difference 影响;有作用
  29. be able to 能够
  30. after-school reading program课外阅读项目

二、重点句型

  1. The boy could give out food at the food bank.这个男孩可以在食品救济站分发食物。
  2. Clean-Up Day is only two weeks from now.清洁日离现在仅仅两周的时间。
  3. He volunteers at an animal hospital every Saturdaymorning.每星期六上午,他都在一'家动物医院当志愿者。
  4. Last year, she decided to try out for a volunteerafter-school reading program. 去年,她决定去参加一个课外阅读项目的志愿者的选拔。
  5. … you can see in their eyes that they’re going ona different journey with each new book.……从他们的眼睛里,你可以看到他们正在进行每本不同的新书之旅。
  6. I want to put off my plan to work in an animal hospital until next summer.我想把我在动物医院工作的计划推迟到明年夏天。
  7. Most people today are only worried about gettinggood jobs to make lots of money.现在的大部分人只是为找一份能挣许多钱的好工作而着急。
  8. You helped to make it possible for me to haveLucky.

在你的帮助下,我才有可能拥有“幸运儿”。

三、语法点

动词不定式

A. 作主语——为避免句子的头重脚轻,常用it作为形式主语,而真正的主语动词不定式后置。

常用句型:It +be+adj./n.+(for/of sb.) to do sth./It takes sb. some time to do sth.

B. 作宾语——动词want, decide, hope, ask, agree, choose, learn, plan, need, teach, prepare„常接动词不定式作宾语。

C. 作(后置)定语——常用于“have/has+sth.+to do”或“enough+名+to do”“It’s time to do sth.”等结构中。

D. 作宾语补足语——tell, ask, want, invite, teach, like, call等可接带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语,构成tell/ask/want /call/invite sb. to do sth.结构。

【注意】动词不定式作使役动词和感官动词的宾语补足语时应省去to:“一感(feel),二听(listen to, hear),三让(let, make, have,,四看(look at, see, watch, notice),半帮助(help)”。

E. 动词不定式作状语

主要用来修饰动词,表示目的,结果或原因。为了强调目的,有时可以把动词不定式放在句首,或在不定式前加in order (to) 或so as (to) “为了,目的是”。常用结构有too + adj./adv. + to do sth.等。

F. 固定句式中动词不定式的用法 常见的形式有:

had better (not) do sth./Would you like to do sth.?/Why not do sth.?/Would you please (not) do sth.?等。

 

Unit 3  Could you please clean your room?

你能清理一下你的房间吗?

一、重点词组

  1. go out for dinner 出去吃饭
  2. stay out late 在外面待到很晚
  3. go to the movies 去看电影
  4. get a ride 搭车
  5. work on 从事
  6. finish doing sth. 完成做某事
  7. clean and tidy 干净整洁
  8. do the dishes 洗餐具
  9. take out the rubbish 倒垃圾
  10. fold your/the clothes 叠衣服
  11. sweep the floor 扫地
  12. make your/the bed 整理床铺
  13. clean the living room 打扫客厅
  14. no problem 没问题
  15. welcome sb. 欢迎某人
  16. come home fro m school/ work放学/下班回家
  17. throw down 扔下
  18. sit down 坐下
  19. come over 过来
  20. take sb. for a walk 带某人去散步
  21. all the time 频繁;反复
  22. all day/evening 整日 /夜
  23. do housework 做家务
  24. shout back 大声回应
  25. walk away 走开
  26. 26.share the housework 分担家务
  27. a comfortable home 一个舒适的家
  28. in surprise 惊讶地
  29. get something to drink 拿点喝的东西
  30. watch one show 观看一个节目
  31. hang out 闲逛
  32. pass sb. sth. 把某物传给某人
  33. lend sb. sth. 把某物借给某人
  34. get sth. wet 使某物弄湿
  35. hate to do sth. 讨厌做某事
  36. do chores 做杂务
  37. help sb. (to ) d o /with sth. 帮助某人干某事
  38. bring a tent带顶帐篷来
  39. buy some snacks买些小吃
  40. go to the store去商店
  41. invite sb. to a party邀请某人参加聚会
  42. make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事
  43. enough stress足够的压力
  44. awaste of time浪费时间
  45. in order to为了
  46. get good grades取得好成绩
  47. mind doing sth. 介意做某事
  48. depend on依赖;依靠
  49. develop children’s independence发展孩子的独立性
  50. look after/take care of 照顾;照看
  51. do one’ s part in (doing) sth.做某人分内的事

二、重点句型

  1. Could you pleasedo sth. ?你能做某事吗?

Could you please clean your room? 你能清理一下你的房间吗?

  1. I have to do some work.我必须干些活。
  2. Could I+ do sth. ?我能做某事吗?

Could I use your computer?我能用一下你的电脑吗?

