人教版八年级英语下册知识点归纳

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2020年4月1日14:53:04 25768字阅读85分53秒

新人教版八年级英语下册知识点归纳

 

Unit 1  What’s the matter?

重点短语:

have a stomachache               have a cold                 lie down

take one’s temperature             have a fever                go to a doctor

to one’s surprise                  agree to (do sth.)            get into trouble

be used to                       take risks                  run out (of)

cut off                          get out of                  be in control of

keep on ( doing sth.)             give up

语言知识归纳:

  1. What’s the matter (with you)?

此句用来询问别人的病情。类似的句子还有:

What’s wrong with you?/ What’s the trouble?

matter作动词用,意为“要紧”“有关系”,主要用于疑问句和否定句。

What does it matter?    It doesn’t matter.

【例题】Does it ________ if we can’t finish it today?

  1. mind    B. minds    C. matter       D. matters
  2. I have a sore throat.

have “患病”,常用“have a /an+ 名词”.

have a cold               have a fever             have a sore back

have a stomachache        have a cough

【例题】(      )---Does he often have ______ cold?    ---Yes. He also _____a cough and a sore throat.

  1. a; hasB. /; has    C. a; have   D. /; have

3.Lie down and rest! 躺下休息

lie down 躺下

单词 词义 过去式 过去分词 现在分词
lie 说谎 lied lied lying
lie 躺,平放 lay lain lying

 

 

 

 

4.That’s probably why. 那可能就是原因。

probably意为“很可能,大概”,表示的可能性很大,是一种近乎肯定的意思。

  1. hurt 使受伤;伤害;疼痛

He hurt his leg when he fell. 他摔伤的时候伤了腿。

My feelings were hurt when he didn’t ask me to the party.他没有请我参加聚会使我很伤心。

  1. The bus driver, 24-year-old Wang Ping...公交车司机,24岁的王平……

24-year-old 是用连字符连接数字和名词所构成的一个形容词结构,意思是“24岁的”。

(名词必须用单数,常用在名词前做定语)

【例题】A____girl named DongXinyi looked after her disabled father.

  1. three-year-old   B. three-years-old    C. Three years old
  2. expect 期待;预期;期盼

expect的常见用法:

expect+名词/代词 The old man is expecting his daughter’s visit.
expect to do sth.  I expect to get a birthday present from my dad.
expect sb. to do sth. Do you expect him to teach you English?
expect +从句 I expect that you will get there soon.

【辨析】expect与look forward to

两者都有期待的意思 look forward to doing sth.

I’m looking forward to seeing Tom.

  1. But to his surprise...但是令他吃惊的是……

to one’s surprise 表示“令人惊奇的是……”,相当于“主语+be+surprised”

To his surprise, he found the girl was bind.

= He was surprised to find the girl was blind. 令他惊奇的是,他发现这个女孩是个盲人。

【拓展】in surprise表示“惊奇的”,相当于副词性短语,用来修饰动词。

The two girls looked at each other in surprise. 那两个女孩惊奇地互相看着。

be surprised at表示“对……感到惊讶”。

We are very surprised at the news. 听到这个消息,我们很诧异。

surprising 表示“使人惊奇的”,作表语时,主语是事物。

  1. They don’t want any trouble. 他们不想惹麻烦。

① trouble用作名词,意为“烦恼,困难,麻烦,疾病等”。

His life is full of trouble. 他的生活充满了烦恼。

What’s the trouble? 怎么了?

② trouble用作动词,意为“麻烦,打扰”。

I’m sorry to trouble you. 抱歉打扰你。

【拓展】与trouble相关的短语

in trouble处于困境中            get into trouble陷入困境

Have trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难

【例题】-How is your English study?   -Not bad. But I_____learning English grammar.

  1. am interested   B. am good at   C. have a little trouble  D. have no trouble
  2. 辨析used to do sth.   与   be used to sth. / doing sth.

↓                         ↓

过去常常……         习惯于某事/做某事

We used to draw pictures badly.

You will get used to the weather here.

In the end, I got used to doing hard work.

  1. 辨析 run out 与run out of

人+ run out of                     They have run out of the water.

物+ run out (不可用于被动语态)    The money is running out.

【例题】选出能代替句中画线部分的一项

(  ) Yesterday I used up all the salt to cook dumplings. I need to buy some now.

  1. ate up       B. run out of       C. ran of       D. ran out of
  2. make decisions = make a decision 作出决定

decision为decide的名词形式

make a decision to do sth. = decide to do sth.

  1. be in control of  管理;控制

A teacher should be in control of his class.

