人教版八年级上册第一单元(重点短语 句子 语法 练习)

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2020年7月22日12:48:19 12042字阅读40分8秒

人教版八年级上册第一单元(重点短语 句子 语法 练习)

一.词组、短语

1.去夏令营 go to summer camp

2.买一些特别的东西buy something special

3.为考试准备 study for tests

4.跟某人外出 go out with

5.去纽约市go to New York City

6.好久不见long time no see

7.度假 be on vacation

8.去某个有趣的地方 go somewhere interesting

9.大多数时间 most of the time

10.给母鸡喂食 feed chickens

11.除……外一无所有 nothing...but

12.当然,自然 of course

13.似乎有点无聊 seem a little boring

14记日记keep a diary/ keep diaries

  1. 令人愉快地活动 an enjoyable activities
  2. 到达arrive in/ at
  3. 决定去海滩decide to go to the beach
  4. 尝试滑翔伞运动try paragliding

19.感觉像一只小鸟 feel like a bird

20.想要骑车 want to ride bikes/ feel like riding bikes

21.中国商人的房子the house of the Chinese traders

22.在过去 in the past

  1. 23. 许多古老的建筑many old buildings

24步行到山顶walk up to the top

  1. 开始下小雨start raining a little

26.等了一个多小时的火车 wait over an hour for the train

27.下大雨 rain hard/ rain heavily

28.忘记带一把雨伞forget to bring an umbrella

29.又湿又冷wet and cold

30.因为恶劣的天气because of bad weather

31.带着足够的钱 bring enough money

32.足够大big enough

33.好像有点饿 seem a little hungry

34.与……一样好as good as

35 不如……好 not so good as

36.照了相当多的相片take quite a lot of photos/ take quite a few photos

37.停下来喝水stop to drink water

38.继续前进keep going/ moving

39.激动地跳跃jump in excitement

40.二十分钟后twenty minutes later

41.如此……以至于so...that

42.升起come up

43.发现……find out

44.尝起来很好吃taste good/ delicious

45.尽力去做某事try to do sth.

46.停止做某事stop doing sth.

47.不喜欢做某事 dislike doing/ to do sth.

48.继续做某事keep doing sth.

49.一碗米饭 a bowl of rice

50为某人买某物buy sth. for sb.

 

  • 重要句子

1.Where did you go on vacation?你到哪里去度假了?

2.I went to New York City.我去了纽约城

3.Did you go out with anyone?  你出去带人吗?

4.No, No one was here. Everyone was on vacation.不,没有人在这儿。大家度去度假了。

5.Did you buy anything special?你买了什么特别的东西吗?

6.Yes, I bought something for my father.对,我给父亲买了一些东西。

7.How was the food? 食物怎么样?

8.Everything tasted really good.每一样东西真的都好吃。

9.Did everyone have a good time?大家玩的开心吗?

10.Oh, yes. Everything was excellent.对,一切都很精彩。

 

  • 习惯用语和搭配
  1. buy sth. for ab./ buy sb. sth.  为某人买某物
  2. taste + adj. 尝起来……
  3. nothing ….but + V.(原形) 除了……之外什么都没有
  4. seem + (to be) + adj  看起来
  5. arrive in + 大地方 / arrive at + 小地方 到达某地
  6. decide to do sth. 决定做某事
  7. try doing sth. 尝试做某事 / try to do sth. 尽力做某事
  8. enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事
  9. want to do sth. 想去做某事
  10. start doing sth. 开始做某事
  11. stop doing sth. 停止做某事
  12. look + adj 看起来
  13. dislike doing sth. 不喜欢做某事
  14. Why not do sth. 为什么不做…….呢?
  15. so + adj + that + 从句   如此……以至于……
  16. tell sb. (not) to do sth. 告诉某人(不要) 做某事
  17. keep doing sth.   继续做某事
  18. forget to do sth.  忘记去做某事 / forget doing sth  忘记做过某事

 

  • 语法讲解

1.Where did you go on vacation?  你去哪里度假了?

1)这是有疑问副词where引导的特殊疑问句,where用来询问地点和场所,放在句首。

a._____ do you _____ ______?你从哪里来?    b._____does he______?他住在哪里?