  1. She won’t be happy if she sees this mess.如果她看到这样乱七八糟的话,她会不高兴的。
  2. For one week, she did not do any housework andneither did I.整整一周,她什么家务活都不干了,我也一样。
  3. My mom came over as soon as I sat down in frontof the TV.我一在电视机前坐下,我妈妈就过来了。
  4. hate + (to do/ doing) sth.讨厌做某事

I hate to do chores. 我讨厌做家务。

三、语法点

Could you please...?句型

(1)请求别人时通常用此句型,也可以说:Can you...please?情态动词could或can在这里均表示请求,在意思上无区别,但是用could在于其上显得更委婉、客气、诚恳。在日常生活中常使用could you/I...?若在句末加上please,则显得更礼貌。

Could you help me find my book,please?你能帮我找到我的书吗?

(2)对could you/I...?的问句作出肯定回答,常用“sure/certainly/of course”等;如果作否定回答,常用“sorry或oh,please don’t”。 一般不用no开头,用no显得语气生硬、不礼貌。

(3)表示请求的句式:

Would you like to do...? Would you mind doing...? Let’s do.... Shall I/we do...?

Please do...(祈使句前加please)

提示:could you please...与could I Please...两种问句,前者是请求别人帮忙的句式,后者是有礼貌地向别人请求允许的交际用语。试比较:

Could you please help me?请你帮我一下好吗?

Could I please invite my friends to my birthday party,Mom? 妈妈, 我能邀请我的朋友参加我的生日聚会吗?

 

Unit 4  Why dont you talk to your parents?

你为什么不和父母聊聊呢?

一、重点词组

  1. have free time有空闲时间
  2. allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事
  3. hang out with sb. 与某人闲逛
  4. after-school classes课外活动课
  5. get into a fight with sb. 与某人吵架/打架
  6. until midnight直到半夜
  7. talk to sb. 与某人交谈
  8. too many太多
  9. study too much学得过多
  10. get enough sleep有足够的睡眠
  11. write sb. a letter给某人写信
  12. call sb. up打电话给某人
  13. surprise sb. 令某人惊讶
  14. look through浏览;翻看
  15. be angry with sb. 生某人的气
  16. a big deal重要的事
  17. work out成功地发展;解决
  18. get on with和睦相处;关系良好
  19. fight a lot经常吵架/打架
  20. hang over笼罩
  21. refuse to do sth. 拒绝做某事
  22. offer to do sth. 主动提出做某事
  23. cut out删除
  24. mind sb. doing sth. 介意某人做某事
  25. communicate with sb. 与某人交流
  26. in future今后
  27. make sb. Angry使某人生气
  28. worry about sth. 担心某事
  29. copy one’s homework抄袭某人的作业
  30. be oneself做自己
  31. family members家庭成员
  32. spend time alone独自消磨时光
  33. give sb. pressure给某人施压
  34. have a fight with sb. 与某人吵架
  35. compete with sb. 与某人竞争
  36. free time activities业余活动
  37. get better grades取得更好的成绩
  38. give one’ s opinion提出某人的观点
  39. learn exam skills学习应试技巧
  40. practice sports体育训练
  41. cause stress造成压力

二、重点句型

  1. I studied until mid night last night so I didn’t getenough sleep.我昨晚学习到半夜所以睡眠不足。
  2. Why don’t you forge t about it?你为何不忘掉它呢?
  3. Although she’s wrong , it’s not a big deal.虽然她错了,但这并不是什么大事儿。
  4. He should talk to his friend so that he can say he’ssorry.他应该跟朋友谈谈以便能说声对不起。
  5. May be you could go to his house.也许你可以去他家。
  6. I guess I could, but I don’t want to surprise him.我想我可以,但我不想让他感到惊讶。

三、语法点

1.提建议向别人发出邀请,请求,建议,或征求某人的意见的其他表达方式:How /what about doing sth.?(about是个介词,可跟名词或动名词)“„怎么样?”

You’d better (not) do something.“你最好(不)做某事”

Would you like sth „?:“你想要某物Let‟s do sth„?

What should I do „? ( should表示请求、征询对方意见)

2.学会谈论问题和学会用why don't you„提建议向别人发出邀请,请求,建议,或征求某人的意见的表达方式: Why don‟t you do something? =Why not do something? 你为什么不做某事呢? 来表示请求、征询对方意见 3.until, so that ,although引导的状语从句:

1)until:在带有till或until引导的时间状语从句里,如果主句用肯定式,其含义是“一直到„„时”,谓语动词只能用延续性动词。如果主句用否定式,其含义是“直到„„才„„”, “在„„以前不„„”, 谓语动词可用瞬间动词。Don‟t get off until the bus stops.

