2020年8月26日16:21:14 95723字阅读319分4秒


1.beat (n)敲击,跳动    (vt)打,输

beaten track 常规;惯例;被踩出来的路

辨析:beat和win的用法:① beat表示“在战斗中战胜对手,宾语是人,不是物

beat后接运动员、球队或对手等。例如:I can beat you at chess .

② beat意为“胜于,击败”。例:He is going to beat the world record .

③ win战胜,因赢,它的宾语是物,如比赛,战争。win后接“a game, a war, a watch, a prize”等。例:The boy won the first prize in contest .  I can always beat him at chess.

Which team win the football match?  We beat them by score 2 to 1.

辨析: beat; hit; strike的用法:这三个词都有"打;击;敲"的意思,但仔细分辩,还是有其各自的用法。① beat 表示"连续不断地打击";尤其指心脏的跳动。

  • beat sb in the chest● beat…to death● to beat a drum敲鼓

② hit表示"撞击"(尤指一次性的)或命中(目标)。而strike除了与hit同义外,还可以理解为划(火柴);给人深刻印象等。 如:The man looked dead but his heart was still beating.这个人看上去已经死了,可心脏还在跳动。
He hit the ball so hard that it went over the wall.他使劲地击球,结果球越过了墙。

I have some _________ to do this afternoon.  A. shop  B. shops  C. shopping   D. a shop

He ____ his opponent in the game at last.  A. beat  B. beated   C. beaten   D. was beating

2.fame (n)名声;名气;声誉    famous (adj)出名的;著名的

be famous/ known for因/以……而著名(for后接出名的原因)

be famous/ known as作为……而出名/著名(接职务、身份或地位等名词)

be famous/ known to对……来说出名

※比较:be famous as ; be famous for ;be famous to和 be famous at 的用法:

【一】以“地方”做主语:① be famous for 表示“以某种特产而‘闻名’著名,出名”,famous

相当于well-known     ② be famous as 表示“以什么样的产地或地方而出名”。eg:

Hangzhou is famous _________ producing silk in China .  A. from   B. at   C. in   D. for

  • The area is famous as a green tea producing place.这个地区是生产绿茶的地区。

【二】以“人物”做主语:① be famous for 表示 “某人以某种知识,技能或特征出名”  ● Einstein was famous for his Theory of Relativity .  爱因斯坦以他的相对论而闻名。※ be famous as表示“某人以某种身份出名”。如: Einstein was famous as a great scientist .【注意】:be famous for 后的介词宾语是主语的所属内容. be famous as 后的介词宾语与主语是同位成分。③ be famous to sb 对某人来说是著名的…④ be famous at (= be good at(擅长))= do well in 在…方面做得好/表现出色。(反义词)be no good at (do badly in)“ 在……方面做得很差”。E.g: Egypt is famous for its grand pyramids.    She is famous as a writer.

Tom did badly in the foot ball match.   Qingdao is famous for its beautiful scenery.

Lu xun is famous/ known as a writer.

As is known to us all, the Great Wall is one of the seven wonders in the world.

Lu Xun was famous _________ his works _________ a writer.

  1. for; for          B. for; as        C. as; for         D. as; as

3.use (vt&n)使用  useless (adj)无用的;无效的;无益的(反义词)useful (adj)

⑴ used to do sth.表示过去经常或持续的行为,现在已不再发生,该句型即可用助动词did构成否定句和疑问句,也可以把used当作助动词的用法来交换。如:I used to climbed trees and swim and play football.我过去常常爬山,游泳,踢足球. ⑵ used to 和would都用来谈过去的习惯,但used to 可以指动作或情况,而would只表示重复的动作且不强调今昔对比.  ※比较“ used to be及used to do sth ”和“ be used to do sth及be used to doing sth”的用法:  ① 用于肯定句used to be  (指状况)表示“过去常常和习惯做某事,也指过去反复发生的动作。即“used to be sth”。其否定形式:used not/ usedn’t to be/do sth/也可用助动词did构成否定句和疑问句, 疑问句形式:used sb to do /be……?

② be used to do sth表示“被用于做……”含有被动语态的意义。

③ become/ get/ be used to doing sth习惯于做某事。用来表示“现在,过去及将来习惯于做某事。”   下列句型中只可用动名词和It作主语,不可用不定式短语作主语:

① It is no use +动名词(v-ing),表示“……没用”。[= It’s  useless + 不定式(to do sth ). = It is of no use to do sth . = Ther is no use in ……(There is 之后要接表扬的介词短语)]。例:It is no use crying over spilt milk .[=It’s useless to crying over spilt milk.] Reasoning with such a stubborn man is no use.[= It is no use reasoning with such a stubborn.]

  • be used for / as / by 的用法:

① be used for表示“某物被用来做…”,for是介词,表示用途,后接名词、代词或-ing形式。例:An orange is used for medicine .   A pen is used for writing .

② be used as 表示“被用作……”,as作介词,表示作为。其后一般接名词,强调使用的工具及手段。例:English is used as the second language in many countries .

③ be used by表示“被……使用”,by是介词,后接动作的 执行者(宾语)。例:

English is used by travelers and business people all over the world .

Tractors are used by the farmers .

④ use…for… 表示“用 …来…for后接名词/动名词

⑤ use…to…表示“用…做……to后接动词原形

⑥ be useful for  表示“对……有用”

⑦ be useful to do sth表示 “做……有用”

[练习] 用be used as, be used to do, be used to doing , used to do填空。

① Camels _______ usually______ ________ carry goods in the desert.

② I believe that you will soon _______ _______ _________ the life there.

  • We ________ __________go swimming in the small river in summer.
  • He _______ ______get up late in the morning. Now he has got used to getting up early.
  • His umbrella ______ _______ _______a weapon when he met a robber.
  • I __________ __________my present life now.
  • Bamboo __________ ___________ ___________make some things.
  • She ________ _________ __________ taking a walk after supper.
  • I ______ to be quite afraid to live in that country, but now I have _____ to the life there.
  1. used; been used    B. used; usedC. was used; got used D. get used; been used
  2. good (adj)好的(op) bad坏的  ● goodness善良

※辨析:be good for;be good to; be good at 的用法:

⑴ be good for…接指物的名词。表示“对…有好处” (op) be bad for“对……有坏”

for good =for ever 永远/久地。例:Milk is good for children .

We decided to settle in the country side for good (=and all)

Drinking milk is good for your health.

⑵ be good to = be friendly to …接指人的名词或代词。表示“对…亲切”。

Our math teacher is good to us. We all like him.

⑶ be good at = do well in …接名词、代词(宾格)或v-ing 形式。意为“擅长”“ 在……方面做得好”。例:Little pat is good at dancing.

① Chocolate is good        your health.  A. at      B. to     C. with      D. for

② ---- I think drinking milk is good         our health. ---- Yes, I agree      you.

  1. for ; with   B. to ; to   C. with; to      D. at; with
  2. borrow(vt) 借

[borrow/lend]这两个词的共同意思是“借”。其区别是:(1) borrow 是“借进”,表示“向

某人借”,常与from或of连用。lend是“借出”,表示“借给某人”,常与 连用to连用,如:

I borrow some money of him . 我向他借了一些钱。

Jane used to borrow money from her friends.简过去常向她的朋友借钱。

Jack borrows the raincoat of mine, and I lent him straightforward.杰克借我的雨衣,我很爽快


When I needed the ladder, I found that you had lent it to your neighbour.我正需要用梯子的时


(2) lend后面可以接双宾语,而borrow不能,如:Could you lend me your bike?你能把自行车借给我用一下吗?

※比较borrow, lend, keep和,return, have back 的用法:

(1)borrow 对主语来说,指:“借入”,常与from连用。 作终止性动词。

I borrowed a book form the school library this afternoon.

(2)lend 对主语来说,指“借出”,常与to连用。作终止性动词。

I can lend my bike to you, but you mustn’t lend it to others.


— How long can I keep the book? — Two weeks.

(4)return 表示“归还(give/ go/come )back,恢复”,后接副词,不与back连用,但可与介词to搭配,in return作为回报

(5)have back: 表示“要回来”。

  1. bring(vt)带来;拿来
  • bring down 使倒下;使下降;使沮丧

The storm brought all the trees down.

Their government could do nothing to bring down prices.

Even the bad news did not bring him down.

  • bring in引进;引来;生产

This style of hair –do is brought in from abroad.

This land brought in two thousand pounds of grain last year.

  • bring on 带来;引起

Dirt often brings on disease.  Reading in a poor light may bring on a headache.

  • bring out显示出来;出版;使表现清楚;使发挥

The meaning of that word is brought out very clearly in the next paragraph.

This kind of work brings out the best in her.

Sichuan people’s publishing House is going to bring out this Vocabulary and Phrase Handbook.

  • bring up提出;培养;抚养

We decided to bring the matter up at the board meeting.

She was born in the United States but brought up in China.

  • bring over使改变想法

We must bring the rest of the committee over to our point of view.

  • bring to使苏醒

With the help of artificial respiration his mother soon brought the boy to.

  • bring to light揭发;发现

His enemies brought to light some foolish things he had done while young, but he was elected anyway because people trusted him.

The investigation brought to light a number of interesting facts.

  • bring back to life 使复生
  • 比较[bring /fetch /carry /take]的用法:(1) bring 意为“拿”,是从别处拿来,表示单程,有时译为“带来”,如:When you come next time bring your daughter whit you.

(2)fetch 是“去取来”“去拿来”(=go and bring ),表示一往一返,有时译为“取”,如:

I am going to fetch my child from the school .我要到到学校去接孩子。

(3)carry是“搬,提,拿,扛,抱,背,带”的意思,如:He often help the old man carry water.

  • take 是“拿走”“带走”的意思,是从此带去。如: Who has taken my pen ?
  1. discover (vt)发现;看出;暴露;显示 (op) cover (vt)覆盖discover oneself显露自己的身份

discovery (n) (u)发现;发觉 ; (c)发现的东西   discoverer (n)发现者

[辨析]discover & invent的用法:


(1) discover指“发现或找到” 常指通过调查,实验等发现某种自然界本来已存在,但以前未被人类发现或认识的事物,如发现电,煤, 石油及新星,星系或科学真理等,如:

Columbus discovered America in 1492.

A new coal-mine has been discovered in this district.这地区发现了一个新的煤矿。

The scientist discovered a number of new things about the matter of universe.

= The scientist made a lot of new discoveries about the matter of universe.

⑵ discovery (n)[u]发现 [c]发现物,指已存在的而刚刚为人所知的事物。如:

Does any of them show discoveries?

⑶ invent指“发明创造”出自然界本来不存在的东西,指通过思考,实验和研究等发明了新的有用的物品。此外,它还有“虚构,编造”的意思。如工具,方法,手段,汽车,电器,合成材料。如:Who invented the first steam engine?

Bell invented the telephone. 贝尔发明了电话。

Edison invents / invented the light bulb.爱迪生发明了灯泡。

⑷ invention (n)“发明,发明物”,指原来不存在而被发明创造出来的新生事物。动词为“invent”,如: The new invention looks funny.

Gilbert _________ electricity and Edison ________ the electric light bulb.

  1. invented; discovered     B. discovered; invented
  2. invented; invented       D. discovered; discovered

The wheel is a great __________.

  1. invention        B. discovery       C. inventor         D. discover
  2. dress (n.)衣服;服装,连衣裙evening dress 晚礼服

(vt.)给……穿衣服   (vi.)穿衣服,打扮

  • dress sb./oneself 给某人/自己穿衣服
  • be/get dressed in +(衣服或表颜色的词)  表示“穿着……衣服 ”
  • dress + adv.(或表目的,场合的介词短语)dress up 打扮;盛装;装饰
  • dress up as 扮成 dress sb. down 训斥某人

[说明] ① dress 作名词指衣服时,主要指女士所穿的衣服;作及物动词用时,宾语必须是人而

不是物;(dress强调动作,be dressed 强调状态)

② dress 打扮自己或打扮某人,与介词as或like连用,或用dress up as sb.或dress up for sth.

Mother dressed the baby after she got everything ready.

Is she old enough to dress herself yet?

Dressed in their holiday best,the children were very excited.

“Wait a mimute ,”he said,“She is dressing upstairs!”

词语辨析:put on /have on/ be in /wear/dress的用法:⑴ put on 强调“穿的动作,多接衣服,鞋帽“等。He put on his raincoat before he went out.

⑵ have on 强调“穿”的状态,后跟表示衣服,鞋帽的具体名词,也可跟代词

注意:该短语不可用于进行时态。She has on/ is in a red dress and white shoes today.

⑶ wear 强调“穿着”的状态,后除跟“衣服,鞋帽”之类的名词外,还可跟“眼镜,戒指,项链,耳环,奖章,领带,手表,花”等名词,该词可用于进行时态,强调一时的状态。She often wears a white blouse and a red skirt.