重点语法:情态动词should的用法

(1)should后接动词原形,变否定句在should后加not, 变一般疑问句时将should提前。

(2)should常用于以下两种情况:

① 提出建议

You looked tired. You should lie down and rest.

② 表推测,意为“该,按理应当”。

Wait a minute. I think he should come in a minute.

 

Unit 2  I’ll help to clean up the city parks.

重点短语:

clean up                      by oneself                    cheer up

put off                       give out                      put on

used to                       give away                    take after

set up                        make a difference              care for

come up with

语言知识归纳:

  1. give out 分发,发放

【拓展】give构成的短语还有:

give away 赠给,赠送            give in 屈服,投降

give up 放弃                    give off 发出(气味、光、热等)

2.come up with 提出,想出

(1)表示“想出或提出”,相当于think of

I think she can come up with a good idea

(2)come up with还可表示 “赶上”,相当于catch up with.

We should study hard to come up with them

【例题】(  ) We must _____a plan to improve your math.

  1. pick up   B. catch up with   C. come up with    D. make up
  2. I’v run out of it. 我已经把它用完了。

run out of 表示 “用完,用光”,其主语一般是人。

【拓展】run out of 还可表示“从……跑出来”。

Bill ran out of the room.  Bill从房间里跑出来。

run构成的短语还有

run away 逃走                run after追赶

run into difficulties遇到困难

【例题】(  ) When your money____, please come to me for some.

  1. runs out of   B. runs out   C. is running out of   D. is run out
  2. I take aftermy mother.我长得像我妈妈。

【辨析】take after 与look like

take after意为“长得像,行为、性格等像”,尤其是像自己的长辈。

The boy takes after his father. 这个男孩长得像他爸爸。

look like 可以用于所有场合,既可指人也可指物,仅指外表看上去像。

The man looks like our teacher. 这个男的看起来像我们的老师。

The rainbow looks like a bridge.  彩虹看上去像一座桥。

【拓展】take 构成的短语

take up                    take off              take place

take one’s time              take care

【例题】(  ) -You’ve really beautiful blond hair.  -Thank you. I ____my mother.

  1. look after   B. take after   C. take from    D. look for
  2. set up 创办,建立

set up 为副词短语,与start, establish同义

They’ve set up a company. 他们创办了一家公司。

与set 相关的短语还有:

set out 动身,开始(做某事)

set off 出发,引起,激发

  1. You helped to make it possible for me to have lucky. 对我来说,有了你的帮助,我才有可能拥有

it是形式宾语

You made it possible for me to catch up with others. 你让我有可能赶上其他人。

【例题】(  ) He found ___hard to go to sleep with the light on.

  1. it   B. that   C. he    D. him

7.Lucky makes a big difference to my life.    Lucky对我的生活产生了很大的影响。

make a big difference 意为“对……产生很大的影响”,difference在此为“影响”的意思。

【例题】(  ) The heavy snow didn’t ___ the international airlines.

  1. pay attention to   B. add to  C. make a difference to    D. keep to
  2. imagine v. 想象,假想;以为,认为

  imagine (v.想象)→ imagination(n.想象)→ imaginative (adj.富于想象力的)

9.help... out 帮……克服困难,帮……分担工作

The teacher often helps his students out. 那位老师经常帮他的学生解决问题。

10.be excited about... 对……兴奋

I’m excited about the game of Li Na. 我对李娜的比赛感到兴奋。

exciting 修饰物

重点语法:动词短语

  动词短语主要有以下四种构成形式:

(1) 动词+介词

这类动词短语主要有:agree with, ask for, arrive at, hear of, look at, take after, listen to等。

这类动词后的宾语无论是名词还是代词,都要放在介词之后。

I’m looking for my pen.            Don’t laugh at the poor man.

(2)动词+副词

这类动词短语有:find out, give out, look up, put on, turn on/off, wake up, work out等。

这类动词后面的宾语是名词时,名词可放在副词前面或后面;宾语是代词时,代词只能放在

副词前面。

Please pick up the pen.= Please pick the pen up.

It took him two hours to work it out.

(3)  动词+名词+介词

这类动词短语有:have a look at, make friends with, pay attention to, take care of, look forward to等。

在这类动词短语中,宾语都放在介词之后。

You should pay more attention to your pronunciation.

(4) 动词+形容词+介词

这类动词短语有:be angry with, be busy with, be good for, be different from, be interested in,

be good at等。

【例题】(1) (  ) When you don’t know a word, you can ___in the dictionary.

