初一英语语法知识介 词总结(讲解+考点+综合练习)

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2020年7月22日12:49:25 11737字阅读39分7秒
  • 介 词

 

一、介词概述

 

1、介词的定义: 介词是一种虚词,用来表示名词或相当于名词的其它词语在 句中与其它词的关系,不能单独使用。介词可与名词或相当 于名词的其它词构成介词短语。介词短语可在句中作定语, 状语,表语和宾语补足语。

 

2、介词的分类: 时间介词、地点介词、方式介词、原因介词等。

 

  1. 介词短语的句法作用

介词短语作为一个成分在句中可用作定语、状语、表语、宾语补足语等。

(1)作定语

介词短语作定语时,一般放在被修饰词的后面,作后置定语。
The book on the desk is very interesting.

书桌上的那本书很有趣。
China is a great country with a long history.
中国是一个具有悠久历史的国家。

(2)作状语

介词短语作状语时,一般放在动词后面或句末、句首。用来表示时间、地点、目的、方式和原因等。
The basketball match will start at nine.

篮球比赛将在9点开始。(表示时间)
He likes to swim in the river.

他喜欢去河里游泳。(表示地点)
I went there to get my book back.

我去那里取回我的书。(表示目的)
I came here by bike.

我骑自行车来到这里。(表示方式)
She was trembling with fear.

她吓得直发抖。(表示原因)

(3)作表语

介词短语作表语时,一般放在be动词和连系动词之后。
I’m on duty today.

今天我值日。
My English teacher is from Australia.

我的英语老师来自澳大利亚。
4)作宾语补足语
介词短语作宾语补足语时,一般放在宾语之后。
I found everything in good condition.

我发现一切状况良好。
When he woke up, he found himself in the hospital.

当他醒来时,他发现自己在医院里。

 

二、介词考点纵览

 

 

知识点考点

 

 

考点对应典型例题剖析

 

 

 

考点一:

表示时间的介词

 

 

 

考点1:in 的  用  法  。

 

 与morning, afternoon, evening连用表示在上午、下午、晚上。

They always play basketball in the afternoon. 他们经常在下午打篮球。

Don’t eat too much in the evening. 晚上不要吃太多。

 表示在某世纪、年代、年、月、季节的含义时。

She came to this factory in 1970. 她是在1970年来到这个工厂工作的。

It often snows heavily here in winter. 这儿冬天经常下大雪。

 表示从现在起一段时间以后。(这个用法常用将来时)

Tom will be back from America in a week. 汤姆一周之后将从美国回来。

I will go to visit you in a month. 一个月后我将会去拜访你。

典型例题 1

The train is starting ___five minutes.
A. in         B. at          C. for           D. of

答案:A

典型例题 2

Mrs. Brown came to China ____ 1996.
A. on         B. of          C. to           D. in

答案:D

典型例题 3

I like making snowmen ___ winter.
A. in         B. at          C. for           D. on

答案:A

 

考点2: at的用法。

 

 表示某一具体时刻(几点几分时)。  

She gets up at seven o'clock in the morning.

她早晨七点钟起床。

Bella got home at eight yesterday evening.

Bella昨晚八点钟到家。

 用在特定的时候(时节、时机)。

We were happy at that time.

我们那个时候很幸福。

I think the school has been closed at this time.

我想学校这个时间已经关门了。

 与noon、night、weekends连用。

You can see many stars in the sky at night.

在夜里你会看到天空有许多星星。

What do you always do at noon?

你中午经常做些什么?

 表示“在……岁”时。

At the age of two, the girl could run.

在2岁的时候,这个小女孩就会跑了。

典型例题 1

The English teacher told me to get there____ half past ten.
A in             B. at            C. on         D. of

答案:B

典型例题 2

He often goes ____ school ____ six thirty.
A. for; to          B. to; at        C. to; for      D, for; at

答案:B

典型例题 3

I often have lunch ____ noon.

A. for             B. to          C. in         D. at

答案:D

 

考点3:on的用法

 

 表示“在具体的某一天”或“(在具体的某一天的)早上、中午、晚上”等,须用介词on。

Jack was born on May 10th,1982.

杰克生于1982年5月10日。

They left on a rainy morning.

他们是在一个雨天的早上离开的。

 表示“在星期几”或“在星期几的早上、中午、晚上”等,须用介词on。

We don’t go to school on Saturday and Sunday. 我们星期六和星期天不上学。

What time do you get up on weekdays? 你在平日什么时候起床?

