人教版八年级英语上册重点短语、语法要点

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2020年8月13日17:35:26 11891字阅读39分38秒

Unit1  Where did you go on vacation?

一.重点短语:

  1. go on vacation 去度假
  2. feel like 感受到
  3. stay at home 呆在家
  4. go shopping 去买东西
  5. go to the mountains 去爬山
  6. in the past在过去
  7. go to the beach去沙滩
  8. walk around…..四处走
  9. visit museums 参观博物馆
  10. too many/ too much太多
  11. go to summer camp去夏令营
  12. go on继续
  13. because of+短语  因为
  14. quite a few相当多,不少
  15. study for…为……而学习
  16. find out找出;查明
  17. go out出去
  18. take photos照相
  19. most of the time大部分时间
  20. come up上来
  21. something important 重要的事情
  22. of course当然
  23. taste good尝起来很好吃
  24. up and down上上下下
  25. have a good time玩得高兴
  26. come down 下来
  27. the next day第二天
  28. drink tea喝茶
  29. one bowl of 一碗……

二.习惯用法:

1.buy sth for sb./ buy sb. sth 为某人买某物

2.taste + adj. 尝起来……

3.nothing ….but + V.(原形) 除了…之外什么都没有

4.seem + (to be) + adj 看起来

5.arrive in + 大地方 arrive at + 小地方 到达某地

6.decide to do sth.决定做某事

7.try doing sth. 尝试做某事 try to do sth. 尽力做某事

try one`s best to do sth尽力做某事

8.look +adj. 看起来……

9.forget to do sth.忘记去做某事

forget doing sth.忘记做过某事

10.enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事

11.want to do sth.  想去做某事

12.start doing sth. 开始做某事

13.stop doing sth. 停止做某事

stop to do sth 停下来做某事

14.keep doing sth.   继续做某事

15.dislike doing sth. 不喜欢做某事

16.Why not do. sth.?为什么不做……呢?

17.so + adj + that + 从句   如此…以至于

18.tell sb. (not) to do sth. 告诉某人(不要)

三.词语辨析:

1.anywhere 与 somewhere  两者都是不定副词。

①anywhere在任何地方,常用于否定句和疑问句中。

②somewhere 在某处,到某处,常用于肯定句。

I can’t find it anywhere.

I lost my key somewhere near here.

2.seem + 形容词  看起来….. You seem happy today.

seem + to do sth. 似乎、好像做某事

I seems / seemed + 从句  看起来好像…;似乎….

seem like ….好像,似乎…..

I seem to have a cold.  It seems that no one believe you.

It seems like a god idea.

3.decide to do sth.决定做某事

decide + 疑问词 + 动词不定式

They decide to visit the museum.

He cannot decide when to leave.

4.start doing sth = start to do sth. 开始,可与begin 互换 。He started doing his homework.

5.over  prep. 多于,超过,在…以上(表示数目、程度)

= more than        My father is over 40 years old.

6.too many 太多,后接可数名词复数:

too much  太多,修饰不可数名词,修饰动词作状语。

Mother bought too many eggs yesterday.

We have too much work to do.  Don’t talk too much.

7.because 连词,因为,引导状语从句,表示直接明确的原因或理由。because of  因为,由于,后接名词、代词或动名词,不能接句子。

I don’t buy the shirt because it was too expensive.

He can’t take a walk because of the rain.

8.too,…to 太….以至于不能….

Mother is too tired to go to school.

9.have fun doing sth 享受做某事的乐趣

  • 重点语法:

1.—Where did you go on vacation?

—I went to New York City.

  • —Did you go out with anyone?

—No, No one was here. Everyone was on vacation.

3.—Did you buy anything special?

—Yes, I bought something for my father.

4.—How was the food? —Everything tasted really good.

5.—Did everyone have a good time?

—Oh,yes. Everything was excellent.

Unit2 How often do you exercise?