⑷ dress 作“穿”时,如果用及物动词,则其宾语只能是指人的名词或代词,即“给……穿上衣服”,不可以直接跟表示衣服的词,如果用不及物动词,则后边不能跟宾语,但可带状语,但be dressed in 后跟表示衣服的名词外,还可跟一个表示颜色的词。

The boy dressed himself quickly.

⑸ be in强调状态,表示“穿戴”。 She has on/ is in a red dress and white shoes today.

  1. enjoy (vt)享受;喜欢  enjoyable(adj)愉快的 enjoyment (n)享受;欢乐;乐趣
  • be enjoyed by 被…喜爱
  • 辨析[enjoy / like /love / prefer]的用法:enjoy, like, love 和prefer  都可表达“喜欢”的意思,但含义和用法有所不同。(1)enjoy在意思上侧重于“享受某种乐趣”,后接名词或动名词作宾语,如:The man is enjoying his dinner. 那个男人正津津有味的吃饭。

My father enjoys listening to the radio. Did the children enjoy themselves in the park?

My father enjoys listening to the radio.


Everyone in China likes Mid-Autumn Day.      He likes his students to work hard.

You like singing, is that right?

(3)love表示“爱,热爱,爱戴”,有强烈的感情,相当于like …… very much ,侧重于对祖国及较亲近的人的浓厚感情。在口语中它往往又指一般的喜爱,这时与like 的意思很相近可以互换。后面也可以接名词,动名词或动词不定式,如:

We love our motherland.        They love playing /to play basketball.

(4)like和love都可与 would,should 连用表示“愿意作某事”,如:

I’d like /love to go whit you. 我愿意和你们一起去。

(5)prefer意为“(比较)喜欢,宁愿”,相当like …… better,它的“喜欢”是带有选择性的,是在比较的情况下选择出来的,其后接名词,代词,动名词或不定式,如:

I prefer going by bike. 我宁愿骑车去。He prefer to work alone. 他喜欢独自工作。

(6)prefer常用于prefer…to …结构中,意为“喜欢……而不喜欢…,宁愿…而不愿……“,其中to是介词,prefer与to后接名词或动名词,如:I prefer foreign languages to Maths. 外语和数学相比,我更喜欢外语。 He prefers doing to talking. 他喜欢做而不喜欢说。

10.repair (vt&n) ① 修理(电器);修补(道路、钟表);修缮(房屋)

② 纠正(错误);补救;赔偿;补偿;恢复

  • repair a mistake                         repair one’s health
  • a ship under repair                       a repair workshop
  • be in bad repair (= be out of repair)         beyond (= past ) repair
  • He repaired his house.                      He repaired the loss.
  • The shop is closed during repairs.
  • 辨析“fix , repair & mend”的用法:
  • fix表示修理、组装,指把损坏的或不能正常工作的东西修复到正常状态或工作程序中,有时可以与repair互接,一般不用于修补衣物等。如:

My elder brother often helps others fix computer.

② repair指修理构造较复杂的或再次完整,常用于修理建筑,机器,车辆等。如: I’m going to have my watch repaired this Sunday.

③ mend指修补被打破,坏了的物体或衣服及破损的常用工具,使之可再用,常用于修补衣服、鞋、袜等小东西,偶尔也可用于修理门窗、道路等之类。如: The workmen are mending the road.

11.find (vt) 发现(偶然);找到(指结果) 通常表示无意找而发现。(可接复数宾语)

① find +宾语+宾补(adj /n /adv /v-ing /p.p /prep等)表示“发现……是……”

We found it an intetesting story.     I find it difficult to believe you.

② find oneself doing sth /in (不知不觉地)发现自己在做……;处于……;如果find的宾语为不定式,则用it作形式宾语,真正不定式宾语放在宾补后面。

[比较] discover &find &look for表示“找到;发现”的用法:

① find指寻找的结果,即“找到”,是非延续性动词,如:Where did you find it ?

② find out 发现;查出;打听。(不可接复数宾语)(通常指通过观察,探索而发现事实的真相,因此多指无形,隐秘的事情。)指经过观察、调查把某事、某物查出来、搞清楚、弄清楚、弄明白,多用于复杂而不易直接查出的情况,后接名词(truth, news, facts, secret)和宾语从句。如:The manager had found him out and was going to sack him. 经理发觉了他的不轨行为,打算炒他的鱿鱼。

③ discover指根据科学仪器来发现客观事物的存在,科学上的发展。强调新的发现或科学的发现。

④ search (作及物动词)表示“查询,搜索”。即: search + 地点+ for sth /sb (宾语为地点)

⑤ in secret 秘密地;暗中

Who invented the computer?    How old are you? It’s a secret.(秘密)。

⑥ look for作“寻找”解时,指寻找某人或某事物的过程。是延续性动词,(指过程) 强调找的动作。如:I shall look for a place for a place for you to stay in town .

We have found the book you want.    We will find out the truth soon.

Please find out when the meeting will be held.

[用find/look for/ discover/ find out的正确形式填空]

① He is the right person we are       .

② Who do you think        electricity?

③ Can you       what time the meeting starts?

④ We have      a great new restaurant near the office.

  1. injure (vt)使受伤,伤害;损害名誉;伤害感情injured (adj)受伤的;受委屈的

[辨析] injure ; wound; damage; destroy; harm和hurt的用法:

① injury (n)© 伤;伤口;伤害(主要指在事故中受伤。其名词是injury,可指平时的大小创伤或伤害,还可指事故中的伤害)一般指由于意外或事故而受伤,精神上的伤害多用(hurt)。[例句]The boy injured his leg.   Smoking will injure your health.

He was slightly injured in the accident.

② wound (vt)外伤。指在战争,暴力或灾害中受伤,也可指精神上的创伤。其名词是wound 指战斗中刀或枪的创伤、伤口。He got wounded in the battle.

③ damage (vt)指伤害人或物而使之失去价值,功能或正常的外观,该词也可作名词,多用于自然灾害中的损害。

④ destroy (vt)指具体的或抽象的事物受到的彻底损害而很难恢复,故常用指“破坏,损坏;毁坏;推毁”。

⑤ harm (vt)对……有害/损害。特指伤及一个人或其心情、健康、权利、事业等,并使之产生痛苦、损害或某种不幸遭遇。其名词为harm只能作不可数名词“损害、伤害”。

Too much work did great harm to him, so he is still in poor health.

⑥ hurt (vt) 受伤 (vi)疼痛,引起痛苦。既可以指肉体上的,也可以指精神上或感情上的伤害、肉体上的伤痛。Does your leg still hurt?  His words hurt my feelings.

(用 wound/ damage/ destroy/ harm/ hurt/ injure的适当形式填空)

① She felt ______ at your words.

② Do not ______ your eyes by reading in dim light.

③ The bullet _______ him in the shoulder.

④ The bus was badly ______ when it hit the wall.

⑤ The building was ________ in the earthquake.

⑥ He was _______ in the accident.

13.marry (vi)结婚;嫁或娶(vt)娶某人,嫁给某人,把某人嫁给……;为……证婚

  • marrying (adj)想结婚的 ●married (adj)已结婚的 ●marriage (n)婚姻;结婚
  • get married to sb & be married to sb不能与with连用。
  • marry用法: ① get married = marry 表示短暂的动作,不能与how long及for, since引导的时间状语连用。但可与具体的时间连用。 ② be married结婚,常用于婚姻状况。表示状态,可与for + 一段时间,since短语或状语从句连用。 ③ married表示状态,在表示“与某人结婚时”,不可用“marry with”,而要用“marry sb”。

They got married last year.   They have be married for three years.

Tom married Rose on January 1, 1994.    She married her daughter to a wealthy man.

She didn’t marry until she was in her thirties.

It is said that they have been married for twenty years.

Zhang ling and Lili are both doctors and they _______ for ten years.

  1. have married      B. have got married   C. have been married      C. have married to
  2. hear

【比较】hear ; hear from; hear of ; hear about; hear out 的用法:⑴ hear 不与to 连用。表示听的动作全过程;意为“听的结果”。但listen与to连用;表示听的动作。

⑵ hear from  收到某人来信,相当于write to sb 。(常用于一般时态)如:

Have you heard from Mrs Scobie?   You’ll hear from you father when he gets home.

⑶ hear of  听到(人或事),指间接听到,听说接名词/动名词。如接从句时,不要用of ;常用于疑问句和否定句中。出于善意拒绝不允许某事。但:listen to听着(人或事),指直接听到,后接名词/动名词。如:I have never hear of such things.

I heard of(about) it long ago.

⑷ hear about  听说     How did you hear about(of) our product?

⑸ hear out  听完某人的话

  1. dream (vt)

【比较】dream of / about 后接名词(代词、动名词)。意思为“梦见、梦想”。

▲ dream of 常与表否定意义的词few;little;never;hardly; seldom; no;not等连用,表示“想不到”。

  1. make(vt)


make的用法:① 主要指(通过劳动)“做;制造;建造;创造;制定;获得;赢得”。后面常接名词作宾语,不接代词,不定式,从句。注意:make 解“做;作”时,可带双宾语..例句:In China the Peoples Congress makes laws. 在中国由全国人民代表大会制订法律。 Can you make me a new coat?(=Can you make a new coat for me?

He is going to make us a report.(=He is going to make a report to us.)

② make 解“使得;使成为;使变得”时,后面常接名词、形容词、过去分词或(不带to)的不定式做其宾语。但在被动语态中,不定式符号“to”必须加在动词原形前。例句:Miss White will make you a good assistant.   I was made to report the story.

③ make 作不及物动词时,意思为“开始,似乎要;”后常接不定式。

He made to leave while we were talking.   He made to reply and stopped.

④ “make + 名词”(常表示与该名词同义的动词);如:make a promise (=promise)允诺;诺言

  • make a progress(=progress)进步;Her students made considerable progress in English.
  • make a decision(=decide) 决定;They made an important decision on the matter.

⑤ 有关make常用词组:

  • make a mistake (=mistake sth for sb/by mistakes)失误;常与介词in连用。如:

You made a mistake in trusting him too much.  I mistook the spelling for them.

  • make out 意思为“(企图)证明”“理解,辨认出”后接以等引导的从句。如:

He made out that he had been badly treated.  I can’t make out what he wants.

  • make friends with sb/sth (= be friends with…)与…交朋友

He refused to make friends with the local people.

  • make money  赚钱  I am not doing this to make money.
  • make oneself at home 随便

We were asked to make ourselves at home during the brief absence of our hostess.

  • make up 编造;配制;组成;弥补

She made up a story about how she got the money by honest work.

  • make up one’s mind  下定决心He has made up his mind to go to Mexico for his vacation.     ●make use of 利用   One who makes good use of his time will be successful.
  • make sure(=make certain)确信;无疑;弄清I made sure he would be here.
  • make a contribution to sth/doing sth   为……做贡献,to 为介词
  • make a list of  表示“列……表”
  • make a noise 弄出声音;发出声音  The engine is making funny noises.

⑥【比较】:be made of ; be made from ; be made in ; be made by 和be made for 的用法:

⑴ be made of  表示“由···制成”;主语是制成品,仍可看出原材料是什么; 但be made from 表示制成的东西完全失去了原材料的外形或特征,在成品中已无法辨认,相当于be made out of,如:Cloth is made of cotton wool, silk and other materials.

Gas is made from coal. Wine can be made from grapes.

⑵ be made in :表示某物在某地生产或制造,in后面接生产地点。Oil is made in China.

⑶ be made by 表示“由谁制造”,by 后面接动作的执行者。

⑷ be made for 表示“为···而造”。

⑸ be make into 用……原料做成

Barley (大麦 ) is made into beer.   Wool is first made into yarn.

17. promise (作及物动词)表示“承诺”时;后可接间接宾语和直接宾语,表示“答应某人做某事”。promise sb not to do sth表示“答应某人不做”The president made the promise that he would enable more people to find jobs.

  1. come


come 后接形容词、副词、介词短语。表示“出现”“被供应;生产出售”.

Shoes come in many shapes and sizes.       The cars come with radio and Tv set.