2)so that引导目的状语从句(为了,以便)例如:He studies hard so that he could work better in the future

3)although的用法意思相当于though(尽管,虽然),引导让步状语从句。引导的从句不能与并列连词but,and, so等连用,但可以和yet, still等词连用。 例如:Although he was tired, he went on working.尽管他很累,但是他继续工作。

 

Unit 5  What were you doing when the rainstorm came?

当暴风雨来临时,你在做什么?

一、重点词组

  1. make sure 确信;确认
  2. beat against…拍打… …
  3. fall asleep 进人梦乡;睡着
  4. die down 逐渐变弱;逐渐消失
  5. wake up 醒来
  6. in a mess 一团糟
  7. break… apart 使……分离
  8. in times of difficulty 在困难的时候
  9. at the time of 当……时候
  10. go off (闹钟)发出响声
  11. take a hot shower 洗热水澡
  12. miss the bus 错过公交车
  13. pick up 接电话
  14. bring…together 使……靠拢
  15. in the area 在这个地区
  16. miss the event 错过这个事件
  17. by the side of the road 在路边
  18. the Animal Helpline 动物保护热线
  19. walk by 走路经过
  20. make one’s way to… 在某人去……的路上
  21. hear the news 听到这个消息
  22. important events in history 历史上的重大事件
  23. for example 例如
  24. be killed 被杀害
  25. over fifty50多(岁)
  26. a school pupil 一个小学生
  27. on the radio 通过广播
  28. in silence 沉默;无声
  29. more recently 最近地;新近
  30. the World Trade Center 世贸中心
  31. take down 拆除;摧毁
  32. have meaning to 对……有意义
  33. remember doing sth. 记得做过某事
  34. at first 首先;最初

二、重点句型

  1. — What were you doing at eight last night?昨晚8 点你在干什么?

— I was taking a shower. 我在洗淋浴。

  1. When it began to rain, Ben was helping his mommake dinner.当开始下雨的时候,本正在帮他妈妈做晚饭。
  2. — What was Jenny doing while Linda was sleeping?琳达在睡觉的时候,珍妮正在干什么?

— While Linda was sleeping, Jenny was helping Mary with her homework. 琳达在睡觉的时候,珍妮正在帮玛丽做作业。

三、语法点

过去进行时

1. 基本概念:过去进行时表示在过去某一时刻或一段时间内正在进行的

动作。这一特定的过去时间除有上下文暗示以外, 一般用时间状语来表示。

2. 结构 was / were ( not ) + 动词-ing

3. 句式

肯定式:

I/He/She/It was working. We/You/They/ were working.

否定式:

I/He/She/It was not working.

We/You/They/ were not working.

疑问式和简略回答:

Was I working? Yes, you were. No, you were not. Were you working? Yes, I was. No, I was not. Was he/she/it working? Yes, he/she/it was. No, he/she/it was not. Were we/you/they working? Yes, you/we/they were. No, you/we/they were not. 注:

1) was not常缩略为wasn’t; were not常缩略为weren’t。

2) 一般过去时与过去进行时用法的比较: 一般过去时表示在过去某个时间发生过的动作或存在的状态, 而过去进行时则表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作。 例如:

David wrote a letter to his friend last night. 大卫昨晚给他的朋友写了封信。(信写完了。)

David was writing a letter to his friend last night. 大卫昨晚一直在给他的朋友写信。(信不一定写完。)

4.过去进行时中的when和while

when, while 区别:

1) 由when引导的时间状语从句,主句用过去进行时,从句应用一般过去时; 由while引导的时间状语从句,主句用一般过去时,从句应用过去进行时。

When the teacher came in, we were talking.

当此句改变主从句的位置时,则为: While we were talking, the teacher came in.

2)如果从句和主句的动作同时发生,两句都用过去进行时的时候,多用while引导。如:

They were singing while we were dancing.

 

Unit 6  An old man tried to move the mountains.

         一位老人设法移山。

一、重点词组

  1. work on doing sth. 致力于做某事
  2. as soon as…一……就……
  3. once upon a time 从前
  4. continue to do sth. 继续做某事
  5. make sth. happen 使某事发生
  6. try to do sth. 试图做某事
  7. the journey to sp. ……之旅
  8. tell the/a story 讲故事
  9. put on 穿上
  10. a little b it 有点儿
  11. keep doing sth. 坚持做某事
  12. be born 出生
  13. instead of 代替;反而
  14. turn … into 变成
  15. get married 结婚
  16. the main character 主要人物;主人公
  17. at other times 在另外一些时候
  18. be able to 能;会
  19. come out (书、电影等)出版
  20. become interested in … 对……感兴趣
  21. walk to the other side 走到另一边去
  22. a fairy tale 一个神话故事
  23. the rest of the story 故事的其余部分
  24. leave sb. to do sth. 让某人做某事
  25. make a plan to do sth. 筹划/计划做某事
  26. go to sleep 去睡觉
  27. lead sb. to sp. 把某人领到某地
  28. get lost 迷路
  29. change one’s plan 改变计划
  30. tell sb. to do sth. 叫某人做某事
  31. in the moonlight 在月光下
  32. find one’ s way home 找到某人回家的路
  33. the next day 第二天
  34. send sb. to sp. 派某人去某地

二、重点句型

  1. What do you think about/of…?你觉得……怎么样?

So what do you think about the story of Yu Gong? 你觉得愚公的故事怎么样?