一.重点短语:

1.help sb with sth 帮助某人做某事

help with housework帮助做家务

2.go shopping 去买东西

3.on weekends 在周末

4.how often 多少次

5.hardly ever几乎从不

6.once a week每周一次

7.twice a month  一个月两次

8.go to the movies/cinema / go to see the film去看电影

9.every day  每天

10.use the Internet用互联网

11.be free=be not busy=have time 有空

12.have dance and piano lessons 上舞蹈和钢琴课

13.swing dance 摇摆舞

14.play ping pong  打乒乓球

15.play tennis打网球

16.stay up late熬夜; 睡得很晚

17.at least至少

18.go to sleep 睡觉

19.go to bed early早点睡觉

20.go to bed上床睡觉

21.such as比如;诸如

22.play sports做运动

23.be good for对……有好处

24.be good at doing sth 擅长做某事

25.go camping去野营

26.not…at all一点儿也不……

27.in one’s free time  在某人的业余时间里

28.the most popular最受欢迎的

29.such as 例如….像….这样

30.old habits die hard积习难改/ 旧习难改

  1. go to the dentist看牙科医生
  2. morn than多于;超过
  3. less than少于
  4. junk food垃圾食品
  5. take care of sb照料某人look after sb照顾某人
  6. have to do sth必须做某事
  7. get in… 进入…
  8. be late for迟到

二.习惯用法:

1.help sb. with sth=have sb do sth 帮助某人做某事

2.want sb. to do sth. 让某人做某事

3.How about doing…? 怎么样?/ ….好不好?

4.How many + 可数名词复数+ 一般疑问句  有多少…..

5.主语+ find+ that 从句  发现…

6.It’s + adj.+ to do sth. 做某事是….的

7.spend time with sb. 和某人一起度过时光

8.ask sb. about sth. 向某人询问某事

9.by doing sth. 通过做某事

10.What’s your favorite…..?  你最喜欢的…是什么?11.start doing sth. 开始做某事

12.the best way to do sth.做某事的最好方式

13.be full of满的

14.what about doing sth?做某事怎么样?

15.not….at all  一点儿也不

I don`t like it at all.  我一点儿也不喜欢它。

三.词语辨析:

  1. how often 多久一次,用来提问动作发生的频率。回答用:once,twice, three times 等词语。

How often do you play sports? Three times a week.

how long 多长,用来询问多长时间,也可询问某物有多长。

How long does it take to get to Shanghai from here?

How long is the ruler?

how far 多远,用来询问距离,指路程的远近。 How far is it from here to the park?  It’s about 2 kilometers.

  1. How come?怎么回事?表示某件事情很奇怪,有点想不通;可单独使用,也可引导一个问句, 相当于疑问句 why, 但 how come 开头的特殊疑问句使用的仍然是陈述语序。How come Tom didn’t come to the party?

= Why didn’t Tom come to the party?

  1. free 空闲的,有空的,反义词为 busy.

be free 有空,闲着,相当于 have time.还可作“免费的、自由的”解。be free to do sth. 自由地做某事。

I’ll be free next week. = I’ll have time next week.

The tickets are free.  You’re free to go or to stay.

  1. stay up 指“熬夜,不睡觉”。

stay up late 指“熬夜到很晚,迟睡”。

He stayed up all night to write his story.

Don’t stay up late next time.

  1. go to bed 强调“上床睡觉”的动作及过程,但人不一定睡着。I went to bed at eleven last night.

go to sleep 强调“入睡,睡着,进入梦乡”。

She was so tired that she went to sleep soon.

  1. find + 宾语 +名词, 发现 :

We have found him (to be) a good boy.

find + 宾语 + 形容词,发现:He found the room dirty.

find + 宾语 + 现在分词,发现 :I found her standing at the door.

  1. percent 百分数,基数词 + percent: percent 没有复数形式,作主语时,根据所修饰的名词来判断谓语的单复数。Thirty percent of time passed.

Forty percent of the students in our class are girls.

  1. more than 超过,多于,不仅仅,相当于over.

反义词组为:less than.

I lived in Shanghai for more than / over ten years.