  1. speak

辨析:speak, talk, say 和tell 表不同的“说”。

⑴ say 说;讲。(着重讲话的内容,指以口头或书面语言表达自己的想法,常用作及物

动词。宾语是话语,而非人say sth in +(languages);可以是代词或从句,也可用于直接引

语或间接引语)。但学语的婴儿只能用speak或 talk ,但不能用say. 当主语的动词是says

(一般现在时态),宾语从句中的动词可以根据实际情况用不同的时态。其引导词为that ;

如果是由疑问词引导含有疑问的宾语从句,前面的动词常为ask, wonder等词。

⑵ speak 说话;讲演。(着重开口发言,说话的动作,不着重说话的内容。一般用作不

及物动词;在用作及物动词时,宾语只能是语言及truth 等少数几个名词,后不能跟宾

语从句)。● speak about / of……谈到……  ● speak on sth  谈某方面的问题

  • speak ill of sb 说某人的坏话。 ●speak/think highly of 是固定结构表示“高度称赞”。

⑶ talk 谈话。(指跟少数人“随意地说”,“快活地说”,“不着重所说的内容;一般只用


但有较强的对话,讨论意味。可与介词to, with 和about 连用)。

  • talk to sb 责备某人 /与…说话● talk with sb 与某人讨论/交谈
  • talk about sb / sth谈论/议论某人/某物   ● talk of sb/ sth 谈到某人/某事物。

⑷ tell 告诉,讲述。(多指以口头方式将某事告诉某人或指较连续地述说,有时含有嘱

咐或命令之意。常用于讲故事(story),真话(the truth ),谎话(a lie, lies)等。可跟双

宾语或宾语补主语)。但tell与can/ could/ be able to 等表示能力的情态动词连用时,强

调辨别的能力,常用于tell sb. from sth 结构。也可跟宾语从句。意思为“判断、识别、

区别”。tell sb to do sth 叫某人作某事   tell sb not to do sth 叫某人不作某事。如:

Can you tell Tom from his twin brother?

  1. pay 付钱

[拓展]用英语表达“花费 (时间,金钱)”的方法:

人+ 钱款:             表示“付钱给某人”

⑴  pay +   人+ 钱款+ for+某物:    表示“付钱给某人买某物”

for + 某物:            表示“付款”买某物。

钱款+for+某物:        表示“付款”买某物。

⑵ pay off 表示“还清债务”;“指冒险的计划或行动成功;达到目的”

⑶ pay sb. back sth 表示“(向某人)还钱”

⑷ 物作主语 + cost(不用被动结构) + sb +时间(抽象名词)/金钱。

⑸ 人作主语 + spend + 时间/金钱+ (in)doing sth & on sth.

⑹ It takes + sb + 时间 + to do sth  表示干某事花费某人多长时间

⑺ Sth(活动)takes + sb +时间 /金钱。

备注:spend / pay/ take 表示“金钱”时,可用how much.提问。

spend / pay/ take 表示“时间”时,可用how long .提问。e.g:

  • The policemen ________two days on the traffic accident.
  • The man ________ 200 Yuan _______ the shirt.
  • I two hours (     ) finishing the housework.
  • ______________only __________ ____________ finish reading the text.
  • _________me 500 Yuan ________ buy the sweater.
  • This book ____________ me 40
  • Doing the dishes __________me at least one hour.
  • The boy  29 Yuan              the dictionary.
  • Finishing the work ____________ us much time and labour.
  • The visit to the town will  me two hours.

⑻ It is +时间+since…表示干某事已经费了多长时间了。

since 引导的从句一般用过去时(或过去的一段时间),主句用现在完成时。

I have lived here since I was 3 years old.

⑼ It’s time to do sth.= It’s time for sth. “该……了,是……什么时候了”。

e.g:  Its time for lunch.= Its time to have lunch.

  1. borrow  (op) lend (vt)


[拓展] 终止性动词在现在完成时态中不可与表示时间的介词“for /about/since + 一段时

间”短语连用。但“in /within+ 一段时间”;表示“在……之后/期间”,用于将来时态中,

可与终止性动词,如:become;turn;leave, come, go, start, begin, arrive, reach, move, sail





22.enjoy (vt)


[拓展] 一些动词只能接名词,代词和动名词作宾语;不能接不定式的有:miss失去;mind介意;enjoy喜欢;finish/complete完成;avoid避免;practice实践;excuse原谅;escape逃跑;keep保持 ; require 需要 suggest 建议 can’t help…禁不住imagine 想像consider 考虑be fond of 喜欢做…… 等。如:

He practises the piano every day.= He practices playing the piano every day.

Would you mind my closing the door?       I imagine their coming quickly.

23.prefer (vt)宁愿;喜欢

[拓展] 部分动词接动名词和不定式所表达的意义不同:【宾语是表示行为的动词或动名词及普通名词、代词】。⑴ 意义相同:like /love ;prefer  (2) 意义不大相同,甚至完全相反。不定式表示目的、结果、原因、具体、一次性、将发生。但动名词表达的是状态、性质、心境、抽象、经常性、已发生。如 like & love; prefer; forget; remember; stop; want; need; go on; allow; permit; learn; begin/start; mean; thank you to do sth; thank you for sth. be afraid to do ; be afraid of sth; regret ; hate; try; manage; encourage; advise; forbid 等等。e.g:

to do sth. 打算做……                     to do sth.  尽力做……

mean                                     try

doing sth.意味做 ……                     doing sth.  试试做……

to do sth  忘记去做某事                  to do sth  后悔未做……

forget                                    regret

doing sth 忘记做过某事                  doing sth  做过后悔……

to do sth  想要做…                         to do sth  (主动语态意义),

want                                   need(vt)  require      需要做…

doing sth (含有被动意义)想做……          doing sth (含有被动意义)

feel like doing sth  想要做…               need 可作情态动词,表示“需要”


例如:形容词:worth 和busy 的用法:

worth doing sth 值得做(主动形式表达被动含义)

① be    worthy to be done 值得做(不定式被动式)

worthy of being done值得做(动名词被动式)

② be busy doing sth 忙于作某事  ● be busy with /at(in)/about sth 忙于某事

I am busy cleaning up the kitchen now.      I am busy with my housework.

doing sth 停止做某事……              do sth不能帮助做某事(do可省去)

stop                            can’t help

to do sth 停下来做…继续去做另一事     doing sth 禁不住做某事

Now, that’s all. Let’s stop giving lessons. We can’t help laughing when hear the exciting story.

begin     to do sth 进行时态,接心理或精神活动性质的动词,主语是物,而不是人或天。

(start)  (注意:begin不能与 from、 off、up、 out、 back 搭配使用。但start可以。)

doing sth

Let’s start from Page12.= Let’s begin at Page 12.

to do sth  做了一件事后,接着做另一件事,相当于go on with  sth

go on

doing sth 继续作原来做的那件事。

We are going on cleaning the bedroom up.        We are going to do my homework.

to do sth 不敢,顾虑,忧郁,胆怯去做某事(主观原因)

be afraid“怕”

of doing sth 担心,害怕;是客观上造成的,表示“生怕”

I am afraid of walking alone in the street at night.   I am afraid to meet my elder brother.

in 对……感兴趣

be interested     to do sth 对 做某事感兴趣,想了解某事。

in doing sth 对某种想法感兴趣,doing 通常为想法,将发生或可能发生。

24.leave (vt)离开;遗留

[比较] forget和leave 的用法:

  • forget  表示“忘了”不能跟“具体地点状语”连用。I forgot to take my schoolbag.
  • leave 表示“忘留”,可跟“具体地点状语”连用,leave sth + 地点状语。如:

Maybe I left it in our classroom.

【注意】:leave 是不完全及物动词,译成“任由……”加宾语之后再接形容词或分词做


于go away from…。如:  He left the boy crying.       Let’s leave the window open.

I am leaving Swatow for Guangzhong next week.

  1. agree同意


① agree to + 名词 :指同意某一建议、安排或接受答应某一想法、计划、建议等。

They agree to our plans.  Her parents agreed to her going abroad.

② agree to + 动词原形表示“同意做某事”。指主语的看法和对方一致,而且有承担动作的含义。 Bob agreed to come on Friday.  We agreed to start early .  我们同意早点动身。

  • agree with +人(名词、代词宾语):指同意某人的意见;或指两个人以上“意见一致”。

I full agree with him that it is too late to act now.  Meat does not agree with me.

The Yellow Mountain is wonderful . Hope we will visit it again.  --_________ .

  1. I agree with you   B. Have a good time
  2. That’s Ok  D.It’s  very kind of you
  • agree with +物(意见、看法):指“与  相一致”;“适合”。

His words do not agree with his action.  I agree with every word you’ve said.

  • agree on +表示具体协议的文件,计划,行动的词,主语常是协商一件事的人或单位。指在某一点上取得或具有相同意见。如:The two countries agreed on a cease-fire.

We finally agreed on the terms of the contract.  We agreed on the plan.

注意:agree on & agree to & agree upon 后面都不能接人称代词(如:us ,me , you 等),

而必须接事物性名词。只有agree with 后可接人称代词或表人物机构的名词(短语)。

26.有些动词只能加不定式(或不带to 的不定式)的词:【七类】

① 助动词、情态动词(但 ought to;have to; be to 除外)。e.g:

Do you like singing.        You may go now.

② had better 和 had better not…  e.g:You had better (not) set off at once.

③ would like to ,/ wish to   e.g:I would like to have a walk in the rain.

What would you like to do tomorrow?

④“Why …? 或“Why not …? ”结构。e.g: Why not try again?

Why turn off the light?

⑤ 当两个(或更多)相同作用的不定式并列使用时,常只在第一个不定式前加to, 在后面的不定式前不加。但如果两者有对比关系,那么,每个前面就都得加to.

e.g:We decided to go and visit them.

We haven’t decided whether to go home or to stay at school.

  • 在介词but; except 之后,当前面的主要动词为do 时,不定式一般不带

e.g:He never did anything but read noves.   Mary did nothing except clean the dishes.

⑦ would rather 后接动词原形,意思为:“情愿做某事”。 e.g:

I’d rather stay home and read tonight.   I would rather not tell you.

27. 用英语表示“提供、征求建议”:

⑴ let’s +代词原形+其它.

【比较】:Let’s…..? 和 Let us…….? 的用法:

  • Let’s 包括说话人和听话人在内,构成反意疑问句部分可用:shall we?

Let’s have a rest , shall we?

  • Let us不包括听话人在内,构成反意疑问句部分可用:will you/won’t you?

Let us have a try, will you/won’t?

⑵ Why don’t you ···或Why not +动词原形+其它;或Why +动词原形+其它?

⑶ had better(not) + 动词原形 ;表示“最好(不)做···”

(4) What/How  about···“用来征求对方意见或询问消息,表示……怎么样?”“···好不好···”

⑸ Don’t +动词原形+其它

(6)Shall/ Should+主语+动词原形+其它?(表示一种义务和责任)

  • 肯定回答:Ok . / Good idea ./ All right . / Sure / I’d love to /Certainly / Yes, very much.
  • 否定回答:No, thanks./ Sorry,I’m afraid /Ican’t./ No, please don’t . / No, you don’t have to.

(7)Would / Could you please+动词原形+其它/ Will you +动词原形+其它?表示一种客气有礼貌的委婉语气。如:—-You look tired ,you had better _________ right now

---Thank you, But I have much work to do .

A: not to have good sleep       B: to have a good sleep

C: not have a good sleep        D:  have a good sleep

⑻ — Would you like/love to do sth ? 表示“愿意做某事”?

— Yes, I’d like/love to./ Sorry, + (原因).

【比较】Would you like to do sth? 和Would you like sth? 的用法:

① Would you like to do sth? 表示:你愿意做某事吗?指向对方有礼貌地提出建议或邀请。肯定回答是:Yes, I’d like to. 否定回答:Sorry , …….

② Would you like sth? 你想要某物吗?指征求对方的要求。

肯定回答是:Yes, please. 或All right. 否定回答是:No ,thanks.

  1. 用英语表示“睡觉”的译法:

sleep on   睡在

fall fast asleep(=go to sleep) 入睡 fall into a sleep

go to bed上床睡觉

get up: 起床; rise


(1)prefer doing (与……相比)更喜欢……

(2) prefer doing to doing比起做……来还是更喜欢做……

(3)keep doing 一直做。

(4)keep sb  doing sth 使某人保持做……

(5)keep on doing sth 继续(反复)做某事

(6)go on doing sth 继续不停的做某

(7)like doing sth 喜欢做某事(相当于)love / enjoy doing sth

(8) feel like doing sth 想要做某事

(9)stop doing sth 停止做某事

(10)stop…from doing sth ,阻止……做某事,相当于prevent…from doing sth

(11)finish doing sth结束做某事

(12)practice/practise doing sth 练习作某事

(13)look forwards to doing sth 期待作某事……

(14)what/how about doing sth ……?你认为做某事怎么样?