  1. It doesn’t seem+ adj. to do sth.做某事似乎……

It doesn’t seem very possible to move -a mountain. 把一座山给移掉好像不太可能。

  1. This is because…这时因为……

This is because he can make 72 changes to his shape and size, turning himself into different animals and objects. 这是因为他会根据他的形状和大小,做出72种变化,可以将自己变成不同的动物或东西。

  1. …so…that +从句  如此……以致于……

Sometimes he can make the stick so small that he can keep it in his ear. 有时候,他能够让他的金箍棒变得很小,以至于可以放在耳朵里。

  1. It take sb. some time to do sth.做某事花某人多久时间

Because they were so big that it took a long time to walk to the other side. 这些(山)太高了,他们要花好长时间才能翻越过去。

  1. … not…util十从句 直到……才

Don’ t eat it until you get to the forest. 你们到达森林之后才能吃。

三、语法点

1. unless引导条件状语从句

unless = if „ not ―除非,若不

They will go tomorrow unless it rains.

= They will go tomorrow if it doesn’t rains.

2. as soon as引导时间状语从句。 ―„„就

He will come and see you as soon as he can.

3. so.......that引导结果状语从句

句型1:主语+谓语+so+形容词/副词+that从句

The wind was so strong that we could hardly move forward.

句型2: so +形容词 + a/an + 单数名词 + that从句

It was so hot a day that they all went swimming.

句型3. so + many/ few + 复数名词 + that从句

He has so few friends that he often feels lonely.

句型4: so +much/ little + 不可数名词 + that 从句

I had so little money that I couldn’t buy a pen.

 

Unit 7  Whats the highest mountain in the world?

世界最高的山峰是哪一座?

一、重点词组

  1. 1. as big as… 与……一样大
  2. 2. one of the oldest countries 最古老的国家之一
  3. 3. feel free to do sth. 随意地做某事
  4. 4. as far as I know 据我所知
  5. 5. man-made objects 人造物体
  6. 6. part of… ……的组成部分
  7. 7. the highest mountain 最高的山脉
  8. 8. in the world 在世界上
  9. 9. any other mountain 其他任何一座山
  10. 10. of all the salt lakes 在所有的咸水湖中
  11. run along 跨越……
  12. freezing weather 冰冻的天气
  13. take in air 呼吸空气
  14. take in 吸入;吞入(体内)
  15. in the face of difficulties 面对困难
  16. give up doing sth. 放弃做某事
  17. achieve one’ s dream 实现某人的梦想
  18. the forces of nature 自然界的力量
  19. reach the top 到达顶峰
  20. even though 虽然;尽管
  21. at birth 出生时
  22. be awake 醒着
  23. run over w ith excitement 兴奋地跑过去
  24. walk into sb. 撞到某人
  25. fall over 摔倒
  26. the first personto do sth. 第一个做某事的人
  27. every two years 每两年
  28. cut down the forests 砍伐林木
  29. endangered animals 濒危动物
  30. fewer and fewer pandas 大熊猫越来越少
  31. be in danger 处于危险之中
  32. the importance of saving these animals拯救这些动物的重要性

二、重点句型

  1. It is -\~adj. + (fo r sb. ) to do sth.做某事……

It is also very hard to take in air as you get near the top. 当你接近山顶时,连呼吸都会困难。

  1. … is because………是因为……

One of the main reasons is because people want to challenge themselves in the face of difficulties. 其中的一个主要的原因是人们想在面临困难时挑战自己。

  1. … show(s) that………显示出

The spirit of these climbers shows us that we should never give up trying to achieve our dreams. 这些登山者的精神向我们证明:我们永远都不应该放弃实现自己的梦想。

  1. How high/ deep/… is ... ?……多高/ 深?

How high is Qomolangma? 珠穆朗玛峰有多高?