  1. afraid adj.担心的,害怕的,在句中作表语,不用在名词前作定语。be afraid of sb / sth 害怕某人/某事;

be afraid of doing sth. 害怕做某事

I’m afraid + 从句, 恐怕, 担心:

I’m afraid we can’t come here on time.

I’m afraid I have to go now.

Some children are afraid of the dark.

Don’t be afraid of asking question.

  1. sometimes , sometime, some times , some time 的区别:①sometimes 频度副词,有时。表示动作发生的不经常性,多与一般现在时连用,可位于句首、句中或句末。Sometimes I get up very early.

---How often do you get up?

②sometime  副词,某个时候。 表示不确切或不具体的时间,常用于过去时或将来时,对它用疑问词when.

I will go to Shanghai sometime next week.

---When will you go to Shanghai next week?

③ some times  名词词组, 几次,几倍。其中time 是可数名词,对它提问用how many times.

I have read the story some times.

---How many times have you read the story?

④ some time 名词短语,一段时间. 表示“一段时间”时,句中谓语动词常为延续性动词,提问时用 How long.

I’ll stay here for some time. How long will you stay here?

四.重点语法:

1.What do you usually do on weekends? I always exercise.

  1. What do they do on weekends?

They often help my mother with housework.

  1. What does she do on weekends?

She sometimes goes shopping.

4.How often do you go to the movies?

I go to the movies maybe once a month.

5.How often does he watch TV? He hardly ever watches TV.

6.Do you go shopping? No, I never go shopping.

Unit 3. I’m more outgoing than my sister.

一.重点短语:

1.more outgoing更外向

2.as…as…与……一样……

3.the singing competition唱歌比赛

4.be similar to与……相像的/类似的

5.the same as和……相同;与……一致

6.be different from与……不同

7.care about关心;介意

8.be like a mirror像一面镜子

9.the most important最重要的

10.as long as只要;既然

11.bring out使显现;使表现出

12.get better grades取得更好的成绩

13.reach for伸手取

14.in fact事实上;实际上

15.make friends交朋友

16.the other其他的

17.touch one’s heart感动某人

18.be talented in music有音乐天赋

19.be good at擅长……

20.be good with善于与……相处

21.have fun doing sth.享受做某事的乐趣

22.be good at doing sth擅长做某事

23.make sb. do sth.让某人做某事

24.want to do sth.想要做某事

25.as+adj./adv.的原级+as 与……一样……

26.It’s+ adj.+for sb. to do sth.

做某事对某人来说是……的

二.词语辨析:

1.laugh v. & n.  笑;笑声  laugh at嘲笑

We all laughed loudly when she made a joke. 她说了个笑话,我们都大声笑起来。

We all laughed at his joke. 听了他的笑话我们都笑起来。He laughs best who laughs last. 不要高兴得太早。

Don’t laugh at him. 别嘲笑他。

People have often laughed at stories told by seamen. 人们常常嘲笑海员所讲的故事。

Everyone laughed at his foolish antics. 大家都笑他那种愚蠢的滑稽动作。

We had a good laugh at his joke. 我们被他的笑话逗得哈哈大笑。

2.though conj. 虽然;纵然;即使;尽管 = although

though adv.不过,可是,然而,常用于句末,用逗号隔开。

Though it was raining,he went there. 虽然当时正下着雨,他还是到那里去了。

Though he was poor he was happy. 虽然他很穷却很快乐。

注意:在though引导的从句后不使用but。如:

Though he was poor,but he was happy.(误)

Jim said that he would come, he didn’t , though.

三.重点语法:

1.—Is Tom smarter than Sam?

—No, he isn’t. Sam is smarter than Tom.

  • —Is Tara more outgoing than Tina?

—No, she isn’t. Tina is more outgoing than Tara.

3.Are you as friendly as your sister? No, I’m not. I’m friendlier.

4.Does Tara work as hard as Tina? Yes, she does.

5.Who’s more hardworking at school?

Tina thinks she works harder than me.