I heard this story on Saturday morning. 我是在星期六的早晨听到这个故事的。

 表示“在某一节日”时,须用介词on。

We usually eat mooncakes on Mid-autumn Festival. 我们通常在中秋节吃月饼。

Mr. Hu received a card on Teachers’Day. 胡老师在教师节那天收到了一张卡片。

典型例题 1

He went back to America      a summer afternoon.
A in             B. at            C. on         D. of

答案:C

典型例题 2

He often goes to the library ____ Saturday morning.
A. on         B. at        C. to      D, for

答案:A

典型例题 3

I met him ____ the afternoon of September 12th

A. for             B. to          C. on         D. at

答案:C

 

考点4:before、afterfrom的用法。

 

 before表示“在……之前”。

Wash your hands before dinner. 在晚餐之前你要洗手。

I have to finish my homework before 10 o’ clock. 我不得不在十点之前完成家作。

 after表示“在……之后”。

They often play football after class. 他们经常在下课后踢足球

My father often watches TV after dinner. 我爸爸经常晚饭后看电视。

 from表示时间时,常和to连用,构成from…to…的结构,表示“从…到…”。

He kept on working from seven to twelve last night. 他昨晚从7点一直工作到12点。

I go to school from Monday to Friday. 我周一到周五要去学校。

典型例题 1

经理七点后回来。

翻译:The manager will come back after seven o’clock.

典型例题 2

三天后,我去参加了一个聚会。

翻译:After three days I went to a party.

典型例题 3

她从早唱到晚。

翻译:She is singing from morning to night.

 

 

考点二:

表示地点、方位的介词

 

 

 

 

考点1:in的用法。

 

 表示在较大的地方。

in the factory 在工厂 in Shanghai 在上海 in China 在中国

 表示“在……里面”。

There are many apples in the box. 盒子里有许多苹果。

He put his hands in his pockets. 他把他的手放进口袋。

典型例题 1

They arrived at the famous town ___ South Jiangsu.

A. in           B. on            C. at            D. of

答案:A

典型例题 2

She is living ___ Nanjing.

A. on           B. in            C. at            D. of

答案:B

典型例题 3

Can you see the book ___ the box?

A. at           B. in            C. on           D. of

答案:B

 

考点2:at的用法。

 

 表示在较狭窄较小的地方。

Shall we meet at the station?我们在车站见面好吗?

 用于门牌号码前。

He lives at 115 Zhongshan Road. 他住在中山路115号

典型例题 1

They arrived at the famous town ___ South Jiangsu.

A. in           B. on            C. at           D. of

答案:A

典型例题 2

Do you notice the bread ___ the table?

A. to           B. in           C. at            D. of

答案:C

典型例题 3

My brother stayed ___home last night.

A. at          B. in      C. on          D. Of

答案:A

 

考点3:on,over和above的用法。

 

 on表示“在……之上”(两物体接触)。

There are some apples on the tree. 树上有一些苹果。

There is a book on the desk. 桌上有一本书。

 over表示“在……正上方”(两物体的表面没有接触)。

The sky is over our heads. 天在我们的头顶上。

 above表示“在……之上”(不一定垂直,两物体的表面没有接触)。

The plane is flying above clouds. 飞机在云上飞行。

典型例题 1

She put her coat ___ the bed.

A. in           B. over            C. above            D. on

答案:D

典型例题 2

There is a bridge ___ the sea   

A. in           B. over            C. above            D. on

答案:B

典型例题 3

The bird is flying ___ the water.

A. in           B. over            C. above            D. on

答案:C

 

考点4:under和below的用法。

 

 under表示“在……正下方”(其反义词是over)。

There is a ball under the desk. 在桌子下有一个球。

 below表示“在……下方”(不一定是正下方)。

From the top of the hill, we could see the blue ocean below. 我们从山顶上能看到下边蓝色的大海。

典型例句

Write your name below the line.在线下写上你的名字。

The cat was under the table.猫在桌子下面。

She put the letter under the pillow.她把信放在枕头下。

 

考点5:behind、in front of、in the front of的用法。

 

 behind表示“在……后面”。

There is a new car behind the house.

