初中英语必考考点

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2020年8月3日12:21:58 35803字阅读119分20秒

动词时态

理解概念:

动词:一般理解为动作

:时间(过去,现在,将来)

:状态(进行,完成,一般)

所以基本的动词时态有九种:

现在进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时

现在完成时,过去完成时,将来完成时

一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时

√一般

 

一般现在时

考点笔记

构成:主要用动词原形表示,如果主语是第三人称单数则将动词原形变为第三人称单数形式。

与一般现在时连用的时间状语

always, often, usually, sometimes等表示频率的副词。

on Sundays, on Monday afternoons, every day, in the morning, every year等时间状语。

once a year, twice a month, three times a week等表示频率的词组。

用法

表示经常性或习惯性的动作或存在的状态。

I often go to school by bike. 我经常骑自行车去上学。

(2) 表示客观事实或普遍真理。

The earth goes around the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。

(3) 在时间、条件等状语从句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。(主将从现)

If it rains tomorrow, we won’t go to the park.

如果明天下雨,我们就不去公园了。

When I grow up, I will go to America.

等我长大后,我将去美国。

(4)在某些以here, there开头的句子中用一般现在时表示正在发生的动作。

There goes the bell. 铃响了。

 

一般过去时

考点笔记

1.构成:用动词的过去式表示。

2.用法

(1)表示过去某时间发生的动作或存在的状态。

I got up at six this morning. 今天早上我六点起床。

We visited the factory last week. 上周我们参观了那家工厂。

 

(2)表示过去的习惯或过去经常发生的动作。

When I was in the countryside, I often swam in the river.

我在乡下时,常常在河里游泳。

(3)与一般现在时连用的时间状语:last night, yesterday, last week, some years ago, in 1995, in the past, the other day, at that time, just now等。

 

一般将来时

考点笔记

用法:

表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态。其构成是:will+动作原形,常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如:tomorrow, next week, in a few days, next Sunday, in+一段时间,in 2020等。

例如:

They will leave for Shanghai next week.他们下周将去上海。

Will you be back in two days?你将在两天后回来吗?

★注意:当主语是I或we时,问句中一般使用shall, 表示征求对方的意见。

例如: Where shall we meet tomorrow? 明天我们在哪儿见面?

“be going to +动词原形”,表示计划、打算做某事,表示已决定的、很可能发生的事,或有某种迹象要发生的事。

例如:

---What are you going to do next Monday?

---I’m going to listen to a lecture.

Look at the dark clouds. There is going to be a storm.

★注意:在下面几种情况,只可用shall\will表示将来,不可用be going to 结构。

表示有礼貌地询问对方是否愿意或表示客气的邀请或命令时。

Will you please lend me your bike?

2) 表示意愿时。

We will help him if he asks us.

3) 表示单纯的将来,与人的主观愿望和判断无关时。

The sun will rise at 6:30 tomorrow morning.

be doing表示将来,常用这种结构的动词有:go, come, leave, stay, start, begin等, 表示即将发生或安排好要做的事情。

例如:We are leaving for London. 我们就要动身去伦敦了。

 “be about to +动词原形”“be to+动词原形”结构表示即将发生的动作。                  例如:Now he is about to get a second chance.

用一般现在时表示将来的情况

表示按规定或时间表预计将发生的动作。

例如:We’re going to Changchun. Our plane takes off at 8:10.

2)当主句为一般将来时态时,在if, as soon as, until, when等引导的状语从句中用一般现在时表将来。

例如:If it doesn’t rain this afternoon, we’ll have a football match.

√进行

                   现在进行时

考点笔记

构成:

现在进行时由“主语+am\is\are+动词的现在分词”构成。

否定形式:主语+am|is|are+not+动词的现在分词

疑问形式:Am|Is|Are +主语+动词的现在分词?

肯定回答:Yes, 主语+am\is\are.

否定回答:No, 主语+am\is\are+not.

用法:

表示此时此刻正在进行的动作。

例如:---What are you doing?

---I’m reading English.

表示现阶段正在进行的动作或持续的状态。

例如:They are studying hard this term.

go, leave, start, arrive 等动词用现在进行时表将来。

例如:Where are you going?

The bus is coming soon.

当时间状语为now, these days等或当句子中含有look, listen, can you see, can’t you see之类的暗示词时,要使用现在进行时。但主语下面这些动词一般不用于现在进行时的句子中。

表示感觉的动词。如see, hear等

表示喜欢或厌恶的动词。如:like, love, hate等

表示希望的动词。如:want等

表示状态的动词。如:remain 等

表示归属的动词。如have等

表示思维、知识或理解能力的动词。如know, forget等

 

过去进行时

考点笔记

构成:主语+was\were+doing sth.

用法:

表示过去某一时刻或过去一段时间内正在进行的动作。常和表示过去的时间状语then, at that time, this time yesterday, at ten yesterday等连用, 或用另一动作来表示过去的时间。

例如:---What were you doing at nine last night?

---I was watching TV at that time.

He was reading when I came in.

(2) 过去进行时常和always等频度副词连用,表示过去频繁发生的习惯性动作,此时的过去进行时带有一定的感情色彩。

例如:Alice was always changing her mind。

(3) Sb was/were doing sth when sb did sth

When sb was/were doing sth,sth did

Sb was/were doing sth while sb was/were doing sth.

 

 

 √完成

现在时完成

考点笔记

 

构成:主语+have\has+动词的过去分词

用法:

表示过去发生的动作对现在的影响。

---Have you had your lunch yet?

---Yes, I have. I’ve just had it.(说明现在饱了。)

I have lost my pen.(过去某个时间丢的,现在还没有找到)

I have already watched the TV play.

注意:already和yet的用法

表示过去发生的动作持续到现在,也许还要持续下去, 常和for+时间段或since+时间点连用。表示持续的动作或状态,谓语动词多用延续性动词。

We have lived here since 2000.

现在完成时的标志词

just刚刚;ever曾经;never从来没有(常与before连用);

before意为“以前”,指过去不确定的某个时间,总是放在句末,不受句型的限制。

since+时间点;for+时间段——(提问用how long)

非延续性动词转化成延续性动词如下:

buy-----have      borrow-----keep      open----be open

close---be closed    begin\start---be on    come---be here

go---be there       finish---be over    die---be dead

lose---not have      join---be in put on---wear

wake up---be awake   leave---be away      arrive\reach---be

catch a cold---have a cold fall asleep---be asleep

have been to去而已归

have gone to去而未归

have been in已在某地

 

 

 

被动语态

  1. 一. 概念:主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。

 

  1. 二. 构成:被动语态的构成:助动词be+及物动词的过去分词

方法:

l    Many people speak English.(主动语态)

l    English is spoken by many people.(被动语态)

 

 

三. 被动语态的用法:在被动语态中, 主语是动作的承受者, 主要用于以下几种情况:

① 不知道动作的执行者是谁. 如:

This watch is made in China. 这块手表是中国制造的.

② 没有必要指出动作的执行者是谁. 如:

More trees must be planted every year. 每年都应该种更多的树.

③ 需要强调或突出动作的承受者时. 如:

Chinese is spoken by more and more people in the world.