形容词和副词的比较级、最高级:大多数形容词和副词有三个等级:1)原级(不作比较),修饰词very, so, too, pretty, really 2)比较级,表示“较……”或“更……”的意思(两者之间进行比较), 标志词than, A or B,   of the two, 修饰词much, a lot, a little;3)最高级,表示“最……”的意思(三者或三者以上作比较),形容词最高级前面一般要加定冠词the,后面可带in(of)短语来什么比较的范围。

形容词和副词的比较级和最高级规则变化:

   构 成 方 法  原级 比 较 级 最高 级
单音

节词

和部

分双

音节

一般在词尾加-er或-est high

short

higher

shorter

highest

shortest

以字母e词尾的词,加-r或-st late

fine

later

finest

latest

finest

重读闭音节词词尾只有一个辅音字母时,先双写辅音字母,再加-er或-est hot

big

thin

fat

hotter

bigger

thinner

fatter

hottest

biggest

thinnest

fattest

以“辅音字母+y”结尾的双音节词,先把“y”改为“i”,再

加-er或-est

funny

easy

early

 

funnier

easier

earlier

 

funniest

easiest

earliest

 

多音节词和部分双音节词 在词前加more或most beautiful

athletic

outgoing

more beautiful

more athletic

more outgoing

most beautiful

most athletic

most outgoing

形容词和副词的比较级和最高级不规则变化:

    原 级     比较级    最高级
  good/well     better    best
  bad/badly     worse    worst
many/much     more    most
  little     less    least
  far

 

 farther(更远)

further(更深远)

 farthest(最远)

furthest(最深远)

as…(原级)as与……一样……    not as/so…as不如

Liming is as tall as Jim.    Jack runs as fast as Tom.

Lily is not as/so tall as Lucy. =Lily is shorter than Lucy.

Unit4  What’s the best movie theater?

一.重点短语:

1.movie theater电影院

2.close to…离……近

3.clothes store服装店

4.in town在镇上

5.so far到目前为止

6.minutes by bus 坐公共汽车10分钟的路程

7.talent show才艺表演

8.in common共同;共有

have….in common 有相同特征(想法、兴趣方面)相同

9.around the world世界各地

10.more and more……越来越……

11.and so on等等

12.all kinds of……各种各样的

13.be up to是……的职责;由……决定

14.not everybody 并不是每个人

15.make up编造(故事、谎言等)

16.play a role in…在……方面发挥作用/有影响

17.for example例如

18.take…seriously认真对待

19.give sb. sth.给某人某物

20.come true(梦想、希望)实现;达到

21.no problem  没什么,别客气

22.Thanks for doing sth.因做某事而感谢

23.much+ adj./adv.的比较级  ……得多

24.watch sb. do sth.观看某人做某事

25.one of +the+形容词最高级+可数名词的复数 …之一

one of the main reasons  最主要的原因之一

26.Can I ask you some…? 我能问你一些……吗?

27.How do you like…? 你认为……怎么样?

28.What do you think of…? 你认为……怎么样?

29.how much…….?多少钱?

30.How far……?多远?

  1. How many……? 多少?
  2. How long…..?多长?

33.It has the biggest screens.

34.The DJs choose songs the most carefully.

35.How do you like it so far? 你认为它怎么样?

36.Thanks for telling me.

37.Can I ask you some questions?

二.重点语法:

1.What’s the best movie theater to go to ?Town Cinema. It’s the closest to home. And you can buy tickets the most quickly there?

2.Which is the worst clothes store in town? Dream Clothes. It’s worse than Blue Moon. It has the worst service.

3.What do you think of 970 AM? I think 970 AM is pretty bad. It has worst music.

4.Do you want to watch the news? Yes, I do . / No, I don’t.

5.What can you plan to watch tonight? I plan to watch Days of Our Past.

6.What do you expect to learn from sitcoms? You can learn some great jokes.

7.Why do you like watching the news? Because I hope to find out what’s going on around the world.

8.What do you think of talk shows? I don’t mind them./ I can’t stand them!/ I love watching them!

Unite 5  Do you want to a game show?

一.重点短语:

1.think of +名词或动词短语  认为….