  1. look it up   B. set it up   C. give it up    D. pick it up

(2) (  ) We will have dinner at the restaurant, which is famous ___its sea food.

  1. of     B. to     C. for     D.as

 

Unit 3  Could you please clean your room?

重点短语:

take out the rubbish            make the bed                   all the time

borrow some money            help with housework             hang out with...

a waste of time                in order to                     as...as...

take care of                   in surprise                     do the dishes

as a result

语言知识归纳:

  1. work on 从事于;着手干

The writer is working on a new book. 那位作家正在写一本新书。

She is going to work on her physics project. 她打算从事她的物理项目。

【例题】(  ) The scientists are____inventing some methods of producing electricity.

  1. working on   B. working out   C. working at   D. working for
  2. at least 至少

at least  修饰时间、距离、长度等,以加强语气。

翻译短语位at most,意为“至多,最多”。

He kept me waiting at least an hour.

There were fifty people there at most.

  1. all the time 一直;总是

Things are changing all the time.事情一直在变化。

【拓展】time相关的短语

on time准时               at the same time同时           in time及时

From time to time偶尔       the first time第一次

【例题】选出能代替句中划线部分的一项。

(  ) I always go shopping on Friday.

  1. all the time    B. all the same    C.all along   D. all the way
  2. I’m just as tired as you are! 我和你一样累。

as...as意为“和……一样”,表示同级比较。as...as中间要用形容词或副词原级。

This story is as interesting as that one. 这个故事和那个一样有趣。

否定式为not as/so...as,意为“不如……”。

The garden is not so beautiful as you thought.

【例题】(  ) He speaks French well, but of course not____a person born in France.

A.as clear as   B. clearer than   C. as clearly as   D. the more clearly

  1. For one week, she did not do any housework and neither did I.一个星期,她不做家务,我也不做家务。

so,neither 倒装句型

So + 助动词/ be动词/ 情态动词+ 主语

Neither + 助动词/ be动词/ 情态动词+ 主语

这两种结构常用来说明前面所说的情况,后面某人(物)也是这样。助动词/ be动词/ 情态动词

在形式上与前句的谓语保持一致,而其单复形式由后句的主语决定。So依附于肯定句,neither

依附于否定句。

Bill watched TV last night. So did Ann.

Lily isn’t a teacher. Neither is Mary.

【例题】(  ) -I never drink coffee.  -______.

A.So do I   B. So did I   C. Neither did I   D. Neither do I

  1. 辨析borrow与lend

borrow sth. from sb. 向某人借(入)某物

lend sth. to sb. / lend sb. sth. 把某物借给某人

【注】borrow,lend都是非延续性动词,如果要表示“借多长时间”要用keep。

【例题】(  ) Although you like the book, you may only ___it for two weeks.

  1. borrow   B. keep    C. lend    D. stay
  2. spend v. 花费(金钱;时间)

spend + 钱/时间 + on sth.    在……上花费时间或金钱

spend + 时间 +( in) doing sth. 花时间做某事

【例题】(  ) Yang Feng ___ every Saturday afternoon volunteering in an old people’s home.

  1. costs   B. takes  C. pays    D. spends
  2. provide v. 提供;给予

provide sth.           The restaurant provide the best service.

    provide sb. with sth.    The parents provide the children with food and clothes.

provide sth. for sb.     The schools provide desks and chairs for the students.

【例题】(  ) To protect the environment, supermarkets don’t ___ free plastic bags to shoppers.

  1. take    B. show    C. provide    D. carry
  2. depend on 依靠;依赖;相信

depend on为固定短语,不能用进行时态,也不可用被动语态

As we know, good results depend on hard work.

You can’t depend on your parents forever.

  1. The earlier kids learn to be independent, the better it is for their future.孩子越早学会独立,对他们的

将来就越好。

the + 比较级...,the + 比较级...     “越……就越……”

The harder you work at your study, the better grades you will have.

【例题】(  ) -There was thick haze(雾霾) in our city this spring. What do you think of it?

-I think ___cars we drive, ____pollution our city will have.

  1. the fewer; the fewer        B. the fewer; the less
  2. The more; the fewer        D. the more; the less
  3. in order to 的用法

(1) in order to意为“为了……”,强调目的,后接动词原形。

In order to let the students hear him, he spoke loudly.

We have to study hard in order to pass the exam.

In order not to be late for school, she took a taxi.

  • 含in order to的句子可以转变为由so that或in order that 引导的状语从句。

She ran quickly in order to catch the bus.

She ran quickly in order that she could catch the bus.

She ran quickly so that she could catch the bus.