(15)thank sb for doing sth……因……感谢某人

(16)be used for doing sth被用来做某事

(17) see / watch / find / notice / hear / feel …doing sth

(18) spend…(in)doing sth花费时间做某事

spend on sth 表示在……上的花费,指时间、金钱。

(19)mind doing sth介意做某事

(20)begin / start doing sth开始做某事

(21)remember doing sth 记得已做过某事

(22)forget doing sth  忘记已做过某事

(23)be busy doing sth忙于作某事(反义词)be free to do sth

(24)be worth doing sth 值得作某事

(25)give up doing sth 放弃作某事。

30.在英语中,使役动词:let、have、make、help、get(除外)、keep…“让/使某人做……” 和感观动词see ,hear ,watch,feel; look at; listen to; notice ; observe; find 等。常可接不带to的不定式或动词的ing形式作宾语补足语。注意以下几点:

⑴在主动语态中,后面要用不带to 的不定式短语做宾补;在被动语态中,必须把不定式符号“to”回原。表示“看到或听到动作发生的过程”。侧重完成。


⑶ 使役动词make (使得)+sb/sth +形容词,表示“使得……”。但let 和help 后一般不跟形容词作宾语补足语。

⑷ 例外词:lead…to…和leave…to… 和cause…to…却要带to表示“让/使…….”:

  • see sb .doing sth 表示看见某人正在做某事;指看到的动作正在进行。表示结果,不用于进行时态.。
  • watch sb.doing sth注意看;指观看(电影;电视;比赛):
  • see sb. do sth 看见某人做过某事;指明看到了动作的全过程。表示结果,不用于进行时态.。
  • watch sb. do sth注意看;指观看(电影;电视;比赛):
  • notice sb do sth   注意某人作了某事表示动作及过程以结束
  • notice sb doing sth 注意到某人正在作某事,动作正在进行。
  • look看;(指有目标看去)表示动作,可用于进行时态


  • 主语是人+    be sure to do sth或of sth   (sure 不能换成)

make sure that宾语从句(或of 短语)。从句用一般现在时态(包括现在完成时).

② 主语是物(It )+  be certain to do sth 或of sth

③ be sure of/about或be sure that从句的主语是人,表示:主语对某事物感到“有把握或确信。

④ be sure to do 的主语既可是人,也可是物,表示说话人推测“一定,必定会”。

Make sure that the door is locked.(务必锁门)

We must make sure when the plane will leave.You must make sure whether they are coming.

  1. 比较部分单词的词义随读音变化而异同:

⑴ close(动词)/z/表示“关,闭”。(形容、副词)/s/ 表示“近的;亲近的,靠近的”

⑵ use (动词) /z/ 表示“使用”。(名词)/s/ 表示“用,用途”

⑶ excuse (动词)/z/表示“原谅”。(名词)/s/ 表示“借口,理由”

⑷ live(动词)/i/ 表示“活着,生存,居住”(名词)/ai/表示“有生命的;精力充沛的”

⑸ house (动词)/ s/  表示“供以房屋”。(名词)/z/  表示“房屋”。

  1. 小结常见同音的异形异议词:

are是 ----------ah(叹词)啊                aren’t ---------- aunt

be(am/is/are的原形)---------- bee  蜜蜂        blue ---------- blew(blow的过去式)

bye 再见---------- by乘 ;被 buy            dear ---------- deer

eye眼睛---------- I 我                      eight ---------- ate(eat的过去式)

farther(far的比较级) 远---------- father父亲         hear----------- here

for为---------- four四                             its ---------- it’s

hi 嗨---------- high 高的                           meat---------- meet

know 知道---------- no不                          nose---------- knows

new新的---------- knew知道(过去式)             whole---------- hole

whose谁的----------- who’s 谁是                     weather --------- whether

wood木材---------- would将来                      weak ----------- week

wear穿----------- where                            way--------  weigh

wait等----------weight 重量                        threw------------through

too也---------- to给                               son----------- sun

their 他们的---------- there那里                     road ---------- rode

sea海--------- see看见                             red---------- read

right正确的(右)--------- write写                  pair----------- pear

past过去---------  passed 传                       our --------- hour

one 一(它)--------- won赢

  1. join (vt)参加

比较take part in ,join , attend的用法上的区别:

【注意】take part in ,join , attend 表示瞬间的动作,不能同表示一段时间的词或短语连用。

① join加入某组织,如要比哦是“参加某一群人的活动”。可用介词in+名词/动名词来表示。后面通常接组织,党派,团体的名词。

② join in 参加,后面常接表示活动、运动的名词和动名词。in既可能是副词,也可以是介词。join是瞬间动词。不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。如要表示与“谁”一同参加,可以在join in 后面加with宾语。E.g:Will you join us to clean up the pigsty ?

③ join to 表示“连接,把……连起来。”相当于“connect”.

④ take part in 参加某种活动,也指参加会议。part前有形容词时,应加不定冠词; take an active part in

⑤ take part in ,join in 和attend 可接介词with+人。

⑥ attend 出席会议

  1. last (adj&adv&n&vi)

last的用法:(1)作形容词 表示“最后的”其反义词“first”   (表示时间)上

一个,如: last week   (2)作副词,表示“最后” (3):作名词,表示“最后一个”the

last , at last相当于in the end终于,最后  (4):作不及物动词:相当于continue延续,

持续,直接跟时间状语,省去介词。其结构:last sb + 时间状语”。lasting作定语“持久

的,永恒的”。Our holidays lasts for three days.


比   take a message for sb 替人捎口信

give a message for sb 把口信捎给别人(不跟地点的介词连用)

较   pass a message 传口信 (不跟地点连用)

leave a message to sb 给某人留口信(常于地点连用)

  1. have / has 有

[拓展] 归纳行为动词have 和 has 的用法:


⑴ have 可用于人称代词:(我)I  (我们)we (你/你们)you (他们/它们)they

⑵ has 可用于人称代词:他he   她she   它it

(二) 疑问句:须借助动词do 或does 帮助提问。

⑴肯定回答:Yes ,主语+do /does

⑵否定回答:No,主语+ don’t/doesn’t

(三)否定句:须借助动词do 和does ,再接否定副词not 放在动词have 之前。

备注:疑问句形式和否定句形式须借助动词do 或does 用do 或does 由主语人称而确定,但动词一律用have.

(四). have (has )got 的用法:

① have (has)got 多用于口语中,常见于美式英语。其中have (has) got为助动词。用在询问对方是否有什么东西。

② 疑问式:Have you got…?

③ 肯定回答:Yes, I have.

④ 否定回答:No, I haven’t.

(五) 总结:have(has) got与have (has)之间的用法:

⒈have (has) got 与have (has) 都表示“有”的意思。但have (has) got常用于美式英语。have(has) 常用于英式英语。

⒉以下几种情况have 不可用have got代替。

⑴ have与助动词和情态动词连用时。We may have these books.

The shirt is cheap. I’ll have it.

⑵ 用于过去时,进行时和完成时不用have got.  He had a new bike last Sunday.

⑶ 用解不定式时。不可用have got.   I want to have a twin sister.

⑷have作为“吃、喝、让”的意时,不可用have got代替。 What did you have for breakfast?

I’m so busy every day. I’ll have somebody do the housework for me.


  • Are you ……是一般疑问句,可用来询问人的姓名,职业,身份等。对一般疑问句

的回答,要用yes或no。—— Are you a teacher ? —— No ,I’m not . 说明:在对以be动词开头的一般疑问句作肯定回答时,am , is , 和are不可与主语代词所写在一起,必须分开。

② This is ……除了常用来说明或介绍所指的物品外,还可介绍人,向别人介绍某人时,习惯用This is ……而不是She / He is…… 其后接人或职业。  Mum this is my teacher . 说明:介绍对方认识时,应遵循英美人的习惯;通常先把年幼者,位低者介绍给年长者,位尊者;在主宾之间,则必须现介绍宾客,在男女之间,通常现把男方介绍给女方。

Can you ……,please?是一般疑问句,读时用升调,表示请求,常用于询问对方能否作某事,肯定回答用yes, I can .否定回答 No ,I can’t .或Sorry , I can’t . 说明:在否定回答时,多用sorry 或I’m sorry 代替No. 以表示礼貌。——Can you spell his name ,please ? —— Sorry , I can’t . 【please】位于句首时,可省略主语,并不能用逗号隔开,位于句末时,要用逗号隔开。

  1. 区别lie 和lay的用法:

lie(躺)——lay(过去式)——lain (过去分词)

lie (撒谎)——lied(过去式)----lied(过去分词)


  1. interest

比较:interest ; interesting & interested 的用法:

① interest 作名词用,意思为“兴趣,趣味”e.g: I have no interest in such things.

② interest 作动词时,意思为“使人产生兴趣”。e.g:  Such things don’t interest me .

③ interesting 作形容词时,意思为“有兴趣的,令人感兴趣的”常作表语或定语。主语一般是事物。E.g: I found his talk very interesting .

④ interested 作形容词,意思为“感兴趣的”;主语一般是人。其所构成的短语:become(动作)be(状态) interested in 表示“对……感兴趣”;in doing sth 对某种想法或兴趣,doing 通常为想法,表示将发生或可能会发生。而 be interested to do sth  对做某事感兴趣,想了解某事。它们的主语是人;如果用 interesting 表达时;它们的主语是物。反义词:be uninterested in doing sth 表示“对…不感兴趣”。

  1. wait

await (及物动词)相当于 wait for  等待……

wait for sb 等……等待某人做某事

wait for sb to do sth  等待某人做某事

wait up for sb 熬夜等候某人

can/could not wait to do sth 迫不及待地干……

  1. ask

ask sb to do sth 叫某人做某事

ask after sb    问候某人

ask for sb 找某人

ask for sth 请求

ask sb for sth=ask sb、sth向某人要某物

ask to do sth 要求做某事



动词work与 with. on. at. for, as, 介词固定搭配:表示“工作、劳动、干活”时,通


① with  做……工作;与某人工作(后接人)

② for   为……而工作;为···尽力(接人或物)

⑴ work   ③ as   从事…….工作,(后接物)

④ on  从事于;致力于(后面sth对象)

⑤ at  从事于;致力于; 钻研;研究(后面sth,性质)

⑥ hard a t 努力学习(后面接内容)

The engine works (运转) smoothly.

⑵ at work 在工作、运转(指人、机器)(反义词)at play在玩耍

⑶ in work 有职业(反义词)out of work 失业

⑷ uphill 上坡路(反)downhill 下坡路

⑸ hand in = turn in交上去 (反义词)hand out 分发

⑹ after work 下班后   ⑺ work at =study 学习,攻读。

⑻ in the workshop 在车间,用介词in而不用on 。

The machine/engine is at work.   Don’t phone him at work.  The woman is in work.

注意:work 作不可数名词时;不能用不定冠词来修饰,指抽象名词。不具体,job是普通名词,指具体某项工作,为可数名词。 a job 相当于a piece of work 一项工作

注意:① work at 后接具体事务,表示做某事。后接职业性的名词,表示从事于某项职

业。  He is working at a difficult problem in moths.    She works at a newspaper .

② work on 后面常接一些表示工程项目的名词,表示进行某个工程项目 。  He has been working on a science fiction .


wake up sb

wake sb up                叫醒某人

awake (及物动词)sb


translate … into …(= put … into …)= change …into … 表示“把 …… 翻译成”

turn into = change into 表示“变成……”



常用词组搭配:① go on(=carry on ) doing sth =go on with sth 表示“前后做同一件事”

  • go on to do sth前后做的不是同一件事
  • go +动词-ing  表示“从事”。指短暂户外活动。  I’ll go fishing.
  • go…for…为某事前往某地  We went to France for our holidays.
  • go by taxi 乘出租车去    I prefer go by taxi rather than go by bus.
  • go over检查;复习。相当于 check(in/out/up) & review
  • go wrong 指行为,思想或意识发生错误
  • go straight along 沿着……一直向前走
  • go to school   去上学 (动作)    但:go to a school 表示“去一个学校学习”
  • keep doing sth  一直做……(不能用不定式作宾语)

They keep doing things I tell them not to do.

keep sb doing sth 继续做……

keep on doing sth 坚持做……(强调动作的重复)

They keep on doing things.I tell them not to do.

46. think


think about 表示有通过考虑看某事是否相宜,可行之意,“考虑”

think of  表示“想起,为……着想和认为”

think over (动副短语)表示“仔细想,作进一步考虑”

81. warn (vt)

① warn sb about/of/against +名词  “让人警惕或提防……”

We warned him about/of/against the danger.

② warn + 名词/sb +(not) to do … “警告,告戒……(不要)做……”

The doctor warn the patient not to smoke.

③ warn sb that 从句。

82. catch (vt)


catch (作及物动词)  赶;指火车

catch (a) cold  表示“ 感冒”相当于 have/get/take a cold

catch fire 着火  take fire 指自行着火或燃烧

catch / get /lay /leave hold of 握住

  1. come (vi)


come back from 从……回来……

come up with(不用被动)想出(计划)

be away from 从。。。来

from…to 从……到……

from now on 从现在起

She came up with a new idea for increasing sales.