  1. Although. …, …虽然……,但是……

Although Japan is older than Canada, it is much smaller. 虽然日本比加拿大历史更悠久,但它比加拿大小多了。

  1. sb. spend time/money doing sth.某人花时间/钱做…

Adult pandas spend more than 12 hours a day eating about 10 kilos of bamboo. 成年大熊猫一天要花12 个多小时的时间吃大约10公斤竹子。

三、语法点

形容词副词的原级、比较级和最高级

(一)原级句型:

1. A is as+原级+ as+ B 表示A 与B一样„eg: He is as tall as me.

2.A is not as/so +原级+ as B表示A不如B„eg:He is not as tall as me.

3.只能修饰原级的词,very,quite,so,too,so, enough, pretty等

例如,He is too tired to walk on.他太累了以至于不能再继续走了。

(二)比较级句型

可以修饰比较级的词,much,a lot,far,„的多a little,a bit,„一点儿 even甚至,still仍然

Eg. Lesson One is much easier than Lesson Two.第一课比第二课容易得多。

Tom looks even younger than before.汤姆甚至比以前更年轻。

1.当句中有than 时则用比较级。 eg: He is fatter than me.

2.当句子中的比较对象为两者时用比较级:“特殊疑问词+be+形容词比较级,A or B?”

eg: Which is bigger,the earth or the moon?哪一个大,地球还是月球?

3. “比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越„„”。

eg.The flowers are more and more beautiful.花儿越来越漂亮。

加more构成比较级的形容词则用more and more +形容词表示越来越„

eg: English is more and more important.

4. “the+比较级,the+比较级”表示“越„„,越„„”。

Eg. The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you’ll make.

5.“A+be+the+形容词比较级+of the two+„„”表示“A是两者中较„„的”。

Eg.Look at the two boys. My brother is the taller of the two.

6.A+be+形容词比较级+than+any other+单数名词(+介词短语)” 表示“A比同一范围的任何一个人/物都„„”,含义是“A最„„”。

Eg. The Yangtze River is longer than any other river in China.

=The Yangtze River is the longest river in China.

(三)最高级常用句型结构

1.“主语+be+the+形容词最高级+单数名词+in/of短语”表示“„„是„„中最„„的”。

eg:Tom is the tallest in his class./of all the students.

This apple is the biggest of the five.

2.“主语+be+one of the+形容词最高级+复数名词+in/of短语”表示“„„是„„中最„„之一”。

Eg:Beijing is one of the largest cities in China.

3.“特殊疑问词+be+the+最高级+A,B,or C?”用于三者以上

eg Which is the biggest? The moon,the sun or ths earth?

4.“the +序数词+最高级+单数名词+范围”。表示„是第几大(„)

eg: The Yellow River is the second longest river in China .

【注意】形容词最高级之前要加the,但当最高级之前有形容词性物主代词或名词所有格时则不用加the eg: He is the best student in my class. He is my best friend.

(四)形容词副词的规则与不规则变化

规则变化

1.一般在词尾直接加er或est,例如,tall-taller-tallest,long-longer-longest

2.以不发音的字母e结尾的单词在词尾直接加r或st,例如,nice-nicer-nicest

3.以辅音字母+y结尾的词,把y变为i,再加er或est,例如,

heavy-heavier-heaviest

4.重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母,再加er或est,

eg. big-bigger-biggest

5.部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加more构成比较级和most构成最高级,例如,

slowly-more slowly-most slowly;beautiful- more beautiful-most beautiful

不规则变化

 

Unit 8  Have you read Treasure Island yet?

你读过《金银岛》吗?

一、重点词组

  1. 1. on page 25 在第25页
  2. 2. the back of the book 书的背面
  3. 3. hurry up 赶快;急忙(做某事)
  4. 4. intwo weeks 在两周之内
  5. 5. go out to sea 出海
  6. 6. an island full of treasures 一个满是宝藏的岛屿
  7. 7. w rite about 写作关于……的内容
  8. 8. finish doing sth. 做完某事
  9. wait for another ship 等待另一艘船到来
  10. learn to do sth. 学会做某事
  11. grow fruits and vegetables 种水果和蔬菜
  12. a few weeks ago 几个星期前
  13. the m arks of another m an’ s feet另一个人的脚印
  14. not long after that 不久之后
  15. run towards sp. 跑向某地
  16. use… to do sth. 用……来做某事
  17. signs le ft behind by someone某人留下的标记
  18. read the newspaper 看报
  19. science fiction 科幻小说
  20. can’ t wait to do sth. 迫不及待地做某事
  21. a good way to wake up 醒来的一个好办法
  22. number of people 人数
  23. used to do sth. (过去)常常做某事
  24. study abroad 在国外学习
  25. make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事
  26. come to realize 开始意识到
  27. ever since then 自从那时起
  28. the southern states of America美国的南部地区
  29. belong to 属于
  30. be kind to each other 善待彼此
  31. trust one another 互相信任
  32. the beauty of nature 大自然的美
  33. have been to sp. 去过某地
  34. do some research on sth. 对……做研究
  35. hope to do sth. 希望做某事
  36. see sb. do sth. 看到某人做某事
  37. the firs t line in the song歌曲的第一行
  38. enjoy success in享受……的成功
  39. at the end of the day傍晚的时候

二、重点句型

  1. Have you done sth.yet?你做过某事吗?

—Have you read Little Women yet?你读过《小妇人》吗?