  1. as a result的用法

as a result用于引出结果,常用于两个句子之间,其中一个是另一个的结果,且前后用标点符号

将两个句子隔开,意为“结果是”。

He didn’t listen carefully. As a result, he couldn’t work out the maths problem.

【注】as a result of 的意思是“由于,因为”, 相当于because of。

Peter was late as a result of the heavy rain.= Peter was late because of the heavy rain.

【例题】(  ) The boy studied hard.  ______, he passed the exam.

  1. Ia fact    B. On time    C. After all    D. As a result

 

 

Unit 4  Why don’t you talk to your parents?

重点短语:

look through                   work out                    get on with

cut out                        compare...with               in one’s opinion

a big deal                      so that                      get into a fight

communicate with               not...until...                   call sb. up

instead of

语言知识归纳:

  1. Why don’t you talk to your parents?

Why don’t you do sth.= Why not do sth. “为什么不……?”

【拓展】提出建议的句型

①What/How about doing sth.? 做某事怎么样?

②Shall we do sth.?      我们做某事好吗?

③You’d better(not) do sth. 你最好(不)做某事。

④Why don’t you do sth.   为什么不做某事呢?

⑤Would you mind doing sth.? 你介意做某事吗?

  1. allow v.允许,许可

① allow sb. to do sth. “允许某人做某事“

My parents allow me to play computer game on weekends.

② allow doing sth.  “允许做某事”

She doesn’t allow smoking in her house.

③ allow+名词

We can’t allow such a thing.

【例题】(  ) Do you often allow____until 11:00 p.m.

  1. to stay up    B. stay up    C. staying up    D. and stay up
  2. work out 产生……效果,进展……

Things worked out quite well for us. 对我们来说,事情进展很好。

He worked out the maths problem. 他算出了这道数学题。

Can you work out the problem alone? 你一个人能把问题搞清楚吗?

  1. communicate v. 交流信息;沟通

I can’t communicate with them at the moment. 此刻我无法同他们进行交流。

communication n.交流

People can’t get on well with each other without communication. 没有交流,人们就无法相处得好。

【例题】选出能代替句中划线部分的一项。

(  )People choose to keep in touch with their friends by e-mail.

  1. write    B. read    C.agree   D. communicate
  2. argue vi. 争论;争吵

argue with sb. 与某人争论

Don’t argue with your parents. 不要和你的父母争论。

argue的名词形式是 “argument”, have an argument with sb. 与某人辩论。

Alice hand an argument with her best friend.

【例题】(  )I never argue ____my parents.

A.in     B.to     C.for    D.with

  1. instead adv.代替,顶替

If you are busy, you may come another day instead.

【辨析】instead 与instead of

 instead 副词 舍前取后,可单独使用,位于句首或句末。
instead of 介词短语 舍后取前,后面常跟名词,代词及动词ing。

He didn’t answer. He asked his father instead.

We eat rice instead of noodles.

【例题】(  ) What a nice day! We should go sightseeing ____watching TV in the hotel.

A.because of     B. instead of     C.together with    D.out

 

  1. offer v.提供;提出;建议

① offer 做“提供”讲时,可接双宾语。

offer sth. to sb.= offer sb. sth.   向某人提供某物

The waitress offered a cup of tea to the man.= The waitress offered the man a cup of tea.

② offer还有“提出,建议”的意思,其后接不定式,表示主动提出做某事。

The old man offered to lend the boy some money.

【例题】(  ) The little boy ___ his seat to an old lady on the crowded bus.

  1. lent   B. offered   C. took    D. brought
  2. And they are always comparing them with other children.

compare 作动词,意为“比较, 和……相比”。

① compare...with...  把……同……相比较

Parents shouldn’t always compare their children with others.

父母们不该总是把自己的孩子同别人相比较。

② compare...to... 把……比作……

People often compare the life to a stage. 人们常把生活比作一个舞台。

【例题】(  ) My handwriting can not be compared___ my father’s.

  1. to     B. with     C. on     D.for
  2. My cousin borrows my things without returning

① return 意为“归还”,其后可接双宾语

return sb. sth. = return sth. to sb.

Don’t forget to return me the keys.

② return 还有“返回”的意思,相当于go back, 后接地点时需要介词to。

He returned to Shanghai a week ago.

【例题】①那本书你还给图书馆了吗?

Did you _______the book_______the library?

②(  ) I don’t know when we will _______Hong Kong.

  1. return back   B. return to   C. return back to   D.return

 

Unit 5 What were you doing when the rainstorm came?