在房子后面有一辆新车。

 in front of表示“在……(一个整体的)前面”。

   in the front of 表示“在……(一个整体前半部分的)前面”。

典型例句:

The driver is usually in the front of the car. 司机通常坐在汽车前面。
An old man is standing in front of the car. 车前面站着一位老人。

There are many books behind the box. 箱子后面有很多书。

 

考点6:between、among的用法。

 

 between表示“在……(两者)之间”。

My bedroom is between my two sisters’. 我的卧室在2个姐姐房间之间

 among表示“在……(三者或三者以上)之间”。

There is a black bag among all these bags. 在这些书包之中有个黑书包。

典型例题 1

There is a bank _____ two buildings.

A. among          B. between        C. in        D. of

答案:B

典型例题 2

I am sitting _____ my parents

A. among          B. between         C. in         D. of

答案:B

典型例题 3

I see a beautiful flower _____ the trees.

A. among          B. between         C. in         D. of

答案:A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

考点三:

表示动向的介词

 

 

 

 

 

考点1:into、out of的用法。

 

into表示从外到里;out of 表示从里到外。

I saw them go into the house. 我看见他们都走进了房子里。

Lily runs out of the classroom. Lily跑出了教室。

典型例题 1

一只兔子从箱子里跳了出来。

翻译:A rabbit jumps out of the box.

典型例题 2

老师带着一本书走进了教室。

翻译:The teacher walked into the classroom with a book.

典型例题 3

I went _____ the cinema to watch a film

A. into B. out of  C. in  D. on

答案:A

 

考点2:up、down的用法。

 

up表示向上;down表示向下。

We climbed up the mountain to the top. 我们爬上了山顶。

She opened the door and went down the stairs. 她打开门然后走下楼梯。

 

考点3:across、through的用法。

 across表示“从……(表面)穿过”

He walked across the road carefully. 他小心地穿过马路。

The duck is swimming across the river. 鸭子正游过那条河。

 through表示“从……(里面)穿过”

She walked through the forest alone. 她独自穿过森林。

He wants to go out through the window. 他想从窗户出去。

典型例题 1

Look left and right before you go _____ the street.

A. across         B. through         C. in        D. on

答案:A

典型例题 2

The sun goes _____ the window. 

A. across          B. through         C. in        D. on

答案:B

典型例题 3

The train is going _____ the tunnel.

A. across          B. through         C. in        D. on

答案:B

 

 

 

 

 

 

考点四:

表示方式的介词

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

考点1:表示方式的介词主要由by、 with、in等。

 

 by表示“靠、用、以……手段”。

I always go to school by bus. 我总是坐公交车去上学。

He makes a living by selling newspapers. 他靠卖报纸营生。

 with表示“使用(有形工具)、和……一起、具有…、带有…”。

He cut the cake with a knife. 他用到切蛋糕。

I go to school with my friends. 我跟朋友一起去上学。

The man with big eyes is my father. 这个大眼睛的男人是我爸。

 in表示“用……语言,以……方式”。

He can speak English. 他会说英语。

典型例题 1

He broke the window _____ a stone.

A. by           B. with           C. in          D. from

答案:B

典型例题 2

What’s this _____ English?  

A. in           B. over            C. above       D. on

答案:A

典型例题 3

My brother gets to school _____ bus every day.

A. in           B. over            C. by          D. on

答案:C

 

三、综合练习

1.单项选择

(    ) 1. It’s time ______ supper.

  1. at B. in                     C. on                    D. for

(    ) 2. It’s no time ______ school. It’s time ______ go back home.

  1. to, for            B. to, to            C. for, to         D. for, for

(    ) 3. Mr. Brown comes ______ America.

  1. at                         B. from             C. in                     D. to

(    ) 4. What’s this _____ English?

  1. in                           B. at                     C. on                    D. under

(    ) 5. Sometimes I go to school _____ foot.

  1. by                        B. in                     C. on                    D. With

(    ) 6. Count _____ one _____ ten.

  1. from, by                 B. from, to            C. to, to            D. at, to

(    ) 7. My sister is looking ____ her new shoes now.

  1. at                           B. after                C. for                   D. to

(    ) 8. It’s cold outside. Please _____ your warm clothes.

  1. put in                B. take off               C. put on             D. put up

(    ) 9. The classroom is quite different _____ that one.

  1. of                      B. from                 C. with                 D. like

(    ) 10. ---Do many children in our class often skate ________ winter?

---Yes, they usually have fun _______ winter.

  1. in, in            B. on, on              C. at, at     D. for, in

(    ) 11. ---Does the autumn start _________ August?