世界上越来越多的人说汉语. (强调汉语的使用广泛)

④ 句子的主语是动作的承受者.

Many houses were washed away in the flood.  许多房屋被洪水冲走了.

  1. 四. 各种时态的被动语态 (中考要求掌握三咱时态的被动语态, 以及情态动词的被动语态)

① 一般现在时的被动语态   主语 + be ( am / is are ) + done + …

主动语态: We clean the classroom. 我们打扫教室.

被动语态: The classroom is cleaned by us. 教室被我们打扫.

② 一般过去时的被动语态 主语 + be ( was / were ) + done + …

主动语态: He made the kite. 他做的风筝.

被动语态: The kite was made by him. 风筝被他做的.

③ 一般将来时的被动语态   主语 + will + be + done + …

主动语态: They will plant trees tomorrow. 他们明天将要种树.

被动语态: Trees will be planted by them. 树明天将要被他们种.

④ 情态动词的被动语态: 主语 + 情态动词 ( can / may / must / need, …) + be + done + …

主动语态: I can find him. 我能找到他.

被动语态: He can be found by me. 他能被我找到.

了解现在进行时、过去进行时、进在完成时的被动语态。

现在进行时的被动语态: 主语 + be ( am / is / are ) + being + done + …

过去进行时的被动语态: 主语 + be ( was / were ) + being + done + …

现在完成时的被动语态: 主语 +  have / has + been + done + …

以为work 例:

  1.   一般现在时:  am / is/are+ worked
  2.   一般过去时:  was / were+  worked

 

  1.   一般将来时:  shall / will +be+ worked
  2.   过去将来时:  should / would+ worked
  3.   现在进行时:  am /is/are+ being+ worked
  4.   过去进行时:  was /were+ being+ worked
  5.   现在完成时:  have/has+ been+ worked
  6.   过去完成时:  had +been+ worked
  7.  情态动词 (can/may/must/should etc.)+be+动词的过去分词

 

 

  1. 五. 注意以下问题:
  2.  带有双宾语的动词变为被动语态时,可以把其中一个宾语变为被动语态的主语,若将直接宾语(sth.)变为主语,须根据习惯在原间接宾语前加上介词to或for

用to的常 见 词有:give, show, send, lend, pass, pay, teach, throw, take, bring etc.

用for的常见词有:make, choose, sing, play, draw, save, buy,  get, leave, cook etc.

Eg.

  1. Mary gave him some books.

l  He was given some books by Mary.

Some books were given to him by Mary.

  1. Her father bought her a new bike.

l  She was bought a new bike by her father.

l  A new bike was bought for her by her father.

 

  1.  带复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)的动词变为被动语态时,只能将宾语变为被动语态的主语,宾语

补足语不可变为主语。

  1. 1. We call him Gina.

l    He is called Gina (by us).

2.They made me happy.

l     I was made happy( by them).

3.He asked me to come here.

I was asked to come here (by him)

 

 

  1.  在see, let, make, hear, watch etc.动词之后,作宾语补足语的动词不定式不带to,但在变为被动语

态时,则一定要加上to。

l  eg.

  1. We saw them play football just now.

l      They were seen to play football just now.

  1.  We often hear her sing in English.

l       She is often heard to sing in English.

 

  1. 在某些“不及物动词+介词/副词”(相当于及物物动词)的句子中,变被动语态时,注意不要丢掉介词/副

词。eg.

  1. People often talk about that film.

l    That film is often talked about.

  1. We should speak to the old people politely.

l    The old people should be spoken to politely.

 

  1. 主动形式表示被动意义的词:

l  1)某些感官动词:

l      look, smell, taste , feel, wear ,sound, etc.

l  2)某些及物动词+副词:

wash, write, sell, read, open, cut, shut, keep, etc.

l  1. This coat feels soft.

l  2. The pen writes smoothly.

l  3. That book sells well.

l  4. This kind of shirt washes easily.

l

  1. 只有及物动词(vt.)才有被动语态,不及物动词(vi.)没有被动语态,因为它不带宾语。

eg.l   happen

l    What was happened? ×

l    What has happened? √

l    What is happening? √

l

  1. 若主动句的主语是表示地点的名词,变为被动语态时,应将其变为in+名词,作地点状语,而不变为

by的宾语。

  1. Our village opened a new school last year.

l    A new school was opened in our village last year.

l  若主动句的谓语动词是know变为被动语态时,应将其变为 be known to,而不能变为 be known by。

  1. People all over the world know the Great Wall.l

l    The Great Wall is known to people all over the world.

l  若主动句的主语是nobody, no one等否定不定代词时,变为被动语态应将其anybody, anyone作介

词by的宾语,并将其谓语动词改为否定的被动语态。

  1. Nobody can answer this question.l

l   This question can not be answered by anybody.

 

宾语从句

考点笔记

  1. 引导词:

1)当陈述句变为宾语从句时,用that 连接,而且that可省略。

例如:You are a student.

(改为宾语从句)  I know (that) you are a student.

2)当一般疑问句变为宾语从句时,用if 或whether连接。

例如:Are you a student?

(改为宾语从句)I wonder if /whether you are a student.

3)当特殊疑问句变为宾语从句时,用特殊疑问词作连接词(即保留疑问词不变)。

例如:Where are you going?

(改为宾语从句) I don’t know where you are going.

  1. 语序:宾语从句总是要用陈述句的语序(主谓不倒装)
  2. 时态:

1) 如果主句是一般现在时,从句根据情况使用任何一种时态。

I know you are a teacher. (一般现在时)

I know you were a teacher there years ago.(一般过去时)

I know you will be a teacher next year.  (一般将来时)

2)如果主句是一般过去时,从句就要根据时间状语而用相应的过去的某种时态。

I knew you could be a teacher next year.  (过去将来时)

3)如果从句是客观真理时,它永远都用一般现在时。

He told me that the earth goes around the sun. (一般现在时)

  1. 否定前移:当主句的主语为第一人称,谓语动词是think/believe/suppose等表示“认为,想法 ”的动词时,常有否定前移。

例如: I don’t think he will come with you.

  1. 宾语从句的简化:

1) 当宾语从句的主语和主句的主语相同,且主句的谓语动词是hope, wish, decide, agree, choose等时, 从句可简化为不定式结构。

例如: I hope that I can receive your e-mail. = I hope to receive your e-mail.

2)当含有疑问词的宾语从句的主语和主句的主语相同,且主句的谓语动词是know, remember, forget, learn 等时,从句可简化为 “疑问词+不定式”/名词/ 名词短语。

例如: She doesn’t know what she should do next. = She doesn’t know what to do next.

I don’t believe what Tom said. = I don’t believe Tom’s words.

what to do & how to do it

  1. 祈使句变为非谓语:

祈使句转换成一个句子往往用固定句型:tell/ask sb. (not) to do sth.

例如:“Don’t play football in the street,” teacher said.(变为一个句子)

Teacher told us not to play football in the street.

  1. 含宾语从句的反意疑问句

1) 一般情况下,反意疑问句部分的主谓跟主句保持一致。

例如:He thinks that you are a good man, doesn’t he?