88.drop (vt)


finish/ leave / be over  school  完成学业,毕业

drop out of school 退学

drop in on sb 顺便拜访某人

drop in at some place 顺便参观某地

drop out of school退学 = leave school 离校

at/in school 在学校读书

at/in the school 在学校

in hospital 住院

in the hospital 在医院

at table表示“进餐,就席”相当于have a meal

at the table 表示“坐在桌旁”

in/at prison 坐牢

in/at the prison 在监狱里


happen 指“偶然”或“意想不到”的发生。

其句型:It so happens that …/ It chances that…

It happens that ……恰好;碰巧

It happened that my father was out that day.

It happens that I have ten yuan.

It so happens that she has no money with her.

It happens/chances to have done.(时态不同)

It happens/chances to be + adj/adv/(时态相同)

happen to sb某人发生了什么事。to作介词,表示方向。

happen on sb     偶然碰到

happen to do sth  偶然发生

take place 指某些历史事件或会议的发生。(事先计划)的事物作主语, 指地点。与介词in连用。

91. turn down  把音量调小

turn on     打开……

turn /keep/cut/shut off     关掉……


decide to do sth 决定做某事(强调经过考虑或经商量)

decide + 名词/代词

make up one’s mind  下定决心做某事


try one’s best to do sth 尽力做某事(但未成功)

do one’s best to do sth  尽力做某事(但多数成功)

try on   试穿

try out 试验;试用

try for sth   试图获得某物

manage to do sth / manage doing sth试图获得某物

have a try 试一试  (相当于): have /want a go


be sorry to do sth 很抱歉…表示正在或将要做的事表歉意。

be sorry that 从句

be sorry about sth = excuse me for sth = excuse my doing 对某事深感抱歉

be sorry for = be sorry to have + v-ed(过去分词 ) 对……表难过。

I’m sorry I have kept you waiting so long.

I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long.

  1. 单个现在分词作定语(指正在发生的动作)可置于被修饰词的前面;但有时也可放在后面。分词短语作定语一定要位于被修饰词的后面,其作用相当于定语从句。现在分词作定语时,表示它修饰的名词所做的动作;和它修饰的名词之间存在逻辑主谓关系。而动名词作定语时,和它修饰的名词之间不存在逻辑主谓关系,只表示它所修饰的名词所表达的目的或用途。动名词作定语只可置于被修饰词的前面;但不可放在后面。

She told us an exciting story.

Do you see the flying bird in the sky?

It is important to use a good learning method.

The man sitting at a writing desk is a young writer.


语是物。而过去分词则是“感到……”的意思。(exciting -----excited; interesting -----interested;

encouraging ------- encouraged …)

① excited 表示“激动的;兴奋的”。在句中作表语,如果表示“因某人/某事而感到兴奋”时;则用be excited about / at…….主语是人.

  • exciting 表示“另人兴奋的;另人激动的”, The Tv play is exciting.
  • a beating heart =a heart which is beating fast  跳动的心


take 指拿去;带去 ( 反义词)  bring 指取来;带来

take sth to sb  把某物拿给某人。    bring sth to sb 把某物拿来给某人

take off 脱下(衣服,鞋);起飞

take in  拿进来

take out 拿出去

take on 呈现

take  (a goo ) care of 照顾;负责 = look after (well)

take a taxi 成出租车 take a photo (take photos) of 自己拍照

have a picture/photo taken 让别人拍照

leave for  + 地点名词   ;

set off/out for +地点名词

leave sb. for + 地点名词

come to +地点名词

take sb. to +地点名词

take  sb. away from+地点名词 :表示“带某人离开……”

take sb. + 地点副词there./ here./ home./ in/out 等,则无需加介词 to

take pity on 对……产生怜悯.

take +a +名词 ,表示做一次动作

bath 洗个澡

look 看一看

take a rest 休息一会儿

trip 旅行

walk 散一散步

101.【固定句型搭配】It’s said that 据说……

It’s reported that 据报道……

It’s supposed that 据猜想……

102.比较borrow, lend, keep和,return, have back 的用法

(1)borrow 对主语来说,指:“借入”,常与from连用。   作终止性动词。

(2)lend 对主语来说,指“借出”,常与to连用。作终止性动词。


(4)return 表示“归还(give/ go/come )back,恢复”,后接副词,不与back连用,但可与介词to搭配,in return作为回报

(5)have back: 表示“要回来”。

104.Excuse me 的用法





句型:Sb excuse to sb  抱歉

105.比较:used to be; used to do sth; 和be used to do sth,; be used to doing sth的用法:

(1) 用于肯定句  used to be  (指状况)表示“过去常常和习惯做某事,也指过去反复发生的动作。

used to do sth

其否定形式:used not

usedn’t    to be/do sth

疑问句形式:used sb to do /be……?

(2) be used to do sth表示“被用于做……”含有被动语态的意义。

(3)be used to doing sth:用来表示“现在,过去及将来习惯于做某事。”

106.比较:be used for ;be used as ;be used by的用法:

(1) be used for 表达的是 被“用来”。

(2) be used as  表达的是“被用做”

  • be used by  表达“被谁用”。

⑸ use…for… 表示“用 ……来……for后接名词/动名词

⑹ use…to…表示“用……做……to后接动词原形

⑺ be useful for  表示“对……有用”

⑻ be useful to do sth表示 “做……有用”


walk outside  在外面散步

walk on/along 短语,on、along 作副词、介词。表示“一直朝前走”

walk around/up and down 表示“在周围走来走去”。

walk straight along “沿着。。。。。一直朝前走”


111.辨析形容词:lovely 和loving 的用法:

(1) lovely “可爱的,漂亮的,迷人的,宜人的”。   a lovely girl.    a lovely song .

(2) loving (作定语)深爱的,深情的; 挚友   慈父   a loving father   挚友 a loving friend

112.to tell sb the truth“告诉某人事实”做独立副词短语的不定式短语用来修饰主句;放在句首用逗号隔开,再接主句。To tell the truth 老实说 ;To begin with首先;  To sum up 总之

To tell the truth, I don’t agree to your plan.    Needless to say, I will support your proposal.


in trouble  在困难中

in time    及时

on time   准时

in surpise  惊奇

in front of   在前面;接地点时

in the front of  在前部; 接地点时

at/in the very beginning 在最开始

114.通常不用于进行时态的词:love , like , know , see , want , wish , believe , mean , understand , appear ,

seem , have (有), find , remember; recognize; remain , belong , hate , hope , feel 等感官动词。

注意:have 当“有”讲时不用于进行时,但have a report 却有进行时,We are having a report.

116.形容词:alive , live . lively, living的用法:

① alive 常用作表语或后置定语,表示“有生命的,活的,还出着气的,

② live  常用作定语,表示:活的,有生命的“主要用来说鸟或其它动物。

③ lively 常作表语或定语,相当于active,表示“活泼的;有生气的”。

④ living 既作定语,也做表语,只强调与死相反的活着。


① at the end of 表示“在……结束时”,后面接指时间的名词作时间状语。表示“在……的尽头”时,后面接表示地点的名词,作地点状语。

② in the end 表示终于,最后,相当于at last或finally .

③ by the end of表示在……结束时,一般位于句首或句末。 但表示“到某一时间为止,某一时间前”,用于过去完成时和将来时

126.比较end 和 finish 意为“结束”时。意义上的差异:




① be ready 表示“做好准备的”“准备完毕”,侧重于已经准备就绪的状态,后面也可以与for短语连用。

  • get ready for表示“为……作准备”“准备好……”

③ prepare for + 间接宾语(人)表示“为……做好准备”。   The old lady is preparing him a meal.

= The old lady is preparing a meal for him.  但be prepared to 有时可作“愿意”解。

He was not prepared to accept their invitation.

③ get……ready 表示“把……准备好”,侧重于强调动作和行为,get后接名词或代词。

④ get/be rid of表示“除掉,去掉“

⑤ be/get angry about sth :对某物生气; with sb:  对某人生气

⑥ be grateful /thankful to sb for sth 某事对某人幸运

⑦ be amazed at /by  对……吃惊,惊讶;  at (in): 表示引起某种情绪的原因

⑧ be amazed to do sth       We were amazed to hear the news.

⑨ be amazed that

⑩ be surprised in/at  表示“对……感到惊讶“

⑾ to one’s surprise  使某人惊奇的是……

128.ill(作形容词); 比较级:worse,  最高级:worst, 作表语时,表示“生病的”。 作定语时,表示“坏的”相当于bad.

fall ill     生病                         the sick =sick people

如    ill effect   不良的后果 如

an ill deed 一件坏事                   (不能说) the ill

sick 作形容词,比较级:sicker      最高级:sickest ,作定语和表语,表示“生病的,恶心,讨厌”,


如:fall sick :患病                        sick leave 病假

be sick at heart心中烦闷              sick bay  医务室(穿上)

clinic医务室(学校)                  diseased  adj: 指植物患病害。

  1. 两个比较级前用定冠词the ,分别引导一个分句。前一个分句作状语,表示假设,条件,时间等,后一个分句表示结果。意思为“越……,就越……”有时,在上下文意思清楚,或对话双方都明白的情况下,只保留两个比较级,省略句子的其它部分。表达表示 “ 越来越……”和“或……或……”的译法:⑴【注意比较级】the+比较级,the + 比较级 ……= (比较级 + and  + 比较级)越来越……

⑵【注意比较级】比较级 + more + 比较级  “ 或…… 或…… ”  如:

① The simpler (the passage is ),the easier (it will be ).

② The more you know ,the more you will find you don’t you .

③“Many thousands of trees must be planted every year ,”he said,“ The more , the better .”

more and more表示“越来越多”         more or less 表示“或多或少”“差不多”。

sooner or later固定词组,表示“迟早”,用于将来时态。

Your watch is more or less the same as mine.

26.【总结中学阶段常见的频度副词】:often , usually , sometimes ,always , seldom, never 和hardly等在句中的位置:(1)置于系动词be之后。(2)置于行为动词前。(3)置于助动词,情态动词后;但在行为动词前。(4)often , seldom 在有quite ,very修饰时起加强语气的作用,可置于句首,句中或句末。

  1. 比较 so that与so…that…的用法:

⑴ so that 引导目的状语从句和结果状语从句。表示:“为了,也便,以至于,因此”。 The man spoke in a loud voice so that everybody in the room might hear him。 It was verycold , so that the river froze.

(2) so that 引导目的状语从句时,常与情态动词may(might)、 can(could)、will等连用。so that 前没有逗号。You’d better take a taxi so that you won’t be late.    Please speak louder so that we can hear you.但so that 引导结果状语从句时,谓语动词不与情态动词may(might)、 can(could)、will等连用。so that 前有逗号。He didn’t work hard; so that he failed in the exam. ⑶ so…that … 引导的状语从句时,如果so前面是be, become, feel,等,so后面一般跟形容词,如果so 前面是行为动词和其它动词时,so后面跟副词。(4):so …that…引导结果状语从句,表示“如此……以致……,so作副词,可修饰形容词和副词。(5):so …that…not 可与too…to互换。The father was poorthat he couldn’t send his son to school.= The father was too poorto send his son to school.

  1. 比较such…as 和such as 的用法:

(1)such作形容词,作定语。说明主句里某个名词,as用作关系代词,引导定语从句,它的先行词总是such 所修饰的那个名词。as在从句中可充当主语,宾语和表语。such…as 结构译为“像……这(那)样的;像……之类的”(2)such…as to 表示程度和结果。(3)such as “例如”,相同于for example ,引出同位语,其结构:复数名词+such as,对前面的复数名词起着列举作用。as前有逗号。(4)such as to 表示程度和结果。I hope to get such a toolas he repaired this instrument with. He is such

a lovely boy as to be loved by everyone. Her illness was not such as to cause anxiety .

X-rays can penetrate through many materials ,such as wood ,cloth and thin sheets of aluminum .