---Sometimes it does. But usually it starts _______ September.

  1.        in, in             B. on, on            C. at, at     D. for, in

(    ) 12. I usually play table tennis ________ school.

  1. after         B. when     C. by       D. for

(    )13. ---I like summer. Is it cool ______ autumn?

---What _______ summer? Oh, it is too hot.

  1. in, about on        B. on, about on      C. in, about in    D. in, about

(    ) 14. ---Do you listen to the radio _______ a long time?

---No, I often listen to it ______________ twenty minutes.

  1. for, to            B. for, for           C. to, for        D.in, about

(    ) 15. When is May Day? It’s _______ the first of May.

  1. on                 B. in                C. at           D. for

(    ) 16. They will move to the new school ______ next Monday.

  1. on                 B. in                 C. /           D.for

(    ) 17. Write the numbers ______ 10 ______ 30 on the blackboard.

  1. from, in           B. between, and       C. behind, and     D. from, for

(    ) 18. The waterway is wide enough for many ships to pass______.

  1. above        B. across         C. cross       D. through

(    ) 19. ---What’s the matter ____ you?

---There is something wrong _____ my head.

  1. about; with       B. for; about    C. with; with    D. about; on

(    ) 20. ____ a book ____ his hand, Mr. Zhao walked into the classroom.

  1. By; in           B. With; on     C. By; on       D. With; in

(    ) 21. Don’t laugh _____ him. He will shout ____ you.

  1. on; to           B. at; at         C. for; to       D. at; for

(    ) 22. He arrived _____ Guangzhou ____ noon.

  1. in; in           B. to; at        C. in; at        D. at; in

(    ) 23. I haven’t heard ____ my sister ____ last Sunday.

  1. of; for          B. to; in          C. from; since    D. about; on

(    ) 24. My sister is good _____ English because she is interested _____ it.

  1. in; in B. at; at C. at; in         D. in; at

(    ) 25. They work _____ a small farm _____ a river.

  1. on; by B. at; on C. by; on        D. in; in

(    ) 26. Some animals sleep _____ the day and wake up _____ night.

  1. in; by B. in; at C. at; in D. by; by

(    ) 27. Don’t tell anybody ____ it. Keep it ____ you and me.

  1. about; in    B. about; between C. of; in         D. of; with

(    ) 28. ---When will Mr. Black come to Beijing?

---____ September 5th.

  1. On B. To C. At D. In

(    ) 29. ____ the help of satellites, we can know what the weather will be like in the next few days.

  1. Under B. With C. Using D. By

(    ) 30. It’s very nice ____ you to give me the chance.

  1. of B. for C. to D. at
  2. 根据句意,填上适当的介词。
  3. Don’t forget to wash hands ____________ meals.
  4. Please turn __________ Page 20.
  5. Now the students go to school ___________Monday _______ Friday.
  6. There is a big market ____ the end of the road.
  7. ---Is your brother in, Kate?   ---Yes, he is ________ home.
  8. My mother is waiting _____ the bus ______ the bus stop.
  9. He’ll give us a talk _________ the history of our party.
  10. Mrs. Green will hold the class instead ______ Mr. Zhang.
  11. China is one ______ the biggest countries ______ the world.
  12. Mike came to China ________ March, 1993. He has been in China _____ 13 years.
  13. What’s the Great Wall made ____?
  14. I prefer fruit ____ beef. Miss Zhou agrees ______ me.
  15. It’s very kind _____ you to carry the box ______ me.
  16. The students ____ old clothes will go to the farm.
  17. Don’t read ______ the sun. It’s bad ________ your eyes.
  18. I always get _______ well with my classmates.
  19. I saw your name _________ today’s newspaper.
  20. Look, the birds are singing ______ the tree.
  21. Shanghai lies ________ the east of China.
  22. The naughty boy got into his bedroom ____ the window.

参考答案

  • 单项选择

1.D  2.C  3.B  4.A  5.C  6.B  7.A  8.C  9.B  10.A  11.A  12.A  13.C  14.B  15.A 16.C  17.B  18.B  19.C  20.D  21.B  22.C  23.C  24.C  25.A  26.B  27.B  28.A  29.B  30.A

二、根据句意,填上适当的介词。

1~10:before, to, from…to, at, at, for…at, on, of , of…in, in,…for

11~20:of, to…with, of…for, in, in…for, along, in, in, in, through

 

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