2) 当主句的主语是第一人称“I”时,反意疑问部分的主谓应跟从句保持一致。

例如:I think that you are a good man, aren’t you?

3) 当主句的主语为第一人称,谓语动词是think /believe/suppose等表示“认为,想法 ”的动词时,常有否定转移,即用否定主句来实现对从句的否定,所以,要注意否定转移时的反意疑问句。

例如:I don’t think that you are a good student, are you ?

 

 

情态动词

 又叫情态助动词。它们具有以下特点

它们必须与其他动词连用,即:情态动词+动词原形

表示说话人对所述动作的看法,如需要、可能、意愿或怀疑等。

 绝大多数情态动词没有人称和数的变化,即第三人称单数不加-s

以be和have 开头的情态动词短语除外)。

1.can的基本用法:

⑴ 表示体力或智力上的能力,即“能够,会”,可与be able to转换

如果表示将来具备的能力,要用will be able to

例:If I have a good sleep, I will be able to do the problem.

⑵ 表示许可,主要用于口语,书面语一般用may。

 

⑶ 表示“可能”,与may同义,但一般用在疑问句中。

例:What can he possibly want?

在否定句中,否定形式can’t表示推测“不大可能”。

第一、二人称连用时,还可以就可能的解决问题的方式或可能的行为提出建议。在这里,也可用could使语气婉转

  1. may的基本用法:

⑴ 表示“许可”,用can比较口语化。

⑵ 肯定句中表示推测,“可能”。

例:It may rain tomorrow.  明天可能会下雨。

注意:如果疑问句中表示可能,通常用can

例:Can it be true?  那会是真的吗?   Who can he be?  他究竟是谁呢?

【注意】:—May I/we……?

Yes, you may./—No, you mustn’t.

  1. 3. must的基本用法:

⑴ 表示必须,强调说话人的主观意志。

【注意】:表示必须时,must的否定式为needn’t dont have to  ,而不是mustn’t。

⑵ 表示推测,一般只用于肯定陈述句,表示非常肯定。

例:She didn’t look at me. She must be angry.  她不朝我看,一定是生气了。

  1. have to的基本用法:

have to可视为情态动词,但它与其他情态动词在用法上稍有不同。其他情态动词没有人称和数的变化,而have to有人称和数的变化,要视主语的不同而变化。

  1. 5. need的基本用法:

need的基本词义是“需要”,它既可作情态动词,又可作实义动词

⑴ need用作情态动词时,只用于否定句和疑问句。它只有一种形式,后接动词原形。

例:I don’t believe you need worry.  我相信你没有必要焦急。

Need we go so soon? 我们需要这么早就去吗?

— Yes, we must. / No, we needn’t.  是的,必须。/不,不必。

need用作实义动词时,有时态、人称和数的变化

如果人作主语,一般后接带to的动词不定式。即need to do sth

如果物作主语,一般后用need to be done need doing sth

  1. 6. had better的基本用法:

had better常略作’d better。现代语法认为它是一个助动词,因为它后接不带to的动词不定式。

had better do sth意思是“最好做某事;还是做某事比较好”

 

 

 

代词

代词人称代词主格(I,you,she等)

宾格(me,you,her等)

物主代词形容词性物主代词(my,your等)

名词性物主代词(mine,yours等)

反身代词(myself,yourself,themselves等)

指示代词(this,that,these,those等)

相互代词(each other和one another)

疑问代词(构成特殊疑问句:who,what等)

不定代词普通不定代词(some,any,few等)

复合不定代词(anyone,nothing等)

连接代词(引导宾语从句:who,what等)

关系代词(引导定语从句:who,whose等)

 

考点1:人称代词、物主代词和反身代词

【满分点拨】

一、人称代词

人称代词有主格和宾格之分,主格在句中作主语和表语;宾格作动词或介词的宾语,也可作表语。

人称代词的人称、数和格的变化如下:

         单数 复数
  主格 宾格 主格 宾格
第一人称 I me we us
第二人称 you you you you
第三人称 it/she/he it/her/him they them

二、物主代词

物主代词分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。形容词性物主代词一般用于名词前修饰名词;而名词性物主代词本身就具有名词的性质,相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”。如:

This is my red schoolbag.=This red schoolbag is mine.这个红色的书包是我的。

物主代词具体分类如下:

         单数 复数
  主格 宾格 主格 宾格
第一人称 I me we us
第二人称 you you you you
第三人称 it/she/he it/her/him they them

三、反身代词

1.反身代词的单复数形式表格如下:

数人称 单数 复数
第一人称 myself我自己 ourselves我们自己
第二人称 yourself你自己 yourselves你们自己
第三人称 himself他自己

herself她自己

itself它自己

themselves他们自己

她们自己

它们自己

2.反身代词的用法

I hope you can enjoy yourselves at the party.(作宾语)

The children made model planes themselves.(作同位语)

That poor boy was myself.(作表语)

3.反身代词的常用词组

teach oneself自学    learn by oneself自学    enjoy oneself过得愉快;玩得高兴

help oneself to随便吃/用     come to oneself苏醒     hurt oneself受伤

by oneself独自

考点2:不定代词

不指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,兼有名词和形容词的功能,在句子中主要用作主语、宾语、表语或定语。不定代词分为普通不定代词和复合不定代词。

一、普通不定代词

1.初中阶段常见的普通不定代词如下表:

some,any few,little other,another
many,much either,neither  
each,every both,all none,one

2.常考的几组易混不定代词辨析

some与any

  用法 例句
some 用于肯定句或表示请求的疑问句中。 Tom has some story books.

Would you like some milk?

any 一般用于疑问句或否定句中。 Are there any apples on the tree?

There aren't any buses.

both,either与neither

  用法 例句
both 表示“两者都”。 Tom's parents are both doctors.
either 表示“两者中的任何一个”,作主语时谓语动词用单数。 Either of the books is interesting.
neither 表示“两者都不”,作主语时谓语动词用单数。 Neither of his friends has come yet.

all,any与none

相同点 均用于三个或三个以上的人或物
不同点  
all 指“三个或三个以上的人或物”,作主语时,谓语动词用复数,其反义词为none
any 指“三个或三个以上的人或物中的任意一个”,只能作定语
none 指“三个或三个以上的人或物中没有一个(全否定)”,相当于not any

注意:(1)no one用来指人,不能接of短语,当它作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

(2)none不仅指人也可以指物,其后常跟of短语。none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单复数均可。

如:None of the information is correct.信息都不正确。

None of the soldiers are(is) afraid of difficulties.战士们都不怕困难.

few,a few和little,a little

如:The problem is too difficult.Few students can work it out.这道题太难了。没几个学生能做出来。

She says little but does much.她说得少,做得多。

each与every

不定代词 用法及意义 例句
each 指两者或两者以上的人或事物中的每一个;意为“每个,各自的”,强调个体。 There are trees and flowers on each side of the street.街道的每一边都有树和花。
every 强调整体,表示“每个都”;指三者或三者以上的人或事物中的每一个。 Every student has read a poem.每个学生都读了一首诗。

二、复合不定代词

复合不定代词一直是河北中考的常考点,学生对此要熟练掌握。常见的复合不定代词如下:

somebody

(某人)

anybody

(任何人)

nobody

(没有人)

everybody

(每人)

someone

(某人)

anyone

(任何人)

no one

(没有人)

everyone

(每人)

something

(某事)

anything

(任何事)

nothing

(没有东西)

everything

(每一件事)

1.由some构成的复合不定代词一般用于肯定句中,也可用于建议或请求的疑问句中,表示说话人希望得到肯定的回答。

2.由any构成的复合不定代词通常用于否定句和疑问句中。

3.复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语和表语,不能作定语。作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。

4.当形容词或else(另外)修饰复合不定代词时,形容词或else必须放在复合不定代词的后面。

考点3:指示代词和疑问代词

一、指示代词

1.指示代词的分类

代词 用法 例句
it 特指上下文提到的对象是同一事物。 The book is mine.It's very interesting.
one 泛指上下文提及的同类事物中的一个,同类而不同一。 —Who has a novel named Tiny Times?