2)go on vacation意为“去度假”。

I want ____ ____ ____ ____in Hainan this winter.今年冬天我想去海南度假。

2.visited my uncle  看望了我的叔叔。

visit是及物动词,意为“拜访;探望”,后接表示人的名词或代词。

visit还可以意为“参观;游览”,后接表示地点的名词。

a.I visited my grandmother last week.  上周我去______了我的外婆。

b.Do you want to visit Shanghai?     你想______上海吗?

拓展:visitor意为“参观者;游客”。

eg: These visitors come from America._______________________

3.buy anything special  买特别的东西。

1)buy及物动词,意为“买;购买”。其过去式为______。

拓展:buy sth. for sb.=buy sb. sth. 意为“给某人买某物”。

My uncle_____ _____a bike.= My uncle_____ _____ _____for me.

2)anything不定代词,意为“某事;某件东西”,主要用于疑问句或否定句中。

a.Do you want anything from me?          b.I can’t say anything about it.

3) anthing special表示“特别的东西”,形容词修饰不定代词时后置。

Is there________ ________in this book?这本书里有新的内容吗?

4.Oh, did you go anywhere interesting?哦,你去有趣的地方了吗?

1)本句是did开头的一般疑问句

2)anywhere用作副词,意为“在任何地方”。

eg:Did you go anywhere during the summer vacation?

辨析:anywhere与somewhere

anywhere意为“在任何地方”,常用于否定句和疑问句中。 eg:I can’t find it anywhere.

somewhere意为“在某处;到某处”,常用于肯定句中。 eg:I lost my key somewhere near here.

5.We took quite a few photos there.我们在那里拍了不少照片。(P2)

take photos 意为“照相;拍照”。 eg:We______ ______on the Great Wall.我们在长城上照了相。

辨析:quite a few与quite a little

quite a few 意为“很多;不少”,修饰可数名词复数;

quite a little 意为“很多;不少”,修饰不可数名词。

  1. He stays here for _____ _____ _____days.

b.There is _____ _____ _____water in the bottle(瓶子).

  1. I just stayed at home most of the time to read and relax. 我大部分时间只是待在家里读书休息。

most of the time意为“大部分时间”,其中most为代词,意为“大部分;大多数”。

拓展most of…意为“……中的大多数”,它作主语时,谓语动词取决于most of后所修饰的名词。

  1. Most of us_____(be)going to the park. 我们大多数人要去公园。
  2. Most of the food_____(go)bad. 大部分的食物都变质了。

7.Everything tasted really good!所有的东西尝起来真的很好吃!

taste在此为系动词,意为“尝起来”,其后接形容词构成系表结构。

a.The food tastes really great.食物尝起来棒极了。

  1. Did everyone have a good time?大家都玩得很开心吗?

have a good time = enjoy oneself = have fun 玩得开心 (+ doing

eg: We had a good time visiting the the Great Wall.

= We enjoyed ourselves visiting the the Great Wall.= We had fun visiting the the Great Wall.

9.How did you like it?  你觉得它怎么样?

How do/did you like……? 意为“你觉得……怎么样?”,用来询问对方的观点或看法,相当于

What do you think of……?

eg: How do you like your new job?  = _____ _____ _____ _____  _____your new job?

10.Did you go shopping?  你们去购物了吗?

go shopping意为“去购物;去买东西”,同义短语为do some shopping.

eg: I usually go shopping on Sundays.我通常星期天去购物。

拓展:“go+doing”形式表示“去做某事”,常用于表达从事某一体育活动或休闲活动。

go skating 去滑冰     go hiking 去               go sightseeing 去观光

go fishing 去钓鱼    go swimming 去游泳        go boating 去划船

11.I went to a friend’s farm in the countryside with my family.我和家人一起去了乡下一个朋友的农场。

a friend’s farm是名词所有格形式。

一般情况下,表示“有生命的人或物”的名词后面加’s,表示所属关系。

eg:The red bike is Alice’s. 那辆红色的自行车是爱丽斯的。

拓展:名词所有格的构成:

1)单数名词词尾加’s ,复数名词词尾没有s,也要加’s

the girl ‘s pen女孩的钢笔         women’s shoes女鞋         on Children’s Day

2)复数名词以s结尾的只加 ’

the students’ reading room学生阅览室               Teachers’ Day教师节

3)如果两个名词并列,并且分别有’s,则表示“分别有”;只后一个名词有一个’s,则表示“共有”:

John’s and Kate’s rooms.  约翰和凯特(各自)的房间。

Lily and Lucy’s father.   莉莉和露西的爸爸(同一个爸爸)

4)表示无生命的名词一般以...of...构成短语,表示所有关系。

a map of China一幅中国地图              the name of the story那个故事的名字

  1. Still no one seemed to be bored. (即使这样)仍然没有人看起来无聊。

1)seem意为“好像;似乎;看来”。

eg:Everything seems easy.一切似乎很容易。

拓展a. seem+adj. “看起来……”。     You seem happy today.你今天看起来很高兴。

  1. seem+to do sth.“似乎,好像做某事”。      I seem to have a cold.我似乎感冒了。
  2. It seems/seemed+从句 “看起来好像…;似乎…”。It seems that no one believes you.看起来好像没有人相信你。

2)辨析:bored与boring

  1. bored意为“厌烦的;感到无聊的”,一般在句中修饰人。
  2. boring意为“无聊的;令人厌烦的”,一般在句中修饰事或物。

eg:a. I’m ______with what he said.我对他说的话厌烦极了。

  1. I find the story very_______.我发现这个故事太无聊了。

(二)Section B

  1.  What activities do you find enjoyable? 你发现什么活动让人快乐?

1)activities是activity的复数形式,意为“活动”。

Students like outdoor activities. ____________________________

  • enjoyable形容词,意为“愉快的;快乐的”。

I’m sure we will have an enjoyable vacation.  我确信我们将会有一个愉快的假期。

  1. I arrived in Penang in Malaysia this morning with my family.

今天早上我和家人到达了马来西亚的槟城。

arrive不及物动词,意为“到达”。arrive in表示到达较大的地方,如国家、省、市等;arrive at表示到达

较小的地方,如机场、商店、广场、村庄等。(注:地点副词home,here,there前介词省略)

辨析:①arrive in+大地点 / arrive at+小地点    ②get to +地点     ③reach+地点

eg:I                     (到达) school at 8:00 o’clock yesterday.

  1. …so we decided to go to the beach near our hotel… 因此我们决定到旅馆附近的海滩上去。

decide to do sth.意为“决定做某事”。 eg: They _____ ______ ______the museum.他们决定去参观博物馆。

拓展:decide后常跟“疑问词+动词不定式”做宾语。He can’t decide when ______ _____(leave) 他不能决定何时动身。

  1. My sister and I tried paragliding.姐姐和我尝试了滑翔伞运动。

try此处用作及物动词,其后常接名词、动名词或不定式,意为“尝试;试图,设法;努力”

She is trying my bicycle.她正在试骑我的自行车。

拓展:try也可用作名词,意为“尝试”,常用短语“have a try”,意为“试一试”。

I want to have a try.我想试一试。

辨析:try doing sth. / try to do sth.

1)try doing sth. 尝试做某事,表示一种尝试、做做看的想法,不一定付出很多努力。

2)try to do sth.尽力、设法去做某事,表示想尽一切办法要把事情办成,强调付出努力设法去完成。

  1. I ______  ______ him, but no one answered. 我试着给他打电话了,但没有人接听。
  2. I’m  ______  ______  ______ English well. 我正尽力把英语学好。
  3.  I felt like I was a bird. It was so exciting! 我感觉自己就像一只小鸟。太刺激了!

1)feel like意为“给……的感觉;感受到”。其后常接从句。

eg: He feels like he is swimming. 他感觉像在游泳一样。

拓展:feel like还可意为“想要……”,其后可接名词、代词或动名词。即:

feel like sth. 想要某物        feel like doing sth. 想要做某事

eg:Do you feel like a cup of tea now? 你现在想要一杯茶吗?

Do you feel like ______ (take) a walk in the park with me? 你想跟我在公园散步吗?

2)辨析:exciting与excited

exciting  意为“令人兴奋的,使人激动的”, 一般修饰某物。

excited  意为“感到兴奋的,激动的”,  一般修饰某人。

Eg:a.The story is_________(exciting, excited) .

b.He told me the_______(exciting, excited)news.

c.Sarah was_______(exciting, excited)to see the singer.