 

重点短语:

go off                       pick up                     fall asleep

die down                     make one’s way               in silence

take down                    at first                       wait for

in a mess                     the rest of                    have meaning to

basketball competition           as well                    make sure

语言知识归纳:

  1. while 当……的时候

作连词引导时间状语从句,在while引导的从句中,其谓语动词只能是延续性动词,强调主从句中

的动作或状态同时发生。

While I was watching TV, someone knocked at the door.

when意为“当……时”,动作有一前一后的意思。

When I passed that room I heard someone singing.

while 作连词时也可理解为“然而”,表示转折关系。

I like apples while my sister doesn’t.

【例题】(  ) Tom likes reading a newspaper____he is having breakfast.

A.until    B.while     C.because    D.though

(  )Mary was talking on the phone ____someone knocked at the door.

A.while    B.before     C.when    D.after

  1. make sure 查明;确信

① make sure of sth.

② make sure to do sth.

③ make sure that + 从句

【例题】(  ) Read your English paper again and ____there is no mistake in it before you hand it in.

A.make sure    B.turn up     C.come out    D.look for

  1. I got tothe bus stop but I still missed the bus.

get意为“到达”时,是不及物动词,后面跟地点名词时,要加介词to。

How can I get to the nearest supermarket ?

表示“到达”的三种形式:

① arrive 意为到达

at + 小地点

arrive   in + 大地点

② get to 后接地点名词。

He got to school at 7:00 this morning.

③ reach意为“到达”,是及物动词,后面直接跟地点名词。

When did you reach America?

【例题】(  ) Please write to me as soon as you _____ your school.

A.get to   B.reach to     C.arrive    D.come

(  ) -When did your aunt______in Shandong?  -Yesterday afternoon.

A.reach     B.get      C.arrive     D.come

  1. People often remember what they were doing when they heardthe news of important events in history.

hear动词, 意为“听说”。常用结构为:

① hear sb. do sth.   听见某人做某事

② hear sb. doing sth.  听见某人正在做某事

③ hear of/about sb. /sth. 听说某人或某事

④ hear from sb.  收到某人的来信

⑤ hear + that从句  听说……

【例题】(  )Tom likes to _____others but he never writes to them.

A.hear    B.hear of    C.hear about   D.hear from

(  )-When did you _____the news?   -Just now.

A.hear about   B.hear from    C.heard    D.hearing

  1. I played the song withoutany mistakes.

without介词,意为“无;没有”,其反义词为with,后接名词、代词或动词ing。

Fish can’t live without water.

He went to work without having breakfast.

【例题】她没敲门就进了房间。

She entered the room_______ ________at the door.

你不戴眼镜能看得清东西吗?

Can you see clearly __________your _______

 

Unit 6  An old man tried to move the mountains.

重点短语:

a little bit                     instead of                  turn...into

once upon a time               fall in love                 get married

as soon as                     instead of                 give birth to

be born                       turn...into

语言知识归纳:

  1. try的用法

① try to do sth.   尽力做某事     He is trying to learn English.

② try doing sth.   试着做某事    You should try taking more exercise.

③ try one’s best   尽力      I’ll try my best to help him.

④ try on   试穿      Would you like to try this dress on?

  1. remind vt.使想起,提醒

① remind sb. of/about sth. 使某人想起某事  The song remind me of my childhood.

② remind sb. to do sth.  提醒某人做某事  Peter reminded her to attend the meeting on time.

  1. What do you think of ...?   你认为……怎么样?

What do you think of ...? = How do you like...?

注:think后接动名词,like后接带to的不定式

如:What do you think of going climbing tomorrow?

=How do you like to go climbing tomorrow?     你认为明天去爬山怎么样?

【例题】(  ) -______do you think of the football match?

-It’s perfect. It’s more exciting than____match that I have ever watched.

  1. How; any other         B. How; any others
  2. What; any other         D. What; any others
  3. Neither of you is wrong. 你们两个都没错。

neither 两者都不;也不

e.g. Neither of the ideas is good.

I like neither subject.

neither 作连词,表示“既不……也不……”,连接两个主语时,谓语动词要遵循就近原则。

e.g. Neither you nor he is in this team.

Neither he nor I am a teacher.

【例题】(  ) -Which do you prefer, a CD player or a walk man?

-_______. I prefer a computer.

  1. Both     B. Either     C. None     D. Neither
  2. unless的用法

   unless的意思是“除非,如果不”,相当于if not,用来引导条件状语从句。主句同常用将来时,从句用一般现在时。

e.g. You will miss the early bus unless you get up early.

We won’t go to the cinema tomorrow unless my mother does.

