中考英语语法知识点归纳之复合句

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2020年8月3日13:01:33 6905字阅读23分1秒

中考英语语法知识点归纳之复合句(含练习和解析)

一、宾语从句

含义:在句中担当宾语的从句叫宾语从句.

  1. 引导词:
  • 宾语从句中陈述句的引导词用that(可省略),例如He tells me that he is going shopping this Sunday.
  • 引导一般疑问句用if\whether,例如She asked me if\whether she could join us. 但是以下情况只能用whether,例如①当后面加带to的不定式时 She doesn’t know whether to go to the zoo. ②与or not连用时,I‘m not sure whether or not he will come on time.
  • 引导特殊疑问句,要用原来的特殊疑问词,且引导词要在句中充当对应的成分,不能省略,例如She asked them what they were doing.
  1. 语序:引导词+陈述句语序。例如:I want to know when the train left.
  2. 时态:
  • 主句为一般现在时,一般将来时或祈使句,宾语从句可根据实际需要选择各种时态。

如:He tells us that he has been able to look after himself.

  • 主句为一般过去时,宾语从句应使用过去时的相应时态。

如:They said that they had already finished the work.

  • 如果宾语从句叙述的是客观事实,真理,自然现象等,不管主句用什么时态,从句都用一般现在时。

 

  1. 否定转移:

当主句的主语为第一人称时,从句的否定要转移到主句中,其反义疑问句要与从句一致。

例如:

I don’t think they will wait to the last minute.

I don’t believe he did this, did he?

 

宾语从句练习题

  1. -Hello, Jack. Haven't, seen you for long. I am calling to check _________ you are.
    - Very well. I'm glad you called.
    how  B. what    C .where    D. who

答案:选A,依句意是问候how are you
2. - Can you guess _________the new Nike sports shoes?
-Yes. Maybe he asked his grandpa to pay for them, I think.
A. how he paid for               B. where lie bought
C. when he paid for              D. why he bought

答案:选A,依句意是问新鞋子如何付款,所以用how pay
3. - Can you tell me _______?
- He is in the library.
A, where was Jack   B. where Jack was
C, where is Jack     D. where Jack is

答案:选D,时态与回答一致,一般现在时,且宾语从句语序为陈述语序

  1. -Can you tell me ________?
    - With Lucy's help.
    when you did it so well           B. when did you do it so well
    C. how you did it so well            D. how did you do it so well

答案:选C,,依句意是问方式,所以要用how, 且宾语从句语序为陈述语序
5. - Could you tell me    ________?
- Of course.
A. where's there a good place to eat     B. where there's a good place to eat
C. where is a good place to eat         D. where a good place to eat

答案:选B,宾语从句语序为陈述语序
6. - Excuse me. could you tell me ______?
-In the supermarket.
A. where 1 can buy this kind of CD player    B. where can I buy this kind of CD player
C. if I can buy this kind of CD player       D. if can I buy this kind of CD player

答案:选A,句意为问在哪里买,要用where,且宾语从句语序为陈述语序

  1. The math problem is so hard. I really don't know_____.
    how to do it    B. how to do    C. what to do it

答案:选A,句意为不知道如何做这道题,,用how。
8. These animals are in danger. We should think ________ to protect them.
A. what can we do         B. what we can do

  1. how can we do         D. how we can do

答案:选B,句意为我们要做些事情来保护这些动物,正确语序为we can do what to ...
9. -Have you got any idea for the summer vacation?
-I don't mind           . It will be OK if there is sun, sea and beach.
A. where do we go       B. where we go            C. when we go

答案:选B,回答”有太阳,海洋和沙滩的话会很好”,所以是问地点,宾语从句后面用陈述句。

  1. Have you decided ________for Australia?
  2. when will you leave       B. when do you leave
  3. you will leave when       D. when you will leave

答案:选D,宾语从句是引导词+陈述句。

  1. I think _______ you will like him.
  2. that   B. if     C. why       D. how

答案:选A,这里是肯定句,think后接that表示“认为”

  1. I didn’t know _______ he will come or not.
  2. that  B. whether  C. weather   D. how

答案:选B,固定结构“whether or not”注意B和C的区别,C表示天气

  1. I wonder _________ .
  2. how much cost these shoes        B. how much do these shoes cost

C.how much these shoes cost            D. how much are these shoes cost

答案:选C,宾语从句后接陈述句语序

  1. She asked me _________ .
  2. who he was   B. who was he  C. who is he  D. who he is

答案:选A,考察时态,当主句为一般过去时,从句为过去的某种时态

  1. The doctor asked me how long ________ .
  2. was I ill        B.  have I been ill   C. I have been ill   D. I had been ill

答案:选D,考察时态,当主句为一般过去时,从句为过去的某种时态

 

二、定语从句

含义:在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。

  1. 先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词或代词。如:The girlwho is beautiful is Kate.