  1. There are a lot of new buildings now…现在有许多新的建筑物……

building  可数名词,意为“建筑物;楼房”。

build 动词,“建造,建筑” (built,built),

The workers built many tall buildings in our school last year.

  1. I wonder what life was like here in the past. 我想知道在这儿过去的生活是什么样的。

wonder此处是及物动词,意为“想知道;琢磨”。其后常接who, what, why等疑问词引导的宾语从句。

Eg:1.I wonder _______________. 我想知道那个男孩是谁。A. the boy is who   B. who the boy is

  1. I wonder what they were doing here.我想知道他去哪里了。

8.I really enjoyed walking around the town. 我真的很喜欢在镇上到处走走。

1)enjoy及物动词,意为“喜爱;欣赏;享受……的乐趣”,其后接名词,代词或动名词作宾语。

  1. Do you enjoy your job? 你喜欢你的工作吗?
  2. I enjoy reading books. 我喜欢读书。(enjoy doing sth.喜欢做某事)

拓展: enjoy oneself =have a good time = have fun 玩得开心 (+ doing sth.)

2)walk around 意为“四处走走”。He’s just walking around the village.他只是在村庄里随便走走。

  1. What a difference a day makes!一天的变化有多大呀!

difference可数名词,意为“差别,差异” ;其形容词形式为different,意为“不同的;有差异的”。

Eg: a. What is the difference between this book and that book?

  1. My schoolbag is different from yours.    ( be different from  意为“与……不同”)
  2. We wanted to walk up to the top , but then it started raining a little so we decided to take the train.

1)want to do sth. 意为“想要做某事”。

2)start doing sth. 意为“开始做某事”,同义短语:start to do sth.

Eg: Tom started learning English last year.

3)a little 意为“一点儿”,在句中修饰动词、形容词或副词。也可以修饰不可数名词。

Eg: a. I can draw a little, but only as a hobby. ______________________________

  1. It’s a little cold outside.  ______________________________
  2. He can speak a little English. ______________________________

4) take the train意为“乘火车”,take在此意为“乘坐”。

11.We waited over an hour for the train because there were too many people.

因为人太多,所以我们等了一个多小时的火车。

1)wait for意为“等候”,其后可接人或物。

Tom was waiting for a bus over there.

2)over介词,意为“多于;超过” ,相当于more than。

Eg : My father is over 40 years old.

There are over eight hundred students in our school.

3)  too many意为“太多”,其后接可数名词复数。 He always has too many questions to ask me.

辨析:too many + 可数名词复数         意为“太多... ”

too much + 不可数名词           意为“太多... ”

much too + 形容词               意为“太... ”

eg:I have              homework to do today.

  1. And because of the bad weather, we couldn’t see anything below.

而且因为坏天气,我们也没能看到下面的任何景色

辨析:because of与because

  1. because of意为“因为,由于”,后可接名词、代词或动名词,不能接句子。

He lost his job because of his age.

  1. because意为“因为”,引导状语从句,即接句子。

I didn’t buy the shirt because it was too expensive.

  1. My father didn’t bring enough money… 我爸爸没带足够的钱……

1)辨析:bring与take

bring意为“带来;拿来”, 指从别处带到说话者所在地。

take意为“拿走;带走”, 指从说话者所在地带到别处去。

2)enough 意为“足够的,充分的”

1.用来修饰形容词或副词,一般置于被修饰词之后。

2.用来修饰名词时可放在形容词前面或后面。

Eg:a. We have enough time to do our homework.

  1. The box is big enough.
  2. …because we forgot to bring an umbrella… 因为我们忘了带雨伞。

辨析:forget to do sth.与forget doing sth.

forget to do sth.  意为“忘记要做某事(事情还没做)”       eg: Don’t forget to close the window.

forget doing sth.  意为“忘记做过某事(事情已经做过了)”  eg: I forget closing the window.