【例题】(  )We can’t be successful _____we keep working hard.

A.if    B.unless    C.because   D.when

  1. ..that... 如此……以至于……

so...that...可以转化为简单句,要用too...to...或not...enough to...句型时,not后要用原句中的形容词或副词的反义词。

She is so young that she can’t look after herself.

= She is too young to look after herself.

= She is not old enough to look after herself.

【例题】(  )-You study _____hard______you’re sure to pass the exam.

-Thank you for saying so.

A.enough; to    B.as;as   C.so; that

  1. as soon as 一……就……

as soon as 为连词,引导时间状语从句

当主句是一般将来时或祈使句时,从句通常用一般现在时,简称“主将从现”。

e.g. I’ll tell her about the matter as soon as she returns home.

I’ll ring you up as soon as I got to Sanya.

【例题】(  )-Will you please give the dictionary to Jane?

-Sure. I’ll give it to her____she arrives here.

A.before      B.until      C.because     D.as soon as

  1. the whole family 全家

whole的用法

①作形容词,意为“全部的;完整的”。

the whole night 整夜            in the whole world 全世界

②作名词,意为“全部,全体,整个”。

as a whole作为整体          the whole of China 整个中国

【辨析】whole 与 all

whole一般位于冠词、所有格或别的限定词之后,而all则位于这些词之前

all the time/ the whole time 整个时间

all my life/ my whole life 我的一生

all the class/ the whole class 整个班级

【例题】(  ) Alison has been skating for_____two hours.

A.the all     B.whole the     C.the whole    D.all of

  1. be made of 与 be made from 由……制成

①be made of 表示制成成品后,仍可以看出原材料

The desks are made of wood.

②be made from  看不出原材料,属于化学变化

Paper is made of wood.

【例题】(  )This pair of shoes_____by hand, and it ____very comfortable.

A.is made from; is felt    B.are made of; feels     C.is made by; feels

                     

Unit 7  What’s the highest mountain in the world?

重点短语:

feel free                   as far as I know             in the face of

even though                at birth                    walk into

fall over                   or so                      take in

many times                endangered animals          achieve one’s dream

语言知识归纳:

  1. 比较级和最高级的特殊句型

① “get/ become + 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ”表示“变得越来越……”,当形容词为多音节词(少数双音节词)时,用 “ more and more + 原级”。

It gets warmer and warmer when spring comes.

② “the + 形容词比较级……,the + 形容词比较级……”意为“越……就越……”。

The harder you work at your study, the better grades you will have.

③ “one of the +最高级+可数名词复数”表示“最……之一”。

Chengdu is one of the most beautiful cities in China.

④ This is/was + the +最高级+名词+that引导的定语从句。

This is the most interesting story I have ever read.

三级句型之间的转换

① 形容词比较级+than any other+单数名词

This book is more difficult than any other book here.

= This book is the most difficult of all.

形容词比较级+than the other+复数名词

Bill is taller than the other students in his class.

② 同级比较用as...as..., 否定式为not as/so...as...

He is as tall as his father.

He is not as tall as his father.

③“more+形容词”与“less+形容词”及“not so/as ...as”的互换。

This question is more difficult than that one.

=That question is less difficult than this one.

=That question isn’t so difficult as this one.

  1. 数量的表达

英语中通常将数字放在单位词的前面,而将表示长、宽、高等的词放在单位词的后面。

固定句式为:主语+be+数词+形容词(长、宽、高、深……)。

The boy is 1.7 meters tall.

This building is 90 meters high.

  1. China has the biggest populationin the world.

① population是集体名词,没有复数形式,作主语时,其后谓语动词用单数形式。

The population of the school is 500.

② 指人口多少时,一般用large或small来表示。

The population of China is larger than that of America.

③ 提问“有多少人口”,用what 或how large, 而不用how many。

What’s the population of China?

  1. succeed 成功,做到

succeed常与in连用,succeed in doing sth. (成功做某事)

Did you succeed in booking the ticket?

success n. 成功

Working hard can lead to success.

successful 用作形容词,意思是“成功的”。

Linda is a successful dancer and she dances well.

【例题】(  ) -Dear friends, please read every sentence carefully. Details decide_____ or not.

A.success    B.successful     C.succeed

  1. This elephant weighs many times more than this panda.

(1)表示两倍用twice,三倍(及以上)用“基数词+times”。

(2)倍数的表达:

A+be+倍数+as+形容词/副词原级+as+B

This classroom is three times as big as that one.

  【例题】(  )The car travels_____the train.