—Yes, I have. /No, I haven’t. 是的,我读过。/不,没有。

  1. Has… yet?

— Has T in a read Treasure Island yet? 蒂娜读过《金银岛》这本书吗?

— Yes, she has. She thinks it’s fantastic. 是的,她读过。她觉得它很棒。

  1. Would you like…?你要点……吗?

Would you like something to drink?你要来点喝的吗?

  1. I heard…我听说……

I heard you lost your key. 我听说你丢钥匙了。

  1. … came to realize how much…开始意识到多么……

She came to realize how much she actually missed all of them. 她开始意识到,事实上她是多么想念他们所有人。

三、语法点

一/重点短语

1. on page 25 在第2 5 页

2. the back of the book 书的背面 3. hurry up 赶快;匆忙 4. in two weeks 在两周之内

5. go out to sea 出海 23. used to do sth. (过去)常常做某事

6. an island fu ll of treasures 一个满是宝藏的岛屿 24. study abroad 在国外学习

7. w rite about 写作关于……的内容 25. make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事

8. finish doing sth. 做完某事 26. come to realize 开始意识到

9. wait for another ship 等待另一艘船到来 27. ever since then 自从那时起

10. learn to do sth. 学会做某事 28. the southern states of America美国的南部地区

11. grow fru its and vegetables 种水果和蔬菜 29. belong to 属于

12. a few weeks ago 几个星期前 30. be kind to each other 善待彼此

13. the marks of another man’ s feet另一个人的脚印 31. trust one another 互相信任

14. not long after that 不久之后 32. the beauty of nature 大自然的美

15. run towards sp. 跑向某地 33. have been to sp. 去过某地

16. use... to do sth. 用……来做某事 34. do some research on sth. 对……做研究

17. signs left behind by someone 某人留下的标记 35. hope to do sth. 希望做某事

18. read the newspaper 看报 36. see sb. do sth. 看到某人做某事

19. science fiction 科幻小说 37. the first line in the song歌曲的第一行

20. can’ t wait to do sth. 迫不及待地做某事 38. enjoy success in享受……的成功

21. a good way to wake up 醒来的一个好办法 39. at the end of the day傍晚的时候

22. number of people 人数

二/重点句型

1. Have you….. yet?

— Have you read Little Women yet? 你读过《小妇人》吗?

— Yes,I have. /N o , I haven’ t. 是的,我读过。/ 不,我没有。

2. Has... yet?

— Has T in a read Treasure Island yet? 蒂娜读过《金银岛》这本书吗?

— Yes, she has. She thinks i t ’ s fantastic. 是的,她读过。她觉得它很棒。

3. W ould you lik e ... ?

Would you like something to drink? 你要来点喝的吗?

4. I heard...

I heard you lost your key. 我听说你丢钥匙了。

5. . . . came to realize how m uch...

She came to realize how much she actually missed all of them. 她开始意识到,事实上她是多么想念他们所有的人。

 

Unit 9  Have you ever been to a museum?

你曾经去过博物馆吗?

一、重点词组

  1. at night在夜晚
  2. in a more natural environment在一个更自然的环境中
  3. all year round一年到头;终年
  4. be far from 离……远
  5. in the dark 在黑暗中
  6. in the past 在过去
  7. have been to sp.  去过某地
  8. science museum  科学博物馆
  9. history museum  历史博物馆
  10. amusement park  游乐园
  11. go somewhere different  去不同的地方
  12. go skating  去滑冰
  13. take the subway  坐地铁
  14. a great way to spend a Saturday afternoon一个过周六下午的好方法
  15. all the old movie cameras所有古老的电影摄影机
  16. learn about sth. 了解有关……的情况
  17. on the weekend  在周末
  18. camp in the mountains  在大山里露营
  19. put up a tent 搭帐篷
  20. in such a rapid way  以如此迅猛的方式
  21. different kinds of 各种各样的
  22. development of toilets  厕所的发展
  23. social groups  社会团体
  24. the tea art performances 茶艺表演
  25. make a perfect cup of tea with beautiful tea sets用漂亮的茶具沏一杯完美的茶
  26. a nice place to enjoy tea  一个品茶的好地方
  27. thousands of  数以千计的
  28. International Museum of Toilets国际厕所博物馆
  29. the Terracotta Army 兵马俑
  30. Southeast Asia东南亚
  31. Night Safari 夜间动物园
  32. three quarters 四分之三
  33. an English-speaking country一个讲英语的国家
  34. have problem doing sth. 做某事很困难
  35. during the daytime在白天
  36. a couple of times  好几次
  37. right now  现在;目前
  38. an amusement park with a special theme一个有特别的主题的游乐园
  39. walk around the park 在公园里到处走
  40. hear of 听说
  41. take a ride兜风
  42. another province另一个省
  43. the Bird’s Nest鸟巢
  44. encourage sb.  to do sth.鼓励某人做某事
  45. on the one hand…on the other hand一方面…另一方面