2.learn from从……获得;向……学习

3.find out   查明,弄清

4.be ready to do 准备好做某事…

5.dress up 装扮

6.take sb`s place代替,替换

7.do a good job干得好

8.talk show谈话节目

TV shows 电视节目

9.game show游戏节目

10.go on发生

11.watch a movie看电影

watch a sitcom 观看一部情景喜剧

action movies   动作电影

12.soap opera肥皂剧

13.a pair of一双;一对

14.try one’s best尽某人最大努力

15.as famous as与……一样有名

16.have a discussion about就……讨论

17.one day有一天

18.such as例如

19.take sb.’s place代替;替换

20.do a good job干得好

21.interesting information有趣的资料

22.something enjoyable令人愉快的东西

23.look like看起来像

24.around the world全世界

25.a symbol of……的象征

26.let sb. do sth.让某人做某事

27.plan to do sth.计划/打算做某事

28.hope to do sth.希望做某事

29.happen to do sth.碰巧做某事

30.expect to do sth.盼望做某事

  1. How about doing…?做……怎么样?
  2. be ready to do sth.乐于做某事

二.习惯用法:

1.let sb do sth.   让某人做某事

2.plan to do sth. 计划做某事

3.hope to do sth.  希望做某事

4.mind doing sth 介意做某事

5.expect to do sth. 期待做某事

6.How(what) about doing…做某事怎么样?

7.be always ready to do sth. 总是准备做某事

8.become +adj  变得…..

9.love ding sth 喜爱做某事

三.词语辨析:

1.比较the other, the others, other, others, another 用法:①the other 表示特指两个或者两部份中的另一个或另一部分,可直接单数名词或复数名词。表示两个中的一个……另一个……时,常用one …the other…。例:He has two brothers, one is a teacher, the other is a doctor. There are forty students in our class. twenty-one are girls, the other nineteen are boys.

② the others  特指某一范围内的其他的(人或物),是the other的复数形式,相当于the other+复数名词。the other + 复数名词 = any other + 名词单数。例:

You two stay here, the others go with me.

I’m different from Jeff because I’m louder than the other kids (any other kid) in my class.

③ other 作代词或形容词,可修饰可数名词单数或复数。例:We learn Chinese, Maths, English and other subjects.

④ others  作代词,泛指“其他的人或物”。 例:Some students are doing homework, others are talking loudly.

⑤ another 泛指同类事物中的三者或三者以上的“另一个”,只能代替或修饰单数可数名词。例:I don’t like this one. Please show me another one.

2.find out 查明,弄清楚,find 找到

Please find out when Mrs Green will go to Beijing.

  1. go on 发生,与 take place 同义

I wonder what was going on.

4.happen vi.发生,一般指偶然发生,主语为事,不能为人。Sth + happens to sb.

A traffic accident happened to his elder brother yesterday.

Sth + happens + 地点/时间,某地/某时发生了某事

An accident happened on Park Street.

happen vi,表示“碰巧”,主语可以是人,后常跟动词不定式to,表示“碰巧……”.Sb + happens to do sth.

I happened to see my uncle on the street.

* take place 意为“发生,举行,举办”,一般指非偶然性事件的“发生”,即这种事件的发生一定有某种原因或事先的安排。例:Great changes have taken place in China.

The meeting will take place next Friday.

5.expect v. 期待,盼望,预期,后常接四种结构:

1)expect + 名词/代词,期待某事/某人,预计…可能发生。I’m expecting Li Lin’s letter.

2)expect to do sth. 预计做某事

Lily expects to come back next week.

3)expect sb. to do sth.

I expect my mother to come back early.

4)expect + 从句  预计……

I expected that I’ll come back next Monday.

  1. serious a. 严肃的,认真的。 He is a serious man.

be serious about sb/sth. 对某人/某事当真

be serious about doing sth.   对某事当真

He’s serious about selling his house.

Peter is serious about Jenny. He wants to get married to her.

四.重点语法:

What do you think of talk shows?   I don’t mind them.

I hope to be a TV reporter one day.   How about you?

 

 

 

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