—I have one.

that 常用于比较结构中,代替前面提到的名词,以避免重复。 The weather in Beijing is colder than that in Shenzhen.
this 常用来指代离自己较近的人或物。 This is my friend.

2.it的常见用法

it可替代动词不定式作句中的形式主语或宾语,也可用于某些固定句型中。

(1)用作形式主语,常用于下列句型中:

①It's+adj.(for sb.)+to do sth.

It's important for us to work hard.对我们来说努力工作是重要的。

②It's time to do/for/that…

It's time to get up.到起床的时间了。

It's time for lunch/that we go home.到吃午饭的时候了。/到回家的时间了。

③It seems that…

It seems that he is quite happy.他看起来似乎很高兴。

④It's one's turn to do sth.

It's your turn to sing.现在轮到你唱了。

⑤It's+adj.+that从句

It is necessary that we students do some reading every day.我们学生每天读书是必要的。

(2)作形式宾语

Do you think it necessary to learn to wait in line?你认为学会排队是必要的吗?

I found it important to learn English well.我发现学好英语很重要。

I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day.我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的。

二、疑问代词

相对于疑问代词而言,初中阶段还有两个疑问副词经常在考试中出现,学生也应该重点掌握,第一个是how,通常表示方式。另一个是where,表示地点。

疑问代词 主要用法 例句
who 作主语、表语、宾语(作宾语时在口语中不能放在介词后)。 Who wants to go with me?
whom who的宾格形式,作宾语。 To whom are you talking?
whose who的所有格形式,作表语、定语。 Whose book is this?
what/who what询问某人的职业。 —What's your father?

—He is a worker.

—Who is the boy under the tree?

what/

which

what指不定数目中的“哪一个,哪些;什么”,没有一定范围的限定。 What would you like?

形容词&副词和形副比较等级

考点1、形容词

1.形容词的功能

(1)形容词作定语。

①单个形容词作定语时,放在被修饰的名词____。(形修名)

eg:She is a good girl.她是一个好女孩。

②形容词作不定代词的定语时,要放在不定代词的后面。

eg:There is ____________________.  没有什么重要的事情。

③“基数词­单数可数名词­形容词”为复合形容词,放在被修饰的名词前面。

eg:Tom is an ________________ boy.  汤姆是一个八岁的男孩。

(2)形容词作表语时,放在系动词、感官动词(be,feel,look,smell,taste,sound,get,become,keep,turn,seem等)后,构成系表结构。  eg:The meal is delicious.这顿饭很美味。

(3)形容词常与make,leave,keep,find等动词连用作宾语补足语时,用来说明宾语的性质、状态或特征。

eg:I found the book interesting.我发现这本书很有趣。

2.多个形容词修饰名词的顺序

限定词(冠词、指示代词、形容词性物主代词、数词)

→描绘词(大小、长短、形状、长幼、新旧、颜色、国籍、材料)→名词。

eg:a famous American medical college  一所著名的美国医学院

________________________________   一座漂亮而高大的建筑物

3.有些形容词只能作定语。如:little(小的),only(唯一的),  _________(木制的),elder(年长的),woolen(羊毛的)等及 复合形容词man-made(人造的),kind-hearted(好心的), English­speaking(说英语的),take-away(可以带走的)等。

4.有些形容词只能作表语,如:ill, alone, asleep, alive等。

5.有些词貌似是副词但其实是形容词,如friendly, lively, lonely, lovely等。

6.以­ing结尾的形容词作表语时,主语通常是物;以­ed结尾的形容词作表语时,主语通常是人。

【中考链接】

(2015襄阳) —I'm a little ______ now.

—Oh, it's lunchtime. Let's go to the nearest restaurant to get something to eat.

A.thirsty                   B.worried

C.hungry                  D.Bored

(2015铜仁) —Come here. I'll tell you _____ about your study.

—OK, we're coming.

A.anything important          B.something important

C.important anything          D.important something

(2015广州) The boy looked ______ because he didn't pass his maths exam.

A.sad                                        B.sadness

C.saddest                                  D.sadly

(2015孝感) Last year, three hundred English teachers took part in the _______ English Training.

A.two-month                        B.two­months

C.two months                       D.two month

(2016青岛) I like hiking in the forest because the air is pretty ______.

A.free                                   B.dirty

C.polluted                             D.fresh

 

考点2:副词

1.副词的一般用法

(1)用作状语。

eg:He speaks English very _______.他英语说得非常好。

(2)用作表语。主要限于少数地点或方位副词、时间副词以及其他副词。

eg:I'll be back in five minutes.我五分钟后就回来。

(3)用作定语。通常情况下,副词用作定语时总是放在被修饰的名词或代词之后。

eg:The people ________ are very friendly.那儿的人很友好。

2.副词的位置

(1)副词通常放在被修饰的动词_________。(副修动)

(2)句中有多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

3.副词的分类

时间副词 soon, now, early, finally, once, recently 频度副词 usually, always, often, hardly, seldom, never
地点副词 here, nearby, outside, upwards, above 疑问副词 how, where, when, why
方式副词 hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really 连接副词 how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile
程度副词 almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather 关系副词 when, where, why

【注意】  地点副词、时间副词和方式副词放在句尾,它们同时出现时的顺序是:方式副词→地点副词→时间副词。

eg:The students are doing the experiments carefully in the lab now.

学生们现在正在实验室里认真地做实验。

Many people take exercise happily on the square every morning.