二、重点句型

  1. Have you ever been to…? 你曾经去过……吗?

Have you ever been to a science museum?  你曾经去过科学博物馆吗?

  1. Let’s …我们……

Let’s go somewhere different today. 我们今天去个不同的地方吧。

  1. It’s~\~adj. +that…

It’s unbelievable that technology has progressed in  such a rapid way! 科技以如此迅猛的方式发展真是令人难以置信啊!

  1. Whether…,  you’ll…不管……,你都能……

Whether  you  like  Indian  food, Western food or Japanese food, you’ll find it in Singapore! 不管你喜欢印度食品、西方食品还是日本食品,在新加坡你都能找到!

  1. One great thing …is that … 一个重大特征是……

One great thing about Singapore is that the temperature is almost the same all year round.  新加坡一个很大的特征是它的气温几乎一年到头都是一样的。

  1. It is best to do sth. 最好做某事

It is best to visit Singapore. 最好是去游览新加坡。

  1. Me neither. 我也没(去过)。
  2. How about you? 你呢?
  3. Oh, it’s fantastic.  Let’s go tomorrow. 噢,太棒了。我们明天去吧。
  4. It’s really interesting, isn’t it? 这真有趣,不是吗?
  5. So, what did you do on the weekend? 那么,你周末干了什么?
  6. That sounds fun. 那听起来很有趣。
  7. You should try it! 你应该去试试!
  8. 14.  What does Ken say about the American Computer Museum? 关于美国计算机博物馆,肯说了什么?
  9. Why is the Hangzhou National Tea Museum a place to enjoy tea?  为什么说杭州国家茶博物馆是一个品茶的地方?
  10. —What are you doing this weekend? 你这周打算干什么?

—Not much, Mark.  I don’t really have any yet. 没什么事儿,马克。我确实还没有任何计划

  1. —Oh,  how about it? 哦,它怎么样?

—It was great. 很不错。

  1. I see.  I have never been there. 我明白了。我从没去过那里。
  2. Perfect! 太棒了!

三、语法点

现在完成时 (Present Perfect Tense)

(1)表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。

—It’s so dark. 太黑了。

—Someone has turned off the light. 有人把灯关上了。

(2)表示从过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

常与since+过去的时间点,for+一段时间,since+时间段+ego, so far等时间状语连用。

Eg. I have lived here for ten years.我已经住在这里10年了。(从10年前开始,持续到现在还住这儿)

Eg. I have lived here since 2003. 自从2003年我就住在这儿。(从2003年开始,持续到现在还住这儿)

(3) 基本结构及句型转换:主语+have/has+过去分词(done) (当主语是第三人称单数has,其余人称用have。) ①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他 I have finished my homework. (肯定句)

②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他 I have not finished my homework. (否定句)

③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他

—Have you finished your homework?

—Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t, (一般疑问句及肯定、否定回答)

(4)has gone (to), has been (to), has been (in) 的区别

Have/Has gone(to) :去了(现在不在说话现场)

Eg. ---Where is your father? ---He has gone to Shanghai.

Have/Has been (to) :去过(已不在去过的地方) Eg. My father has been to Shanghai.

Have/has been in:呆了多久(还在所呆的地方)

Eg. My father has been in Shanghai for two months. =My father has been in Shanghai since two months ago.

(5)现在完成时的标志:

①常与just, already, yet, ever, never, before, so far 等连用,强调动作的完成,不强调动作的持续。

Have you ever been to Japan? I have just finished my homework.

②for + 时间段;since + 过去的时间点;since + 段时间 ago;since + 一般过去时的句子。

They have known each other for five years. Since he was a child, he has lived in England.