  1. About one hour later, we stoppedand drank some tea. 大约一小时后,我们停下来喝了些茶。

1)one hour later  一小时后 ;  一小时前__________________

2)stop动词,意为“停止;中断”,过去式_________,现在分词__________;

3)drink及物动词,意为“喝;饮”; 还可以作名词,意为“饮料”。

  1. Did you dislikeanything? 你不喜欢什么东西吗?

dislike意为“不喜欢;厌恶”,其后可接名词、代词或动名词形式作宾语。

Eg:a. Mary ______  the hamburgers. 玛丽不喜欢汉堡包。

  1. I  _____  ______  computer  我不喜欢玩电脑游戏。
  2. Why not?   为什么不带呀?

why not意为“为什么不呢”,一般用在疑问句中,表示提建议;why not后面需跟动词原形。

注“Why not + 动词原形?” 相当于“Why don’t you+动词原形?”

  1. Why not go to the party with me? =Why don’t you go to the party with me?为什么不和我一起去参加聚会呢?

b._____  _____ take a walk? =   _____  ______  _____ take a walk?  为什么不去散步呢?

18.Everyone in our class took a bag with some food and water. 我们班上的每一个人都随身带了装有食物和水的提袋。(P8)

with介词,意为“具有;带有”。 此处介词短语with some food and water作bag的后置定语。

拓展:with作介词时的其他用法:

a.“和……一起’     I often go to school ______ my friend. 我经常和朋友们一起去上学。

  1. 以(手段、材料),用(工具), Cut the apple with a knife. 用刀切苹果。
  2. My legs were so tired that I wanted to stop.  我的双腿太累了以至于我都想停下来。

so…that… / such…that…(如此…以致)引导的结果状语从句

so+adj./adv.+that…                                  

Eg:1. He is ____lovely a boy____we love him very much.

  1. The little boy is so young that he can’t go to school.
  2. 常用的感叹句的结构

1)What +adj.+ 复数名词 / 不可数名词+主语+谓语!

2)What +a/an+adj.+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!

3)How +adj. +a/an+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!

4)How+adj./adv. +主语+谓语!

eg:  1.What an interesting book it is!  =  How interesting a book is!  那本书多么有趣啊!

2.____a clever girl she is!              A.Who      B.What     C.How      D.Where

  1. _____clever a girl she is!             A.Who     B.What   C.How  D.Where

4._____important jobs they have done!    A.What    B.Who       C.How      D.Where

5._____sweet water it is!               A.Who     B.What      C.Where     D. How

6._____interesting the dog is!           A.Who     B.What      C. Where     D. How

  1. My classmates told me to keep going, so I went on.

我的同学告诉我坚持往前走,因此我便继续前进了

1)tell sb. (not)to do sth. 意为“告诉某人(不要)做某事。

The teacher ______ ______  ______ ______ the window just now. 老师刚才告诉我们擦窗户。

2)keep doing sth. 意为“继续做某事,一直做某事”。

She______  ______ TV for two hours last night. 昨晚她持续看了两个小时的电视。

  1. Everyone jumped up and down in excitement.  大家都兴奋地跳起来。

up and down 意为“上上下下;来来回回”,在句中作状语。

Eg:They looked me ______ ______ ______.  他们上上下下打量我。

He walks______ ______ ______ in the room. 他在房间里来回走动。

  1. 反身代词:myself , ourselves, yourself , yourselves, himself,  herself, itself, themselves.

作动词或介词的宾语:经常在enjoy, teach, hurt, buy, introduce, dress, kill等动词和by, for, to, of等介词后作宾语。一年主考宾语回自身

He is teaching himself English.她在自学英语。

She was talking to herself.她自言自语。

He lives by himself in the country.他独自住在乡下。

  • Help yourself! 请随便吃吧!/请自己去取吧!
  • Make yourself at home! 别客气!
  • make yourself heard /understood. 使你的话被人听得见/理解
  • teach oneself 自学=learn by oneself
  • by oneself 独自
  • for oneself 为自己;替自己
  • enjoy oneself 玩的愉快
  • dress oneself 给自己穿衣

23.few, little, a few, a little :的用法few, a few修饰可数名词,little, a little修饰不可数名词。few, little具有否定意义,表示“几乎没有”,a few, a little具有肯定意义,表示“一些”。

He has little money, but few students want to lend money to him.

他几乎没有钱,但是几乎没有学生想借钱给他。

There is a little milk and a few apples left in the fridge.

冰箱里还有一些牛奶和一些苹果。

 

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