  1. two time as fast as   B.two times as fast as    C.two time as faster as
  2. We shouldprotect whales from water pollution.

protect 保护、保卫

protect...from... “保护……免受……的侵害”

Everyone should protect the environment from pollution.

 

Unit 8  Have you read Treasure Island yet?

重点短语:

full of                      hurry up                     science fiction

country music               ever since                    one another

belong to                   finish doing sth.               fight over

millions of

语言知识归纳:

  1. 现在完成时

   (1) 用法:

① 表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。

I have posted the photos. 我已经把这些照片邮寄了。

② 表示过去发生的动作及状态一直持续到现在。

He has studied English for three years.

(2) 现在完成时的构成及其变化构成

have / has + 动词的过去分词。其中have/has为助动词,没有实际意义,可缩写。

Mike has = Mike’s       they have = they’ve

(3) 现在完成时常用的时间状语

already, just, ever, yet, for two years, since 1995, so far, in the last few years

【例题】(  ) -Did you borrow the comic book from the library?

-Yes. I _____ it for three days. I’ll return it this afternoon.

A.borrowed   B.kept   C.have borrowed   D.have kept

(  ) -Hello, may I speak to Miss. Wang?

-Sorry, she isn’t in. She____the office.

A.has been to    B.has gone to    C.has been away

(  ) -I’ve got the final Harry Potter book.

-You will love it. I ____it twice already.

A.am reading   B.have read   C.was reading    D.will read

  1. I’ve alreadyfinished reading it!

finish doing sth. 完成做某事

They finished doing the work last week.

  1. Who else is on my island?

else意为“其他的”

主要用在疑问词who, whose, what, where, when及不定代词somebody, anybody, nobody, someone,

anyone, something, anything, nothing后面。

-What else do you want?         -Nothing else.

other也作“其他的”讲,但用法不同

other是形容词,修饰名词,并放在名词前

When are the other boys arrive?

另外other还可修饰代词one或one’s。

This story is more interesting than the other one.

【例题】用else或other填空。

(1) What _______can you see in the picture?

(2) Where are the _______boys?

(3) Give me the ________pencil, not this one.

(4) Whom ________would you do it with?

  1. ...but not about belonging to a group.  ……但不是关于属于一个集体。

belong to意为“属于”,后接宾语,不用于进行时态和被动语态。

This book belongs to me, but that one belongs to Mary.

The new pen belongs to me.

The honor belongs to Tom.

  1. Sarah hasn’t been to Nashville yet.

have been to... 去过……

【辨析】have been to与have gone to

have been to+地名,表示“某人曾经到过某地”,现在已经不在那个地方了(回来了)。

have gone to 表示“已经去了某地”,还没有回来,可能在那里或在途中。不能与段时间连用。

John isn’t here. Where has he gone?

He has been to many places since he came to China.

  【例题】(  )A number of tourists_____Yangzhou many times because it is such a beautiful city.

A.have been to   B.has been to    C.has gone to    D.have gone to

  1. How does it make them feel?

make为使役动词,后跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语

即make sb. do sth.

My mother often makes me clean the room.

make后跟复合宾语的类型

① make + 宾语 + 名词

Most pop singers make music their career.

② make + 宾语 + 形容词

What he did makes his mother happy.

③ make + 宾语 + 过去分词

Can you make yourself understood?

  1. Have you introducedthis singer to others?

introduce sb. to sb. 把某人介绍给某人

introduce oneself 做自我介绍

 

Unit 9  Have you ever been to a museum?

重点短语:

thousands of                 put up                 take the subway

on the one hand...on the other hand...                    encourage sb. to do sth.

have problem doing sth.                              practice doing sth.

close to               during the day time             all year round

语言知识归纳:

  1. Me neither. 我也没(去过)。

Me neither = Neither have I.

-I can’t swim.   -Me neither./ Neither can I.

【例题】(  ) -I haven’t been to Sanya, how about you?   -_________ .

  1. Me too.   B. Me neither.   C. Me also.   D. Me haven’t.

(  ) -Did you see Peter and Mike?

-No, I saw____of them.

A.neither    B.either    C.both     D.none

Neither he nor I ________(am/is) a student.

  1. It also encouragesgovernments and social groups to think about ways to improve toilets in the future.

encourage 鼓励

encourage sb. (to do sth.)

【例题】(  ) -The teachers always encourage him________hard .

A.study    B.studies    C.to study    D.studying

  1. Maybe you fear thatyou won’t be able to find anything good to eat when you travel.

fear 害怕;惧怕

fear的不同用法

① fear to do sth.       The girls fear to go out at night.