(6)动词过去式和过去分词的变化

规则变化: 1. 一般在动词词尾直接加ed。如:

pick → picked → picked; wish → wished → wished; stay → stayed → stayed

2. 以不发音的e结尾的动词后面加d。如:like → liked → liked; hope → hoped → hoped; phone → phoned → phoned

3. 以―辅音字母 + y‖结尾的动词,变y为i,再加-ed。如:

study → studied → studied; hurry → hurried → hurried; reply → replied → replied

4. 词尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节动词,要双写辅音字母,再加-ed。如:

stop → stopped → stopped; clap → clapped → clapped

不规则变化:

5. 以不变应万变。如:let → let → let; put → put → put; read → read → read

6. 若中间有双写e,则去掉一个e,单词末尾再加t。如:

feel → felt → felt; keep → kept → kept; sleep → slept → slept

7. 结尾的字母d变t。如:lend → lent → lent; build → built → built; send → sent → sent

8. 变为以-ought或-aught结尾。如:buy → bought → bought;

bring → brought → brought; catch → caught → caught; teach → taught → taught

 

Unit 10  I've had this bike for three years.

我拥有这辆自行车三年了。

一、重点词组

  1. these days 目前;现在
  2. regard with great interest 以极大的兴趣关注着
  3. in my time 在我那个年代
  4. so far 迄今;到现在为止
  5. in need 需要
  6. not …anymore 不再……
  7. welcome to sp. 欢迎来到……
  8. check out 察看;观察
  9. board games 棋类游戏
  10. one last thing 最后一样东西
  11. junior high school 初级中学
  12. clear out 清理
  13. no longer 不再;不复
  14. toy monkey 玩具猴
  15. part with 与……分开
  16. to be honest 说实在的
  17. ride a bike 骑自行车
  18. have a yard sale 进行庭院拍卖会
  19. one’s old things 某人的旧东西
  20. bring back sweet memories 勾起甜美的回忆
  21. regard …as 将……认为
  22. play for a while 玩一会儿
  23. do with... 处置;处理
  24. search for work 找工作
  25. for the last 13 years 在过去的13年里
  26. the mid-20tH century 20世纪中期
  27. stay the same 保持原状
  28. according to 依据;按照
  29. in one’s opinion 依……看

二、重点句型

  1. How long have you…? 你……多久了?

How long have you had that bike over there?  那边的那辆自行车你买了多久了?

  1. sb.  has/have done sth.  for…某人拥有某物……

Amy has had her favorite book for three years. 艾米拥有她最喜欢的书3 年了。

  1. sb. has/have done sth.  since…自…起,某人有某物

He’s owned it since his fourth birthday. 自他4 岁生日起,他就拥有这个东西了。

  1. Some…Others… 一些……另外一些……

Some  people  still  live  in  their  hometown.  However, others may only see it once or twice a year. 有些人仍住在家乡。然而,另一些人可能一年只能回家乡一两次。

  1. Welcome to Sunshine Home for Children. 欢迎来到儿童阳光之家。
  2. Great!  Many children here love reading. 太棒了!这里的很多孩子喜欢看书。
  3. Perfect! We always need toys and clothes. 太好了!我们一直需要玩具和服装。
  4. Thanks so much! 非常感谢!
  5. As for me, Idid not want to give up my football shirts, but, to be honest, I have not played for a while now. 至于我,我不想放弃我的足球衣。但是,说实在的,我现在巳经有一段时间没踢(足球)了。
  6. Have you ever thought about having a yard sale to sell your things? 你是否曾经想过要举办一个庭院拍卖会来出售东西?
  7. What would you do with the money you raise?  你会怎么处理你所筹集到的钱?

三、语法点

短暂性动词(buy, die, join, finish等)不能直接与for, since 连用, 需要改变动词。

9)leave-- be away(from) 1)begin(start)--be on

2) open--be open 10)catch a cold--have a cold

3)become--be 11)join the army--in the army/be a soldier

4)die--be dead 12)borrow---keep

5) fall asleep-- be asleep 13)join the party-- be in the party/ be a party member

6)close -- be closed 14) buy---have

7)end/ finish---be over 15)come/go/ arrive/reach/get /move to ---be in /at

8) put on--wear

总结:1.现在完成时表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响和结果;

2.还可以表示过去发生的动作,一直持续到现在,也有可能持续下去.

3..一般情况下,for+时间段; since+过去的时间点;since + 段时间 ago;since + 一般过去时的句子

4.句型:现在完成时态(have/has+延续性动词的过去分词)+ for/ since...

 

2014人教版八年级英语不规则动词表
Verb

动词原形

Past tense

过去式

Past participle

过去分词

be(am , is ,are ) Was ,were been
bear bore born
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt / burned burnt / burned
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
dig dug dug
do  /  does did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt/ dreamed Dreamt / dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
get got got / gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang  悬挂   hung hung
have / has had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
learn learnt / learned learnt / learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light learnt / learned learnt / learned
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mistake mistook mistaken
pay paid paid
put put put
read /ri;d/ read  /red/ read  / red/
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
show showed shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
smell smelt / smelled smelt / smelled
speak spoke spoken
speed sped / speeded sped / speeded
spell spelt / spelled spelt / spelled
spend spent spent
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written

 

 

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