31.定语后置现象:在英语中把修饰语放名词,代词后的定语称为“后置定语”。(一):形容词,副词,介词短语等作后置定语。如:(1)不定代词everything , something , anything , nothing 等复合不定代词的形容词位于不定代词后面。(2)形容词后接介词短语或动词不定式时,要位于名词之后。(3)形容词词组通常放在被修饰的名词之后。(4)只可作表语的形容词,也可作后置定语。(5)用作定语的副词通常位于名词之后。(6)介词短语作定语时都要放在被修饰词之后。(二):非谓语动词作后置定语。如:(1)现在分词短语作后置语,相当于一个定语从句。  ①动作正在进行  ②经常性动作(2)过去分

词短语作后置定语,表示动作经常发生在谓语动作所表示的动作之前。There is five minutes left. (3)不定式短语作后置定语,表示将要发生的动作,动词不定式或短语与其所修饰的词之间有一定逻辑关系。(4)定语从句。与汉语语序正好相反。


32.英语人称代词的排序:(1)当人称代词单数作并列主语时,其排列如: 第二人称(你)

you ;第三人称(他、她)he/she ;第一人称(我)I (2)当承认错误时,因把第一人称

放在最前面。(3)当人称代词是复数形式作主语时,其排列为: 第一人称我们we 第二

人称你们you  第三人称他们they(4)当第三人称两性作主语时,一般男在前,女在后。



33.比较副词so 和形容词such 的用法

(1):  so+形容词+a/an+ 名词单数

= 表示如此···

such + a/an +形容词+名词单数

(2)    so many / few + 名词复数

= 表示“这么多···

such a lot of+名词复数

(3)   so + much / little+不可数名词

= 表示“这么多···

such + a lot of+不可数名词

(4)   such +形容词/副词+不可数名词   表示如此···

so +形容词/副词 +as 引导的比较状语从句或不定式to

如:be so kind/good as to do sth劳驾

(5) such放在 all, no one, few, several, some, any 等之后。可修饰可数名词的单数形



34.比较no more than & not more than 和 no less than & not less than的用法:

no more than +数词                 “仅仅”【意思相当】 only + 数词+名词

not more than +数词     + 名 表示 “最多不超过”= at most +数词+名词

no less than + 数词        词       “刚刚好”“多达”= as many as +数词+名词

not less than + 数词                 “至少……”= at least+数词+名词

It is no more than ten minutes’s walk from here.

It is no less than ten minutes’walk from here.

I’ll stay here not more than three days.

I’ll stay here not less than three days.


  1. 英语“东南西北”通常说成:north(北)   south(南)    east(东)    west (西)
  2. 形容词、副词的比较等级用法要点归纳:㈠比较级.(1)than作连词,用于形容词,


主句相同的部分。注意前后动词形式应一致。(2)very ,much 与many用作修饰词时的


“···得多”。much / a few和数词常用来修饰more,表示程度,常放在more(修饰或


more  ,most构成;但early(friendly)等词例外,其比较级把y改为i再加-er.最高级把

y改为i再加-est.(4)动词prefer相当于like better,表示比较意义。(5)little 得比较级是

less,但“less+多音节形容词原级+than”相当于not so +形容词或副词原级+as”表示

“···不如···”⑹ by far (=very much)表示“…得多;最…”用来修饰比较级、最高级;

强调数量,表示程度。还有:fast , quickly; soon 等。  Maths is less interesting than English.

= Maths is not so interesting as English. It’s far too hot in this room.open the windows.

The film is far worse than the book.(6)比较级前加定冠词 the 有两种情况:第一种是与of

the two 短语连用,表示“在比较另一个……”第二种是:形容词比较级后面有名词时,

其前加the. He is the stronger of the two.  Which is the more developed country, the USA or

France ?    (7)as(so)…as结构:表示甲和乙在某方面程度上相同,或表示甲不如乙时,


只用于否定句中。He is as strong as Jim . He doesn’t run so fast as I .⑻可以用来修饰比较级

的词语有:much , still , even , a lot , a little 等,而more只能用来构成比较级,而不能修

饰比较级。(二):最高级:⑴当most 不表示 “最”,而表示“绝大多数” 时,其前不加定

冠词the. (2)当最高级前有物主代词修饰时, 其前不加定冠词the.(3)介词of与in都可用于

最高级的比较级结构中.但in表示比较范围,of表示比较的对象属于同类. (4) 形容词和副

词最高级的比较范围应包含有比较者在内. Meimei must be the cleverest of all the sisters .


范围. 第一。当比较双方属同一范围时,应用other或else排除自身,因为自己不能和自己

比较. Shanghai is larger than any other city in China. 第二。当比较双方不属同一范围时,则

不存在自己与自己相比较的问题,所以不可用other 或else . Shanghai is larger than any city

in Africa .⑹ 所描述的物体在最高级比较中有次序排列,其结构:“序数词+形容词最高

级+名词”。The Yellow River is the fourth longest river in the world. Hailand Island is the

second largest island of China. 说明:有些没有比较级的形容词(因本身程度已达到极限) .

第一种是“绝对,完整”等:absolute绝对的;完整的.  full满的,empty空的,whole全部的;整个

的; entire 全体的,完全的.complete全部的,彻底的. certain 确信…必定会… 第二种是“最

佳,独特”等:perfect完美的,无暇的, excellent 极好的(very good), only 最好的, universal 全

体的, ideal  完美的. 第三种是“主要,基本”等: chief , main, basic……第四种是表“生,死”

等,living ,dead 第五种是“形态”等,circular , round, square , flat……第六种是“时间”

等:weekly ,… 第七种是表“物质”等;silk, woolen……


  1. 比较as +原形(adj/adv)+as possible & as soon as 的用法:
  • as +原形(adj/adv)+as possible 尽可能,其后的possible 可以被I can; You can 等结

构替换。有时as…as…之间可加由 much,many, few, little等表示数量的词修饰的名词。作连接副词,用以修饰动词表达某种程度或要求。如:as soon as possible = as soon as one can;   as quickly as possible   表达“尽快”。as fast as possible “尽可能快”,强调速度。Try to finish the job as soon as possible.     Watch me as carefully as possible.= Watch me as carefully as you can.   You must remember as many words as possible.

② as soon as (作连接词)引导时间状语从句。“一……就 ”表示主句动作紧接着从句动作发生。如果主句为一般将来时,相应的从句为一般现在时。

39.比较 a lot 与a lot of 的差异:

(1) a lot 表示“非常”用来修饰形容词,副词和动词.

(2) a lot of 表示“许多”相当于lots of ,后接可数名词复数和不可数名词.

quite 可以与a lot of 连用,表示“相当多的”。

  1. 辨析:in time , on time , in no time 的用法:

⑴ in time表示正好赶上规定的时间,没有晚于规定的时间,强调“及时”。in time for sth / to do sth . 但 in … time 表示“在。。。时间之后”,用于一般将来时。 A bridge will be built across the river in two years’time. He’s going to Beijing within five days. = He’s going to Beijing in five days time. (2) on time =up to time 表示按照规定的时间,不早不晚,刚好准时出发,强调“准时”(3)in no time 用于否定形式,表达肯定意义,表示“很快,立刻”。 I hope you will arrive in time for the meeting to attend the meeting .我希望你能准时参加会议 。The train arrived on time .  火车正点到达 。

42.辨析this time与at this time 的用法:

(1)this time 表示这次,含有与前次不同之味。 This time he began with the second question.  这次他从第二个问题开始提问。(2)at this time 现在,此刻。At this time her husband left his own laboratory work . 现在她丈夫离开了他本身的实验室工作。

43.讲解not…until的用法:not…until  表示“直到……才……”“在。。。之前”。until/till 引导的从句为一般现在时态,在时间状语从句中,当主句为将来时态,从句用一般现在时态。但not until 位于句首时,句子要用倒装,强调until 短语或从句。如:

Not until midnight did the rain stop.  It was not until he came that we started.

I shan’t call him until he calls me.


45.辨析 sea 在介词 in, on, at . under的用法:in the sea 表示“在海里……”一般情况

下人不可能在海水里待两周。at sea “在海上” on the sea “在海上,在海边”under the

sea在海底on Hainan Island 在海南岛   in the city在城市    off the coast 远离海岸的

on the coast在海宾


48.else作为形容词;表示“别的;其它的”;修饰不定代词,起所有格形式是someone else’s. 其放在不定代词和疑问代词之后 ,表示“其他的什么人或物”。Or else否则,要不然。但:other 用于名词复数前面。   What else can I say.           Does anyone else want to read the book?

You must pay $20 or else go to prison.


⑴ What + a(an)形容词+名词+主语+谓语!

⑵ How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语!

⑶ What + 形容词 + 名词复数/不可数名词 + 主语 + 谓语!

⑷ How + 名词 + 谓语! How time flies!

What a beautiful girl she is!       How happy we are !

她是个多么漂亮的女孩啊!     我们多么幸福啊!

What a good boy he is!         How good the boy is!

What a pity it is?(划线部分常被省去)



(2) 二加:在后一部分前加上how(强制副词/形容词)或what强调名词。

⑶ 三交换:把前一部分和后一部分位置交换,句号改为感叹句。

备注:①在把陈述句变为感叹句时,如陈述句中有very之类的修饰词,在变感叹句是要去掉。  如:It’s a very interesting book .它是一本很有趣的书 。 改为What an interesting book it is !  ②在现实生活中,感叹句中的主语和谓语可省略。 What a surprise !真令人吃惊! ③what引出感叹句和how引出感叹句在很多情形下可以互换。  如:How long the river is !(= What a long river it is !) ④有时一般疑问句可用作感叹句。这种感叹句以否定词开头,读作降调:  Isn’t it a pity ! = What a pity it is !


50.比较as if;as though;even if; even although 的用法:

①as if 表示“好像;似乎”。后面多加虚拟语气;即从句中的谓语动词常用过去时态,如果是be动词,则往往用were(不管主语是第几人称 )。只表示一种假想或猜测,相当于as though.② as though好像,似乎(引导状语从句),该从句表达的意思与事实不相符时,常用虚拟语气。③ even if / though  即使;纵然;虽然. 引导让步状语从句,表示“即时”,谓语可根据不同的情况用陈述语气,有时也可用虚拟语气。E.g:  Even if / though the enemy had wings ,they could not run away.

④ even as 正当;恰好在……时候 ;

⑤ even so 尽管如此,即使这样

⑥ even now / then  现在(那时);即使是这样(那样);尽管如此(那样)


  1. 比较:二个副词right、just 和形容词 very “正好,就”在加强语气的用法:

right 可用于各种句子中。just 只用于祈使句中。very常与 the, this, my, your 等词连用。

52.比较On Earth 和 on the earth 的用法: ①On Earth 在地球上;指地球表面,而不是

地球。(无the)相当于(=on the earth或=in the world),强调地点方位. ②on earth 表示:究

竟到底,全然 ;用于疑问句中或否定句中,加强语气.用于肯定句中,强调生命的存在,表示

“在世界上,在人间”.e.g:      What on earth is that?     This is the biggest lake on earth.



54.表示原因的连词;引导原因的状语从句有:because , since , as ,for 用法上的区别:

⑴ because因为,表直接原因,回答why的提问,一般放在主句之后。也可单独存在。强调原因。because of(= as a result of ) 因为,由于。后面接名词或代词,或相当于名词的词它引导的短语通常用作状语表示原因;有时也可用作表语。强调后果。We put off the meeting because of the rain.(2)since因为、既往。侧重主句,从句表示显然的或已知的理由。(3)as 由于,鉴于;主从并重;从句说明原因,主句说明结果。 (4)for(为并列连词)因为,由于;表明附加或推辞的理由,引导的分句前常有逗号。 for分句不放句首。(强调原因)  We didn’t go to the park because it rained .

We didn’t go to the park because of the rain . Since that was not my name, I didn’t answer.

As that was not my name, I didn’t answer. I didn’t answer,for that was not my name.

  1. 比较介词in, on,at和 over 的用法:㈠ in 的用法:① 表示“地点”,译为“在…里”,指较大的地方如国家,省、大城市等。  They were walking in the forest. I want to live in Beijing.②表示“身体部位”,谈到创伤或身体的某个部位时,一般用in,不用on. I’ve got pain in my head.③表示“手段”,可翻译为“用”,只用于“说话;书写;绘画”,但表示“工具、手段”时,可用with.

We talked in English.   He paints in oils with a brush. Please fill in the form in pencil(=with

a pencil)④表示“服装”时,可翻译为“穿着、戴着”。She was dressed in silk (in red ,in a

fur coat)⑤在…(范围内或空间内的)某一点 It is in that drawer. The kids were playing in

the street.⑥表示状态或状况 I am in love. The house is in good repair.⑦表示“进入” She

got in her car and drove off.㈡ on的用法:① (覆盖)在……上,表示和某物有接触面或

构成物体表面的一部分。There is a mark on your skirt. He had been hit on the head.

② “在……旁,靠近…”接近某地We lived on a estate(庄园). There is a house on the

Thames.③ 表示方向“向着……;对着……”He turned his back on us.  You must turn on the

left/right.④ 根据、由于、关于(=over)           He told us a story based on fact.

⑤ 在……的时候 be on 表示会议的延续。on相当于when 和 in 相当于while

⑥ 从事……中 My parents work on teaching job.⑦ 表示“借助,以……方式、通过(=over)、

使用”      She played a tune on her guitar. We spoke on the phone. What is on Tv?