(句子主句是The girl is Kate,绿色部分就是定语从句,用来修饰girl,所以girl就是先行词,)

  1. 关系词:引导定语从句且在定语从句中充当句子成分的词。 如上述句子中的who就是关系词。

一般有关系代词和关系副词。

  • 关系代词:先行词指人或物时,关系代词一般有who, whom, whose, which, that。

The teacher who is standing there is my brother. (指人,作主语)

He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. (指人,作宾语)

The insect which scared her was dangerous. (指物,作主语)

The little girl whose mother is a nurse cries. (指人,作定语)
The bread whose price is very high tastes great. (指物,作主语)

  • 关系副词: 先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。关系副词一般有when, where, why。

There are occasions when (on which) one must lie. (when相当于on occasions)
Tianjin is the place where (in which) I was born. (where相当于in the place)
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? (why相当于for the reason)

  1. 基本形式:先行词(人/物)+关系代词/ 关系副词+定语从句

This is the book (that) you lent me. (book为先行词,that为关系词,这里在句子中作宾语,可省略)

  1. 特殊情况:
  2. 定语从句中关系代词只能用that,如下:

1)先行词为形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰时,如the most, the best等;

如:This is the most interesting film that  I’ve never seen.  (the most interesting为最高级)

2)先行词为序数词或被序数词修饰时,如the first, second等;

如: What is the first foreign film that you have ever seen?  (the first foreign film序数词)

3)先行词为不定代词时,不定代词有:something, everything, anything, nothing, all, some. Much, little, none, few等);

如:Do you have anything that you don’t understand? (anything为不定代词)

4)先行词既指人又指物时,只能用that;

如:Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? (先行词为things and persons)

5)当主句是以who或者which开头的特殊疑问句时

如: Who is the person that is standing at the gate?

6)先行词前有the only,the very等修饰时

如:After the fire, the old car was the only thing that he owned.(先行词为the only thing)

  • 当主语是以here,there开头且先行词是指物的名词时

如:Here is the book that you are looking for.

  1. 定语从句中关系代词只能用which,如下:

1)在介词后面的关系代词用which而不能用that。即“介词+which(代物)”

如:The building in which Han Mei studied was very old.

2)在非限定性定语从句中不能用that。

如:Crusoe's dog, which was very old now, became ill and died.

3)有两个定语从句,其中一个关系代词已有which,另一个宜用that。相反,如果其中一个为that,另一个宜用which。

如:Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.

( 注意这里是两个定语从句,which produced things修饰factory,  that had never been seen before修饰things)

 

定语从句练习题

  1. Please pass me the cartoon book _________ has a Mickey Mouse on the cover.
    whom        B. whose          C. who            D. which
    答案:选D ,关系代词指物,A和C均指人,B后面要加名词
    2.-What kind of movies do you like?
    . -I like the move ______ are about Chinese history.
    A. who   B. whom  C. whose   D which
    答案:选D ,关系代词指物,同上题
    3. Most students like the teachers ______understand them well
    A. who    B. when   C. what    D. which

答案:选A ,关系代词指人,BCD均不复合

4.- What are you looking for ?
- I'm looking for the pen________my father gave me last week.
A- who B. which C, whose D. whom
答案:选B ,关系代词指物
5. --- Do you know the girl_____ is helping the old woman.
-Oh, that's my sister,
A. whom      B. whose       C. who        D. where

答案:选C ,要用作主语的关系代词,用who
6. Steve Jobs is one of the persons _____ founded Apple Computer Company. His death  marked the end of an era (时代).
A. who            B. whom                C. which            D. /

答案:选A ,关系代词指人,用who

7.The little boy was wrapping the present _____ would be sent to his teacher.
A. who         B. /           C. what           D. that

答案:选D ,关系代词指物,作主语时that不能省略
8. Mr. Smith __________ is smoking is looking for________ she lost yesterday.

A. whom; which      B. who; what    C. that; who        D. which; where
答案:选B ,前半句关系代词指人,用who;后半句是一个宾语从句:丢失的东西用what来指代,look for what she lost.

9. Success will belong to those ________never say "impossible".
A. whom B. what C. who D. which

答案:选C ,关系代词指人,whom可指人但只能作宾语,所以用who

  1. I still remember the time_____we spent together at Xisai Mountain last year.
    when    B.what    C.who   D.which

答案:选A ,关系代词指in the time一段时间,所以用关系副词when
11. One of the most delicious drinks _________ I like is orange juice.
A. which        B. that        C. whose        D. whom

答案:选B ,先行词是最高级,关系代词只能用that
12. -There are so many girls over there. Which one is your sister?
-The one ______hat is yellow.
A. who         B. whose        C. that        D. which

答案:选B ,句意为某人的帽子,显然用所有格形式,用whose

  1. 13. "What do you think of the school uniforms?" "Very good. I like clothes ______ make me feel comfortable."
    that              B. what               C. who
    答案:选A ,关系代词指物,用that
    14. There will be a flower show in the park______we visited last week.

    A. who    B. when    C. what    D. Which
    答案:选D ,先行词是park,还原句子是visited the park,关系代词指物用which
    15. -Now many people smoke and get ill.
    -So we should do something ______ can help stop smoking.
    A. what    B. who    C. /      D. that

答案:选D ,先行词是不定代词,根据规则只能用that

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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