很多人每天早晨在广场上高兴地进行锻炼。

 

考点3:形容词和副词的比较等级

1.规则变化

(1)一般在词尾直接加-er或­est。如:

tall—taller—tallest, long—__________—__________

(2)以不发音的字母e结尾的单词在词尾直接加-r或-st。如:

nice—nicer—nicest, large—_________—__________

(3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的词,把y变为i,再加­er或­est。

如:heavy—heavier—heaviest, busy—busier—busiest,funny—___________—___________

(4)在重读闭音节中,若末尾只有一个辅音字母,则双写这个辅音字母,再加­er或-est。如:

big—bigger—biggest,  hot—hotter—hottest, thin—thinner—thinnest,fat—fatter—fattest

(5)部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加more构成比较级,加most构成最高级。如:

slowly—more slowly—most slowly,beautiful—more beautiful—most beautiful

2.不规则变化

原级 比较级 最高级
good/well better best
bad/badly worse worst
many/much more most
little less least
far farther/further farthest/furthest
old older/elder oldest/eldest

 

 

 

 

考点4:形容词和副词的比较等级的用法

1.原级的用法

(1)只能修饰原级的词有very, quite, so, too等。

eg:The old man is ____________ walk on.  那位老人太累了不能再继续走了。

(2)原级常用的句型结构

①“A+v.+as+形容词/副词原级+as+B”表示“A和B程度相同”。

eg:Tom runs __________ Mike.汤姆和迈克跑得一样快。

②“A+v.+not+as/so+形容词/副词原级+as+B”表示“A不如B……”。

eg:This classroom is ________________ that one. 这间教室不如那间大。

2.比较级常用的句型结构

(1)“A+v.+比较级+than+B”表示“A比B更……”。

eg:Jim sings better than me.   Jim唱歌比我唱得好。

This book is more interesting than that one.  这本书比那本书更有趣。

表示一方不及另一方时,用 “less +多音节或部分双音节词的原形+than...”来表示。

eg:This park is_____________ than that one. 这个公园没有那个美丽。

(2)“A+v.+比较级+than+any other+单数名词(+介词短语)”表示“A比同一范围内的任何一个人/物都……”,含义是“A最……”。

eg:Xiaoming is taller than ________________in his class.

=Xiaoming is taller than(any of)the other boys in his class.

小明比他班上的其他任何男孩都高。

=Xiaoming is the tallest boy in his class.

小明是他班上最高的男孩。

(3)“A+v.+the+比较级+of the two+...”表示“A是两者中较……的”。

eg:Look at the two boys. Xiaoming is ___________the two.

看那两个男孩,小明是两个当中较高的那个。

(4)“比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越……”。

eg:He is getting ________________.他越来越高了。

He does his homework _________________________.

他做作业越来越认真了。

The story is getting less and less interesting.

这个故事越来越没意思了。

(5)“the+比较级,the+比较级”表示“越……,就越……”。

eg:The harder you work, the better your grades will be.

你越努力学习,你的成绩就会越好。

____________ cars, __________ pollution.

车越少,污染越少。

(6)“特殊疑问词+v.+比较级,A or B?”

eg:Which is bigger, the blue ball or the red one?

哪一个球更大,蓝球还是红球?

【注意】(1)比较级前常用much, a lot, a little, a bit, far,even,等词修饰。(两多两少一远一甚至)

eg:The clothes in this shop are ____________________ than those in that shop.

这家店里的衣服比那家的贵得多。

(2)使用比较级时,在对比中应该是同类进行对比。如:  “我的英语不如你的好。”应译成“My English is not as/so good as yours.”,而不能译成“My English is not as good as you.”。因为此句中比较的对象是English,而不是you,所以要把you改成yours(=your English)。

(3)使用比较级时,切忌一方包含另一方,从而造成自身与自身的比较。如:

“她比她班上任何同学学习都努力。”应译成“She studies harder than any other student in her class.”,而不能译成“She studies harder than any student in her class.”。

3.最高级常用句型结构

(1)“主语+v.+the+最高级+(单数可数名词)+in/of短语”表示“……是……中最……的”。副词最高级前可省略the。

eg:Tom is the tallest (student) in his class.     汤姆是他班上最高的(学生)。

I jump farthest in my class. 我是我班跳得最远的。

(2)“主语+v.+one of the+最高级+复数可数名词+in/of短语”表示“……是……中最……之一”。

eg:Beijing is one of the biggest cities in China. 北京是中国最大的城市之一。

(3)“特殊疑问词+v.+the+最高级,A,B,or C?”用于三者以上的人或物的比较。

eg:Which season do you like _______, spring, summer or autumn?

你最喜欢哪一个季节,春天、夏天还是秋天?

(4)“主语+v.+the+序数词+最高级+单数可数名词+in/of短语”表示“……是……中的第几……”。

eg:Tom is ____________________ boy in his class.  汤姆是他班上第二高的男生。

 

 

 

连词

【知识体系结构图】

 

概念:用来连接词、短语、从句或句子的词叫连词。连词是一种虚词,在句中不能单独使用。连词可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。

 

1.常用并列连词的用法

1) and  2) both…and  3) not only…but also 4) as well as  5) nor  6) but  7) however, still, yet  8) while  9) or  10) either … or/neither … nor  11) so  12) then   13) for

 

2.常用从属连词的用法

that   2) when, while, as   3) after/before   4)since

5) till/until  6)as soon as 7) because/since/as   8) so/such… that   9)if  10) unless=if not 11)though/although 12)as…as/ than 14) as

13) whether/if 14) so/such that

 

3.常用近义连词的用法辨析

(1) while, when, as (2)as, because, since , for (3)if, whether

(4)so…that, such...that    (5)either…or…, neither…nor, not only…but also… (6)although, but     (7)because, so

 

【考点笔记】

 

常用并列连词的用法

 

(1)表示顺承,并列,递进关系

 

1)and连接语法作用相同的部分.如: Let me know what you saw and heard in Europe.

如果连接的两个名词是指同一个人而有两种身份时,第二个名词前不要加冠词或所有格.

如:Her husband is a singer and songwriter.

祈使句+and代替条件句. 如:Work hard and you will pass the examination.

由and连接两个主语时谓语动词要用复数形式。如:You and I are from China.

但是, and前面的主语之前有every, each, no, many a的时候用单数谓语动词.如: Every train and bus was crowded with many people.

 

2) both+主语+and+主语+“复数谓语动词”。如:

Both Tom and Jerry are going to the cinema.

 

3) not only…but also如果连接两个主语,谓语动词临近原则.如:
Not only he but also his parents are very kind to me.

4) as well as后面的主语不作为成分.如:
This study, as well as many other reports, shows that cancer can be cured.

后面如果接动词一定要用动名词.如: She sings as well as playing the piano.

 

(2)表示转折或对比关系的连词

 

1)but用来表示转折,如: He tried hard but he was unsuccessful.

还可以用在no one, none, nobody, nothing, all, every等词之后表示”除了…以外”。如: All the boys but one are here.

 

2)however, still, yet,含意相同相当于”but…anyway”.如:
The car was old, yet it was in excellent condition.

She has her weaknesses, yet(but) that doesn't mean she is not good for the job.
He lied to me,  I still believe him.

 

while表示的是”相反的”,也可以用but, however, on the other hand来代替.
While some people have nothing to eat, others eat too much.

 

(3)表示选择关系

 

1) or连接句子或词组,表示 “或者”之意。 Which do you prefer, yellow, blue or red?           Was he angry, or was he pretending?

or, 也有“否则”的意思. 如:Be quick, or you will be late.

 

2) either … or/neither … nor和not only…but also并列主语时,谓语动词同样用就近原则.
Either Mary or her parents are going by bus.
There is neither electricity nor free suppers in the hotel.

Not only you but also I am from china.

 

(4)表示因果关系

 

1)so表示因此, 相当于therefore.(adv.) 如:They cost a lot of money, so use them carefully.       It is very cold. Therefore, we should stay here.