⑧依靠…过活(=depend on),由…资助 Drinks are on me.(=I am paying.) He live on a student grant(助学金 ) to school. ⑨ 在(运输工具上)I travel on the bus.(tube,coach) ⑩用于电话号码前You can get me on 01815303906.    She is on extension(分机 )2101.⑾由…支撑着She was standing on one foot.  Try lying on your back.㈢.at的用法:①表示“在某处…”指较小的地方如小城镇、村庄。They arrived late at the airport. A few students stand at the corner of the street. ②表示“在学习或工作地点”I’ll be at home all morning.  She is at Tom’s.  I met her at the hospital.How many people were there at the corner.③表示“在…岁时”She got married at 25.  He left school at the age of 16. ④表示“向、朝”What are you looking at? ⑤用于动词后(涉及未做成的或做完的事 She nibbled(=ate)at a sndwich.(= She ate only small bits of it.)⑥表示“在…远处,从相隔…远的地方Can you read a car number plate at fifty metres?⑦与形容词搭配,表示“因为,由于”“在…方面(表示状况)”They were important at the result.  I’m good at Maths.㈣.over的用法:①(表示部分或全部覆盖)在…上面She put a blanket over the sleeping child.   He wore an overcoat over his suit.  She put her hand over her mouth to stop herself from screaming.②悬在…上面;向…上方They held a large umbrella over her.  There was a lamp hanging over the table.③从一边到另一边;穿越They ran over the grass.  They had a wonderful view over the park.④在…的远端(对向)He lives over the road.   ⑤到另一边;翻越 She climbed over the wall.⑥从…落下      The car had topped over the cliff.    He didn’t dare look over the edge.⑦多于(时间、数量、花费)         She stayed in Lagos for over a month.  He’s over sixty.     ⑧在…期间(=during) We’ll discuss it over lunch.   Over the next few days they got to know the town well.    We’re away over the New York.⑨度过(困难阶段)We are over the worst of the recession.   It took her ages to get over her illness.⑩ all over (= throughout)遍及

㈤【注意】:介词和的词组差异:①in the newspaper在报纸(内容)上;on the newspaper在报纸(纸画)上②in the wall在墙上;on the wall在墙上(指表面)③in the sun 在阳光下(沐浴);under the sun在阳光下(在世上、在青日下)④in pencil用铅笔(指材料不用冠词);with a pencil用铅笔(指文具,要用冠词)⑤in bed躺在床上;in the bed 表示“在床上”⑥in the air在空中(可比喻非现实);on the air广播 ⑦in the field田野、田地;on the field在战场(指在某一种运动的场地内⑧in the corner 在角落里、在捌角上(里);on the corner在角落旁⑨in the future=( in time yet to come to )在将来,表示“在未来的某个时间”。  Who knows what will happen in the future ?  ⑩in future=from now on = for the future .从今以后,表示“从现在起”“今后”“以后” I’ll work hard at English in future .

㈥【英语中常见的位置的表达方式有】:①on the left / right side of 在……的左边(右边)②at /on the top of 在……的顶部  ③at the bottom of 在……的底部  ④at /in /on the corner of 在……的角上 ⑤at the top left-hand corner of 在……的左上角 ⑥at the bottom right-hand corner of……在……的右下角等。



57.辨析几个表示“也,还”副词的用法:(1)too用于肯定句中,放在句末,非正式用语中too前可省去逗号。(2)also用于肯定句中,放在句中;不用于句末。(3)either用于否定中或疑问句中,放在句末。(4)as well用于肯定句中,放在句末。表示“而且”(1)and用于肯定句。and so on (= and so forths)(2)or用于否定句。当逐项(单独)否定各个成分时,要用or连用,而不用and.例句:

But I don’t like Sandwiches or ice-cream—they are too cold.

He is a worker,too.           He plays the guitar as well.

He also plays the piano.      He was not there,either.


58.比较介词between & among 的用法: between  表示“两者”之间; among 表示“三

者(以上)”之中。当强调表语时,可将表语提至主语之前。with 和without ( with no)

作伴随状语,但意义相反。但between 提到了三个以上的事物,但表示在它们之间,却

用between,不用among .    When we talk about the universe , we mean the earth ,the

sun ;the moon and the stars, and the space between them .

59.辨析几个介词的用法:⑴ besides/ but 作介词   表示“除……之外,还有……”但:

in addition to 表示“除…以外,还有…”,指所有的总数都包括所修饰的人或事物在内。

⑵ except作介词,表示“除……之外,没有……”(不包括在内)但:with the exception

of 表示“除…以外,其余的都”,指所有的总数不包括该短语所修饰的人或事物在内。

例句:In addition to English , he has to study second foreign language.

In addition to recorders, they gave us a Tv set.

With the exception of that book, all of his works have been translated into Chinese.

With the exception of Tom, all the boys were anxious to go.

注意:但except/besides 用于否定结构中时。二者可用。Everybody saw the film except Tom.

② Four of our class failed the exam besides Tom.③ I’ve done nothing except /besides this.

⑶【辨析】介词beside , by , at , on , near , close to 表达“在……旁,附近,靠近”等的用法:① beside多用于人,含意较强,有紧靠之意。She gazed at the girl sitting beside the boy .  ② by多用于物,常与beside互换。  She stood by the chair .  ③ at指有意识,有目的的接近,常与door , gate, desk ,table , window 等连用。 The cheats pretended (假装)to be working at the empty loom (织布机)。④ on含沿线,相接触之意  London is on the Thames (泰晤河畔) ⑤ 与前三个对比,near所指的位置较远些。 The moon is nearer to us than the sun . ⑥ close后面要跟介词to连用。如:   We are close to the station.




⑴ at the moment = at this moment = now(today) = right now= at present

  • 注意:day 表示“时代、年代”时,常用复数days; 相当于 表示“在。。。 时代、年代”用介词in. e.g:

We are busy at the moment.(now)                   We are free at this moment.

He can’t tell you right now.                       We are very busy at present.

He isn’t  here at the moment.   他现在不在这儿。

right now :  ① 用于一般现在时或现在进行时连用,表示“现在”;意思相当于“now”.

② 用于一般将来时态,表示“立即”,意思相当于“in a short time”.

③ 用于一般过去时,表示“刚才”,意思相当于“just now(=a moment ago )”.

⑵ 表示“在那时”(用于过去进行时态)

at that moment (= then )

⑶ 表示“不久”,“很快”,“马上”(用于一般将来时)

in a moment (= soon = presently = immediately = at once(放在动词后;作副词)

She will be home soon.(presently)         Come here at once.

⑷ 表示“刚才”(用于一般过去时)

a moment ago = just now


66.  ① What’s happened ?出什么事了?

② What is worse ! 更糟的是。(What is terrible !)==To make matters worse.

③ What made him act like that? 什么使得他有这样的行为?

④ What do you mean by …? 表示“……是什么意思”

⑤ What’s  the……? 询问哪个地方人或那个地方有多少population(人口)时,必须用What ; 而不用:How many/much …提问。表示人口数多的形容词为big/large ;表示人口数少的形容词为thin/small.

67.表示“在……之上”的above , over , on的介词区别:

⑴ above 只表示上方或位置高出,反义词below(在下方)The plane was flying above the clouds

飞机正在运上飞行.⑵ over 有“覆盖在上”“越过”“正上方”之意,反义词under 正下方;There is a thick cloud over the south of England .英格兰南部乌云密布.⑶on表示在某物的上面,表面相互接触,反义词beneath(在某物的下面)。  There is a glass on the table  .桌上有一个玻璃杯。

68.常用词组搭配:① be proud of(贬义;对主语不满)= take pride (in)(褒义)表示“以……而骄傲或自豪”。We are proud of our great motherland.   We are proud of being Chinese.     She took pride in her own work.    I take pride being a teacher.② be proud to be +(名词、形容词) I’m proud to be your student.

③ be proud +从句  We are proud that we won this important game.

69.常用词组搭配:an hour and a half = one and a half hours   一个半小时  hour after hour 一小时又一

ten hours and a half = ten and a half hours  10点半an hour’s ride  乘车一个小时的路程

again and again 反复地by and by不久 all in all 总共 on and on 连续不断  over and over 反复


① in  表示 “在……范围之内”   in the northeast/southeast/northwest/southwest

② on  表示两地接壤                        东北方    东南方    西北方    西南方

③ to  表示两地不接壤     Japan lies to the east of China.

Taiwan lies in the east of China.      Hebei is on the east of Shanxi.


at the edge of  表示“在……边缘”在某个范围的边缘后接地点。

on the edge of  表示“在……边上”在某个物体上面的边缘上。

at the age of + 具体数字“ 在…岁时” 相当于When he was … years old ?表示:“在……时”。


⑴ 注意宾语从句中的语序用陈述语序,且时态和主句保持一致。即:“主语+ 谓语 + 宾语”句式。

⑵ I think/suppose/expect/believe+宾语从句,结构中,疑问部分应和宾语从句的主、谓相对应。I don’

t think/don’t suppose /don’t expect / don’t  believe… 形式是否定主句的谓语,而从实际意义上看,是



形式连用。如:what to do….相当于what 引导的从句.e.g:

  1. Have you found out what we can do on Hainan Island?
  2. We had better find out where to put it.

= We had better find out where we should put it.

  1. Could you please teach me how to search the Internet?
  2. Will you tell me which bus to take?

= Will you tell me which bus I should take?


⑸  whether … or …  无论……还是……

whether…or not…  是固定搭配,表示“是否;无论是不是”

whether or not    表示“无论如何/怎样”;whether  是代词。

⑹ 在句中作插入语的两种常见情况: (1) I think / believe / suppose / hope / guess/wonder/

和I’m afraid / you see / know 和 do you think / don’t you know /I tell you it seems /It is

said /It is suggested等。(2)不定式短语和现在分词短语 。(3)介词短语和从句。(4)形容词短语

和副词短语。⑸as you know (固定用法)如我们所知的。as(=when)由as,when 或 while引导的状语从句




放在ask .know, see, learn , understand, wonder等词的后面引导宾语从句,但在以下几种情况中通常只能

用whether不用if ① 用在介词后的宾语从句中。② 在与or not连用时。③ 从句在句首时。④ 引导

discuss的宾语从句时。⑤ 引导主语从句,表语从句或同位语从句时。⑥ 与不定式连用时。在下面三种

情况下用if 不用whether:①引导条件状语从句中,意思为“如果”时。②引导否定概念的宾语从句时。

  • 引导状语从句even if (即使 ) 、as if 好象。⑻know后接的不定式前须加疑问词.

⑻【注意】hope和wish的用法:① hope希望,可接不定式,that从句作宾语。但不能接以不定式短语作

补语的复合宾语(即不能用have sb to do sth ),而且hope除用来强调当时的 思想情况或表达一种强烈愿

望外,一般不用于进行时态。hope后面的宾语从句中常用一般将来时,有时也用一般现在时。I hope the

weather holds fine .  I hope to pay him a visit next week .下星期我想去看看他。② wish表示希望,可用于

wish sb to do sth 和wish sb sth 而且wish后接宾语从句时,从句中谓语常用虚拟语气。

I wish I were a bird .  I wish I had never met you !   I wish to wake a complaint .

Is there anything you wish me to bring you ?         We wish you a safe journey .

Do you wish your coffee black or white ?  She says she wishes herself dead .


(1)I don’t think / believe 中的not是否定动词think和believe后面的某个成分。(2)not 与 both , each ,

every (包括含every的合成词),all等词连用时,一般构成部分否定句,not通常是否定这些词的。(3):

not与动词 seem, happen 连用时,是否定动词后面的内容。(4)not用来否定状语。 I don’t think so.

我认为并非如此。  I don’t think he is right .我认为他不对。 Both the answers are not correct两个答案

并不都对。This kind of book is not found everywhere .这种书并非到处都能找到。The whole plan does not

want changing . 并非整个计划都需要改变。  Everybody can’t be a singer.不是每个人都能成为歌唱家。

You don’t seem very well today.你今天好像不太舒服。 I didn’t happen to be there.  我碰巧不在那里。

We don’t study hard only for examinations. 我们不是仅仅为了考试才努力学习的。


have / has nothing to do with固定用法“与……无关”

have/ has much to do with 很有关系

have/has anything to do with …与……有些,关系……

have/ has little to do with 几乎没有关系

have / has something to do with  …与……有些,关系……

Has he anything to do with that matter?  他与那件事有关系吗?