② fear for sb. /sth.      Police fear for the lost children.

③ fear that + 从句

【例题】(1)我们担心我们会在森林里迷路。

We_______ ________we will get lost in the forest

(2) Some students fear_______ ________(speak) in front of the class.

  1. Whetheryou like Indian food, Western food or Japanese food, you’ll find it all in Singapore.

whether 用作连词,意为“不管……(还是);或者……(或者)”。

常用结构有:whether...or...

Whether it is easy or it is difficult, we won’t give up.

  1. unusual adj. 不同寻常的,罕见的

前缀un-表否定的意思有“不,未,无”之意。

unhappy 不开心的           unkind冷酷的          untidy不整洁的

unbelievable令人难以置信的         unknown不出名的

  1. On the one hand, more than three quartersof the population are Chinese...

① three quarters 是分数,意为“四分之三”。quarter有“一刻钟,四分之一”的含义。

在英语中表达分数时,分子用基数词,分母用序数词;如分子大于1,分母要用复数形式。

3/5  three fifths          1/3 one third

② population作“人口”讲时,后面的谓语动词要用单数形式。

  1. ...you won’t have any problem gettingrice, noodles or dumplings.

have problems (in) doing sth.  做某事遇到困难或麻烦

也可用 have trouble/difficulty (in) doing sth./ with sth.

He has some problems with his ears.

They had problems in getting here.

 

  1. It might seem strange to go to a zoo when it’s dark.

seem作动词,意为“似乎,好像”,常用于下列句型:

(1) seem+(to be)+名词/形容词/介词

He seems (to be) happy.

They seemed teachers.

(2) It seems + that从句

It seems that they’re winning the match.

(3) It seems as if...

It seems as if he were in a dream.

Unit 10  I’ve had this bike for three years.

重点短语:

at least                      millions of                     search for

stay the same                 according to                    in one’s opinion

yard sale                     board game                    check out

regard...as...                   no longer                     consider doing sth.

to be honest

语言知识归纳:

  1. -How long have you had that bike over there?

-I’ve had it for three years.

(1) how long意为“多长时间”用来对for或since引导的时间状语提问。

(2) for后跟一段时间,谓语动词是延续性动词,常用语完成时中。

I have lived here for ten yeas.

【例题】(  ) -______have you stayed in New York?

-For about two weeks.

  1. How soon    B. How often   C. How long   D. How far

(  )  I have had the bike____I was 15 years old.

A.for      B.since      C.in      D.on

  1. My daughter was more understanding, although she also felt sad to part with certain

certain是形容词,意为“某种;某事;某人”,后接名词。

For certain reasons, I will not come. 由于某些原因,我将不能来。

与certain相关的用法

be certain to do sth. 一定会做某事    Ann is certain to help us.

be certain of...  对……有把握     I’m certain of his success.

be certain that... 确信……    It’s certain that the earth is round.

  1. Among se is ZhangWei, a 46-year-old husband and father.

among 是介词,用于三者三者以上表示“在……中;……中之一”。

【例题】(  ) This game is very popular ______the boys in my class.

A.between    B.over   C.among   D.above

  1. Whetheryou like Indian food, Western food or Japanese food, you’ll find it all in Singapore.

whether 用作连词,意为“不管……(还是);或者……(或者)”。

常用结构有:whether...or...

Whether it is easy or it is difficult, we won’t give up.

  1. We have decided to each sell five things that weno longer

no longer=not...any longer,常与延续性动词连用,意为“不再...”。

He no longer lives here.

He is no longer a student.

  1. 延续性动词与非延续性动词。

完成句子

  1. I borrowed the book two days ago.

→ I______________the book for two days.

  1. I bought the bike two days ago.

→ I______________the bike for two days.

  1. His cat died two days ago.

→ His cat_______________for two days.

延续性动词

表示行为或过程能持久地继续下去或能产生持久的影响,可以和 “段时间”连用。

常见的延续性动词有:work, keep, have, sleep, live, stay等。如:

They’ve learnt English for five years.

非延续性动词

又称短暂性动词或终止性动词,这类动词表示行为或过程是短暂的或瞬间完成结束。

常见的非延续性动词有:open, die, close, come, go, move, borrow, lend, buy, arrive, leave, join,

kill, lend, marry,reach等。不能和段时间连用。

 

延续性动词与非延续性动词的转换

非延续性动词 延续性动词 非延续性动词 延续性动词 非延续性动词 延续性动词
borrow keep begin/start be on come/go be here
buy have leave be away from get married be married
become be die be dead    
put on wear finish be over    

 

 

 

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