 

2)for引导的句子不可以放在句首,之前必须由逗号,表示推论的理由
They must be good friends, for they are always together.
The day breaks, for the birds are singing.

 

2.常用从属连词的用法

 

1)that引导名词性从句(主语/宾语/表语从句),同位语从句,定语从句,…如:

That smoking can cause cancer is known to all.
I was surprised to hear that he became the president.

 

2) when, while, as

when 在---时刻或时期,可指时间点或时间段,从句动词是终止或持续动词。
When I got home, he was having supper. When I was young, I liked dancing.

as 表示“边---边---”或“与---同时”表示动作同时发生伴随进行。动词相似,如终止性动词为从句,则主句也为终止性动词。 They talked as they walked.

while表示只是时间段,不是时间点,从句的动词只限于持续动词。 While I slept, a thief broke in.

when 可以表示主句和从句先后发生. When he has finished his work, he takes a short rest.

when 从句为终止动词不能用while 替换When。 he came yesterday, we were playing basketball.

如从句动词为终止性动词,主句也是终止性动词 when 和as 可以互换。
He came just as I reached the door.

 

3) after/before

After her husband died she had to take everything on herself.

Take the medicine before you go to bed.

 

4) since引导的从句是肯定句,一般主句都是完成时.
She has had another baby since we met.

5) till/until     其中until较为常用, till是口语.

Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. I won't go until he comes.

 

6)as soon as
I’ll tell him the news as soon as I see him.

7) because/since/as表示直接原因的时候不能用since或as.其他情况可以用since—既然,as— 由于(语气弱)。
It was because he was ill that he didn't go to school.

 

8) so/such… that 结果状语从句(程度)
She was so moved that tears came to her eyes.
They took such care of her that not long after she was restored to health.

 

9) if(假如,如果)不能用whether. If you call him a fatty, he will get angry.

 

10) unless=if not  You can not interview him unless you get the permission.

 

11)though/although都作为”虽然,尽管”可以互换,although用的更多一些. 后面不可以有but但可以有yet/still.

Although he is much better, yet his father isn't satisfied.

 

12)as…as/ than(用于比较状语从句中)

 

13) as可以引导状语从句
As I remember, he used to work here ten years ago.
As I see it, there is still much room for improvement in our work.

 

14) whether/if(是否) if 能引导宾语语从句

Please tell me whether it is true or not.
I haven't decided whether/if I'll go with you.

在介词后,名词后,不定式前和有or not的句子中用whether.

I am worried about whether she is happy.

 

15) so/such that(结果状语从句/目的状语从句), in order to/that…目的状语从句
They set out early so that they might arrive in time. 目的状语从句 Say slowly so that I can understand it.   It was raining, so that we could not go out. 结果状语从句(原因)

 

3.常用近义连词的用法辨析

 

(1) while, when, as

这三个连词都可引导时间状语从句,但用法有所不同。

 

1) 当某事正在进行的时候,又发生了另一件事。While, when, as 都可用来引导表示“背景”的时间状语从句。例如:

As/When/While I was walking down the street I noticed a police car.

 

2) 当两个长动作同时进行的时候,最常用的是while。例如:

While mother was cooking lunch, I was doing my homework.

 

3) 当两个动作都表示发展变化的情况时,最常用的是as。例如:

As children get older, they become more and more interested in things around them.

 

4) 当两个短动作同时发生时,或表示“一边…一边…”时,最常用as。例如:

Just as he caught the fly, he gave a loud cry.

She looked behind from time to time as she went.

 

5) 当从句的动作先于主句的动作时,通常用when。例如:

When he finished his work, he took a short rest.

 

6) 当从句是瞬间动作,主句是延续性动作时,通常用when。例如:

When John arrived I was cooking lunch.

 

(2)as, because, since , for

这四个词都可表原因,但用法有区别。

 

1) 如果原因构成句子的最主要部分,一般用because。因此,because引导的从句往往放在句末。例如:

I stayed at home because it rained.

---Why aren’t you going?

---Because I don’t want to.

 

2) 如果原因已被人们所知,或不如句子的其它部分重要,就用as或since。Since比as稍微正式一点。As和since 引导的从句一般放在句子的开头。例如:

As he wasn’t ready, we left without him.

Since I have no money, I can’t buy any food.

 

3) for用来补充说明一种理由,因此,for引导的从句几乎可以放在括号里。For引导的句子不放在句子的开头。例如:

I decided to stop and have lunch,for I was feeling quite hungry.

 

(3)if, whether

if和whether都可作“是否”讲,在引导宾与从句是一般可互换。例如:

I wonder whether (if) you still study in that school.

I don’t know whether (if) he likes that film.

在下列情况下,只能用whether,不能用if:

 

1) 在不定式前。例如:

I haven’t made up my mind whether to go there or not.

 

2)用or并列两项以上时。例如:

I don’t now whether he comes  or not.

 

(4)so…that, such...that

 

1) so…that中的so是个副词,其后只能跟形容词或副词,而such...that中的such是个形容词,后接名词或名词短语。例如:

I’m so tired that I can’t walk any farther.

It was such a warm day that he went swimming.

 

2) 如果在名词之前有many, much, little, few时,用so,不用such。例如:

He has so little education that he is unable to get a job.

I have had so many falls that I am black and blue all over.

 

(5)either…or…, neither…nor, not only…but also…

这三个连词词组都可连接两个并列成分。当它们连接两个并列主语时,

谓语动词要随相邻的主语变化。例如:

Either you or he is wrong.

Neither he nor his children like fish.

Not only the teacher but also the students want to buy the book.

 

(6)although, but

这两个连词不能用在同一个句子中。例如:我们不能说“Although he is over sixty, but he works as hard as others.”这个句子应改为:Although he is over sixty, he works as hard as others.或He is over sixty, but he works as hard as others.

 

(7)because, so

这两个连词同样不能用在同一个句子中。例如:我们不能说“Because John was ill, so I took him to the doctor.” 这个句子应改为Because John was ill, I took him to the doctor.或John was ill, so I took him to the doctor.

 

专项复习:状语从句

 

时间状语从句  when, while, as, before, after, since, until, till, once, as soon as…,2.

地点状语从句  where,wherever

原因状语从句  because, since, as, for, now that

目的状语从句  in order that, so that, that

结果状语从句  so…that, so that, such…that

条件状语从句  if, unless, as(so)long as

让步状语从句  though, although, even if, even though, however, whatever,

比较状语从句  as…as, so…as, than

 

一,时间状从

 

【考点笔记】

时间状语从句常用从属连词when, while, as, before, after, until, till, as soon as, since等来引导。

{例句}

When you think you know nothing, then you begin to know something.当你以为自己一无所知的时候,你就是在开始知道一些事物了。

 

When truth is buried under the ground it grows, it chokes, it gathers such an explosive force that on the day it bursts out , it blows up everything with it.当真理被埋在地下的时候,它在生长,它感到压抑,它蓄存着这么一种爆炸性力量,一旦冒出,它就会炸破一切!

 

Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。

 

Will you watch my clothes while I have a swim. 我游泳的时候,请你照看一下我的衣服。

 

You can feel the air moving as your hand pushes through it. 当你的手在空气中挥动的时候,你就能感觉到空气在流动。

 

Our headmaster laughed as she spoke.我们的校长边谈边笑。

 

1,when, while和as的区别:

 

1),when引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。并且when有时表示“就在那时”。

例如:

When she came in, I stopped eating.她进来时,我在吃饭。(瞬时动词)

When I lived in the countryside, I used to carry some water for him.当的住在农村时,我常常为他担水。(延续性的动词)

We were about to leave when he came in.我们就要离开,就在那时他进来了。

 

2),While引导的从句的谓语动作必须是延续性的,并强调主句和从句的动作同时发生(或者相对应)。并且while有时还可以表示对比。

例如:

While my wife was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV. (was reading是延续性的动词,was reading和was watching同时发生)

I like playing football while you like playing basketball.我喜欢踢足球,而你喜欢打篮球。(对比)

 

 

 

3),As表示“一边……一边”,as引导的动作是延续性的动作,一般用于主句和从句动作同时发生;as也可以强调“一先一后。

例如:

We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱。(as表示“一边……一边”)As we was going out, it began to snow.当我们出门时,开始下雪了。(as强调句中两个动作紧接着先后发生,而不强调开始下雪的特定时间)

 

2.由before和after引导的时间状语从句。

注意before引导的从句不再用否定式的谓语,并且当before引导的从句位于主句之后,有时译成“就,才”。还要注意主句和从句之间的时间关系。当主句用将来时,从句总是用现在时;如果before引导的从句谓语用的是过去时,则主句动词多用过去完成时,这样以便体现动作发生的先后。After表示主句动作发生在从句动作之后。主句和从句的动作的时间关系正好与before引导的从句相反。

 

例如:

It will be four days before they come back. 他们要过四天才能回来。

Einstein almost knocked me down before he saw me.爱因斯坦几乎把我撞倒才看到我。

My father had left for Canada just before the letter arrived.我父亲恰好在信到之前去加拿大了。

They had not been married four months before they were divorced. 他们结婚还不到四个月就离婚了。

After you think it over, please let me know what you decide.你仔细考虑过以后,告诉我你是怎样决定的。

After we had finished the work, we went home.完成工作之后,我们回家了。(从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去时)

 

3.由till或until引导的时间状语从句。

till和until一般情况下两者可以互换,但是在强调句型中多用until。并且要注意的是:如果主句中的谓语动词是瞬时动词时,必须用否定形式;如果主句中的谓语动词是延续性动词时,用肯定或否定形式都可以,但表达的意思不同。till不可以用在句首,而until可以放在句首。

 

例如:

I didn't go to bed until(till) my father came back.直到我父亲回来我才上床睡觉。

It was not until the meeting was over that he began to teach me English.直到散会之后他才开始教我英语。

I worked until he came back.我工作到他回来为止。

I didn't work until he came back.他回来我这才开始工作。

Please wait until I arrived.在我到达之前请等我。

 

4.由since引导的时间状语从句。

since引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。一般情况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主句的谓语动词用现在完成时。但在It is +时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。

 

例如:

I have been in Beijing since you left. 自从你离开以来,我一直在北京了。

Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪里去了?

It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. 我妹妹不在北京住有四年了。

 

It is five months since our boss was in Beijing.我们老板离开北京有五个月了。

 

5.由as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the instant, the minute, 等引导的时间状语从句。这些连词都表示“一……就”。

 

例如:

I will go there directly I have finished my breakfast. 吃完早饭,我立即到那里去。

The moment I heard the news, I hastened to the spot.我一听到消息,马上赶到了出事地点。

As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up. 我一到加拿大,就给你来电话。

 

【注意】

hardly(scarcely, rarely)…when / before, no sooner…than相当于as soon as之意。主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。当hardly, scarcely, rarely和no sooner位于句首时,主句应用倒装语序。

 

例如:

He had no sooner arrived home than he was asked to start on another journey. 他刚到家,就被邀请开始另一旅程。

No sooner had the sun shown itself above the horizon than he got out of bed to commence work.太阳刚从地平线上升起,他就起床劳动去了。

Hardly had I sat down when he stepped in.我刚坐下,他就进来了。

He had hardly fallen asleep when he felt a soft touch on his shoulder.这个阿拉伯人刚要入睡就感到肩膀上被轻轻一触。

 

6.由by the time引导的时间状语从句。

注意时态的变化:在一般情况下,如果从句的谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的谓语动词用过去完成时;如果从句的谓语动词用一般现在时,主句的谓语动词用将来完成时。

 

例如:

By the time you came back, I had finished this book.到你回来时,我已经写完这本书了。

By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work. 你明天来这儿的时候,我将已经完成此工作了。

 

7.由each time, every time和whenever引导的时间状语从句。

 

例如:

Each time he came to Harbin, he would call on me. 他每次来哈尔滨,总是来看我。

Whenever that man says“To tell the truth”, I suspect that he's about to tell a lie.每当那个人说“说实在话”的时候,我猜想他就要说谎了。

You grow younger every time I see you. 每次遇到你,见你更年轻了。

 

8.由as long as和so long as引导的时间状语从句。

这两个连词表示“只要“

 

例如:

You can go where you like as long as you get back before dark. 你可以随意到哪里去,只要在天黑以前回来就行。

I will fight against these conditions as long as there is a breath in my body! 只要我一息尚存,我就要反对这种境况。

 

{特殊考察点}:V.时态(主将从现/主情从现/主祈从现)

当主句是祈使句或谓语动词是一般将来时态或情态动词时,其时间状语从句中的谓语动词常用一般现在时态表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态。就是 “主将从现”。

例如,

When Tom comes back tomorrow, I will tell him the good news.

We will go to the park as soon as Tom comes back. 

 

 

 

二,条件状语从句

 

【考点笔记】

 

1,if如果:

引导条件状语从句最常用的连词是if,由if引导的条件状语从句表示在某种条件下某事很可能发生。

例如:If you ask him, he will help you.如果你请他帮忙,他会帮你的。

If you fail in the exam, you will let him down.如果你考试不及格,你会让他失望的。

另外,if从句还表示不可实现的条件或根本不可能存在的条件,也就是一种虚拟的条件或假设,从句多用一般过去时或过去完成时。

如:If I were you, I would invite him to the party.如果我是你,我会邀请他参加聚会。

2,unless = if...not.  除非,若不,除非在……的时候

例如:Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired.

=If you are not too tired, let's go out for a walk.

Unless it rains, the game will be played.除非下雨,比赛将照常进行。

3、so/as long as只要

例句;You may borrow my book as long as you keep it clean. 只要你保持书的清 洁,你就可以把我的书借去。

So long as you’re happy, it doesn’t matter what you do.   只要你高兴,你做什么都没有关系。

二、时态问题

在条件状语从句中,要注意“主将从现”的规定,即主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时表示将来时。

例句: I will come to see you if I have time.   我有时间,我就来看你。

常见考法

对于条件状语从句的考查,多以单选和完形填空的形式,从时态的角度设题,考查学生灵活运用的能力,或从连词的意义角度让大家选择连词。

典型例题:If he ___in half an hour,we ___wait for him.

  1. won't come ,won't B.won't come ,don't

C.doesn't come ,won't D.will come ,don't

解析:本题考查条件状语从句“主将从现”的运用。题干的意思是“如果他一小时后不来,我们将不会等他了”,从“in half an hour”,“一小时后”可知本句说的是未来的事,那么if引导的条件状语从句要用一般现在时表示将来时,主句要用一般将来时。

答案:C

误区提醒

if 既可以引导条件状语从句,表示“如果”,也可以引导宾语从句,表达“是否”。辨别它在这两种从句中的时态是我们经常容易出错的地方。另外,if 和unless的用法也需注意。

典型例题: ----I wonder if your wife to the party.

----If your wife _________, so will mine。.

  1. will go, go B. will go, goes

C.goes, will go D. will go, will go

解析:第一句中if表示“是否”,引导宾语从句,用将来时will go;第二句“如果你的妻子去,我的妻子也去”,if引导条件状语从句,用一般现在时表示将来时。 your wife,单三人称主语,所以用goes 。

答案:B

 

三,原因状语从句

 

【考点笔记】

1,because,since,as,for都可用来引导原因状语从句,那么它们又有哪些区别呢?

①because用来表示“造成某种结果的直接原因”,语气较浓,常用来回答why提出的问句。

②as和since用来表示“看的到的或是不说也知道的原因”,since也可译作:“既然”。

③for引导的原因状语从句不置于句首,常用来表示“顺便提及的理由”,只是稍带说明原因,并非强调。

1).I didn’t go to school yesterday because I was ill.

我昨天没去上学,因为我生病了。
2). Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting.

既然大家都来了, 让我们开始开会吧.
3). As you are in poor health, you should not stay up late.

既然你身体不好, 你就不该熬夜.

 

原因状语从句应注意的问题
1、because , since , as , for,辨析
1)because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答why提出的问题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as或 since。
I didn’t go, because I was afraid.
Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.
2)由because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗 号,则可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for。例:
He is absent today, becaus e / for he is ill.   He must be ill, for he is absent today.
3) as和for的区别:通常情况下,as引导的从句在主句前,for引导的从句在主句后。例:   As the weather is cold, I stay at home.(同义句)   I stay at home, for the weather is cold.

2、because习惯上不与so连用
汉语习惯上说“因为…所以…”,但英语习惯上却不能将 so与because 连用:
正:Because it was raining, we stayed at home. / It was raining, so we stayed at home.
误:Because it was raining, so we stayed at home. 因为下雨,所以我们呆在家里。

3、because 从句与 because of短语的转换
Because引导的原因状语从句有时可与because of 短语转换,其中because+句子,because of+短语
He can’t come because he is ill. / He can’t come because of his illness. 他因病不能来。
I said nothing about it because his wife was there.  因为他妻子在那儿,我对此事只字未提。

【真题精练】

 

1、 I was late for class yesterday _______ there was something wrong with my bike.

  1. when  B. that  C. until  D. because

2、I didn’t hear the phone because my father ______ TV then.

A.is watching        B.was watching         C.watched          D.watches

3, ____ you’ve got a chance, you might as well make full use of it. (1999)

  1. Now that  B. After  C. Although  D. As soon as

4, He found it increasingly difficult to read, ____ his eyesight was beginning to fail.

  1. and B. for C. but D. or

5, A man cannot smile like a child, ____ a child smiles with his eyes, while a man smiles with his lips alone. (2006湖南)

  1. so B. but C. and D. for

 

 

四,地点状语从句

1、地点状语从句类型
 1)Where+地点从句。 此句型通常译成“哪里……哪里就……”或“····的地方”。例如:  Where there is no rain, farming is difficult or impossible.在没有雨水的地方,耕作是困难的,或根本不可能的。
They were good persons. Where they went,  they were warmly welcomed. 他们都是好人。因此他们走到哪里都受到热烈欢迎。
You should have put the book where you found it. 你本来应该把书放回原来的地方。    We must camp where we can get water.   我们必须在能找到水的地方露营。
2)Anywhere/ wherever+地点从句,+主句。
anywhere本身是个副词,但是,常可以引导从句,相当于连词,意思相似于wherever, anywhere引导的从句可位于主句之前,也可以位于主句之后。 而wherever本身就是个连词,表示“在何处,无论何处”。例如:
Wherever the sea is , you will find seamen.有海就有海员。

 

五,目的状语从句

考点:

(1)目的状语从句中常含有can,could,may,might,should等情态动词。

例如:
I got up early so that I could catch the first bus.

我起得很早,目的是为了赶上头班公共汽车。
(2)在口语中so可以引导目的状语从句。例如:
We'll sit nearer the front so we can hear better.

我们坐的靠前一点,因此,我们听得清楚一点。
1、in order that与in order to的区别:
in order that+从句   in order to+动词原形 ( in order to后面加的那个不叫目的状语从句,叫目的状语) 例如:
He got up early in order to take the first bus.
= He got up early in order that he could take the first bus.(他起床很早是为了赶上第一班 公共汽车)
目的状语从句的一个特点:由于目的都是未来的行为,所以从句中一般用表示未来可能性时态,比如上面句中的could。当然还可以用will,would,can,等 。

2、so that既可引导目的状语从句,也可以引导结果状语从句。
1)其引导结果状语从句时,so that翻译为“以至于...”,经常可以和so/such...that...转换,且从句只能放在主句之后。

如:He got up late so that he was late for school. = He got up so late that he was late for school.
2)其引导目的状语从句时,从句只能放在主句之后,此时可以和in order that换用。

如:He got up early so that he could take the first bus.  = He got up early in order that he could take the first bus.

 

考点讲解:

让步状语从句是指由从属连词even if/though, no matter , though, although等引导的状语从句,表示虽然,即使,尽管,不管等意。

eg:Even if/though it rains hard, I will go.

即使/虽然下大雨,我也要去。

No matter what happens, I will be with you.

无论发生什么,我都会和你在一起。

Though it sounds strange, it is true.

尽管它听起来奇怪,但它是真实的。

Tip:【易错】★在复合句中,though/although不能与but连用,但是可以和yet连用。

eg:_________________ it rained hard,(yet)they kept on working.

尽管下着大雨,他们(仍旧)继续工作。

 

 

 

 

八,比较状语从句

 

考点讲解:

比较状语从句是指引导比较关系的状语从句,比较状语从句通常由as...as, not/so as...as, than等引导。比较状语从句中的从句部分常用省略句。

 

eg:I’m older ____ he(is).

我比他岁数大。

Tom is not as tall as Jim.

汤姆没有吉姆高。

Tip:  当比较对象不一致的时候,单数使用that,复数使用those代替。

The weather in Shanghai is warmer than that of Beijing.

上海的天气比北京更暖和。

The apples in this store are much delicious than those of that store.

这家店的苹果比那家店的苹果好吃得多。

 

 

 

定语从句

考点:

定义:定语从句,在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。

 

  • 定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。 关系副词有:when, where, why等。

 

(1)关系代词引导的定语从句: 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

  • who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2 ) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

  • which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语) The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语 )

 

  • 关系副词引导的定语从句: 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
  • when, where, why 关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如: There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?
  • that代替关系副词 that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如: His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。 He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

 

温馨提示:用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

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