He has something to do with that matter .他与那件事有关。

79.nearly 和almost 的用法:

⑴nearly 和almost 在肯定句中可以换用,可放all, every和 always前。almost (=very nearly)的

差距比nearly 小。(2)almost可修饰否定词never , no ; none , nothing , nobody , nowhere ,

any;和too ,more than等连用。但不能被否定词修饰。而nearly不能与否定词连词;但可被否定词修

饰。要用hardly/scarcely (本身已含有否定意义) almost never=hardly ever   几乎从不 almost

nobody =hardly anybody 几乎没人almost no money = hardly any money  几乎没钱 (3) nearly可

和not/ very / pretty 连用,not nearly 远不如但almost不和not单独连用。(4)almost 和nearly

用于行为动词的否定式之前。⑸almost 可用于表示“感情、思想、状况”。 only 表示“唯一,仅仅

hardly 几乎不 nearly 接近 quickly 速度快 fast 表示速度快 quick表动作快 soon表时候到了◆

only ① 副词“只,仅仅”,贴近它修饰的词,如果放在句首修饰副词或状语从句时,句子要用倒装句

语序。Only in this way can we build the hotel . ② 形容词,常要与the连用,不与an连用 。This is the only

house there . ③ only too (=very )极,太,非常,实在,可惜。④ one’s only hope 某人的唯—希望。★

hardly (副词)“几乎不,简直不,不十分”。注意不要把hardly 误认为hard 的副词,二词的含义差别很大,hardly(scarcely;nosooner)是个否定词。位于句首时,句子要倒装,在反意疑问句中,后附加问句要用肯定式简短问句。在一般句中不用some ,而用any 。eg:

Hardly had I reached the bus stop when the bus stopped .

He could hardly say a word ,could he ?   The animals hardly make any movement .

注意下面三个表达"刚……就……"的句型 :

  • I had hardlygot to the station when the train left.
  • I had scarcelygot to the station when the train left.

③ I had no sooner got to the station than the train left.

【注意固定搭配】Hardly anybody / anyone / anything  简直没有什么人(事物)

★ nearly 副词“差不多,几乎,密切地”。在all ,every 和always 前可用almost或nearly . (2) 在very , pretty , not 前可用nearly . (3) 在any前和表达否定的词 no; none; never. nobody; nothing等前不能用nearly ,应该用almost .如:

He almost / nearly didn’t hear what I said .

We have almost nothing to do.    We are almost (nearly) home.


(1)表示“用某种方法”或“某种手段”。(2)表示“在……旁边”,相当于by the side of…(3)用

于被动语态中,引出动作的完成者,“被……由……”。(4)用于表示时间“在……以前”“到…… 时止”

“到……时候”相当于before. ① by+过去的某一点时间。常跟过去完成时连用。② by+将来的某一

点时间,常跟将来完成时连用。(5)表示“经过”指时间和空间,跟动词go , come连用。(6)表示“按……”

如时间,长度,重量。(7)by oneself 相当于alone,表示“独自地”。(8)表示“依据”。(9)know /

learn sth by heart 牢记在心.(10)表示(倍数)乘,(程度)相差,(标准)按照,以……计。(11)

表示“由于”。(12)by and by不久以后   by the way顺便说一下。 by far (修饰比较级,最高级 强

调数量程度)。   call sb by name叫某人的名字   day by day一天一天的    side by side 肩并肩

lead sb. by the hand / nose领着某人的手、牵着某人的鼻子。

83.在英语中,as + 形容词/副词的原级+ as + 具体数字 表示“……达到……的程度”其中间常加“many/ much/ few/ little/ long/ short.”:

①as long as跟时间作状语连用 意思表示“长达”。E.g:

The Nanjing Changjiang River Bridge is as long as 6,700 metres.

② as long as 作连词,表示“只要”。如:

You can borrow my bike as long as you return it tomorrow.

③ 计量:当表示或再次提到一个物体的长度,宽度,深度,高度时,通常运用下列句型:

It is +计量单位+长/宽/深/高 。如:

①----How long is the river?  -----It is hundreds of kilometers long .

②----How wide is the bed ?  ----–It is one meter and a half wide .

③----How deep is the lake ? ------ It’s three is the meters deep .

④-----How deep is the well ? ----– It is more than one hundred meters deep .

⑤-----How long is the Great wall ?  ----- __C_

A: It is long about five thousand kilometers . B: This is about five thousand kilometers long .

C: It is about five thousand kilometers long . D: It about five thousand kilometers long.

84.英语中不定代词:something, somebody, anything, nothing , everyone等;当形容词和不定式

修饰不定代词时,形容词和不定式必须放在不定代词之后。如:Something+形容词, nothing+形容

词,everything+形容词.;something to eat(习惯用法)

85.辨析other; the other; others; the others 的用法:

  • other (作形容词)表示“别的,其他的 ”其后一般接名词的复数。指泛指。但“any other + 可

数名词单数”② the other 表示“另一个人; 另一东西”(指两者中其余的 一个),基数为“二”,

常用于one…the other …一个……另一个 ③ another (作形容词)表示”另一个的,别的,(只修饰单数名词)(作代词)表示“另一个,别的一个”(指至少三个中的一个)也在原有基础上再加一个。注意:any不跟another连用。④others (作代词) 表示“另一些”,其后不再接名词。⑤the others (作代词) 表示特指一定范围内“其余的人或物”。

86.讲述及物/不及动词deserve 的用法:表示“应受;值得”.⑴ 不宜用于现在进行时态作谓语,常要用由引导的短语一起作表语. That old lady was deserving of sympathy.(同情 ) = That old lady deserved our sympathy. ⑵这一动词表达“应该”时,含有“理所当然”的意思。所以不宜加用 should; ought to; can; may; have to等情态动词,但可跟不定式、动名词或从句。句型结构:deserve to do

sth 表示“理所当然,应该”。They deserved to be punished. ⑶词组:deserve well(ill)of 有功(罪)

deserve punishment/ a reword 应受处罚/奖赏   She deserves to win because she is the best.

90.  much too  表示“太过分”,一般用作副词,修饰形容词或副词,作状语。

too much  表示“太多的;过分的”,修饰不可数名词,起形容词的作用,作定语。

He drank too much beer last night.    This is too much.

The problem is much too difficult for me to work out.

92.in great need of money= need money very much 表示“非常需要钱”。

There’s no need for sb, to do sth表示“没有必要做某事”

93.比较 before与 ago 的区别:① before作副词,时间不以现在为准,用于表示从过去某时算起若干时间以前.句中谓语动词可用现在完成时或一般过去时。但现在完成时强调时间对现在的影响。而一般过去时只用强调动作发生在过去。如:before long相当于soon (= not too long ago)不久,以后;  long before 相当于 long, long ago (= once upon a time)很久以前 ② ago 作副词,时间要以现在为准,表示从现在算起一段时间以前;句中的谓语动词要用一般过去时.永远放在所修饰词之后. 如: I knew him as long ago as the year 2000. ⑶固定搭配:

① long ago/before 表示“很久以前”。

② before long 表示“不久之后”,“不久以后”常与将来时态连用。

③ before ever 是表达错误,应改为ever before 以前;

④ ever since  自从……


① 形容词 + 名词+ed  : middle-aged             ⑥ 数词 + 名词 + ed : three-legged

warm-hearted                                 one-eyed

② 形容词 + doing (动名词):  good-looking        ⑦ 数词 + 名词 :ten-speed

easy-going随和的                         second-hand

③ 副词 + doing (动名词): hard-working            ⑧ 数词 + 名词 + 形容词: twelve-year-old

④ 名词 + doing (动名词) : peace-loving           ⑨ 名词 + 形容词: snow-white

English-speaking                         life-long

⑤ 名词 + 过去分词: man-made                   ⑩ 副词 + 过去分词: newly-married

heart-left                                         well-educated

  1.   ① another+数词+名词复数 (意思相当于) 数词+more +名词复数   表示“又有“

e.g.  another two hours = two more hours

② some/many/a few + more+名词复数(或)any /a little+不可数名词或单数名词;表示“还,更”

③ 某物+be+数量词+long 表示某物有多长。a long way away 表示:离得遥远


  1. 比较sometime;  sometimes;  some  time;  some times;
  • sometime 作副词;常用于过去或将来时态中,表示“过去某个时候”或“将来某个时候”“有朝一日”。如:It happened sometime last month.
  • sometimes(频度副词)一般放在行为动词前以及系动be词后,表示“有时, 不时”。

Sometimes I help my mother do the housework.

  • some time (名词性词组)表示“若干时间”。

I will be away for some time .

⑷ some times (名词性词组)表示“几次”“几倍”

They have been there some times.

107.比较a number of, the number of,  numbers of的用法:

⑴ a number of 后接名词复数形式,谓语动词用复数。表示“许多”相当于a lot of

(2) number s of 后接名词复数形式,谓语动词用复数。表示“许多”相当于 lots of

⑶ the number of  后接名词复数形式,谓语动词应用单数,表示“……的总数”

⑷ a number of, the number of, numbers of表示数目的大小应该用large/small,而不用many/few.

108【比较】an amount of和 amounts of的用法:

① an amount of和 amounts of接不可数名词,其谓语动词应用单数,表示 大量……

② the amount of 后接不可数名词。其谓语动词应用单数,表示“……的总数……”

③ an amount of, amounts of ,the amount of表示数目的大小应large/small,而不用many/few.

110.比较several; a few; some; any的用法:

  • several  表示数目时,指“三五个”。意思为“几个,若干个”。② a few  只可修饰或代替复数的

可数名词,指“两三个”。意为“几个”。③ some 数目不确定,表示“一些”可修饰或代替不可数名词或可数名词的复数,常用于肯定句中。④ any数目不确定,表示“一些”常用于否定句,疑问句和条件句中;但用于肯定句中,表示“任何,无论哪一”。

115.在英语中;名词复数形式的规则变化:German(德国人) ---- Germans;American ----- Americans但woman, Englishman; Frenchman都是不规则变化:把词尾man变为men即可。


117.比较:not …any more 和not…any longer的用法

①not …any more:强调某动作不再重复,相当于:no more

②not…any longer :强调时间上不再延续,相当于no longer

【备注】否定词no 相当于not any,表示:没有任何东西 。 而with no 相当于without

118.辨:although 与though 作连词的用法:意思为“ 虽然……但是……”。第一种用法(1)although 与though 是连词;同义,常互换。although 较为正式,语气较强,而though 用得更广泛、更通俗。二词可用在句首或句中。Although (Though ) he is busy , he often helps others . They are generous (慷慨大方)although they are poor . He often helps others , even though he is busy . (不用although) (2)句中用了although 或though ,就不能用but , and 或or 等连词,但可以用yet / still 副词。  Although he was ill ,yet Jack went to his office(上班). 第二种用法:只用though 而不用 although (1) though 可用于省略句,而although不这样用。Though in poor health ,he works hard . (2)though 表示强调时间要用even though.   Even though I didn’t understand a word ,I kept smiling.  (3) though 可做副词,表示“然而”,放在句末.  He said he would come ,he didn’t though . (4) though 可用在倒装句中  Young though he is , he is quite experienced .(5) although 有but; however 之意。  The price increase will obviously be unpopular, although it’s unlikely to reduce demand.

  1.  ⑴ lone (作形容词),在句子作定语;指人时,表示“孤独的”。指物时,表示“只有一个的”。

⑵ alone(既可作形容词,也可作副词)。当作形容词时,在句子中作表语,陈述一个客观事实,不跟very修饰,而可跟very much/all (连用)。表示“单独的”。

⑶ lonely (作形容词)表示“孤独的”,有感情色彩,可作定语或表语。

  1. 英语数字的表达法:

(1)连字符“-”的 使用:在英语中,凡数字超过20时,书写就要在个位数字前加“-”,读时连字号不发音。 23写作: twenty-three   21写作 :twenty –one (2)“and”的使用:读三位数时应在最后两位数(十位,个位)前加and,读音是:第一个数+hundred + and + 后面两个数   101读作one hundred and one     432:读作 four hundred and thirty-two  (3)逗号“,”的使用和它代表的位数:四位数以及四位数以上的读法:从个位开始向左每三位用“,”,隔成一段,从右向左的三个逗号分别读作thousand :(千) million (百万): billion(十亿) ,读出的英语数字,应该在千(thousand)和百万(million)中间加逗号“,”隔开。54,300 :读作:fifty-four thousand, three hundred  ;182,469:读作:one hundred and eight-two thousand, four hundred and sixty–nine.    5,814,769,603读作:five billion eight hundred and fourteen million, seven hundred and  sixty-nine thousand ,six hundred and three   58亿1千4百76万9千6万零3(4):“万”和“亿”的表示;以“十个千”( ten  thousand )表示“一亿” 以“一百个百万”(a hundred million )表示“一亿”(5)电话号码的读法:把每个数字分开读,0读O/zero,两个相同的读double…;3074922 读作:three /  / seven four nice double two  (6)小数的读法:每个数分别读出,小数点读作“point”3.14 读作:three point one four(7)分数的读法:分子读基数词,分母读序数词。分子为2或2以上时,分母的序数词必须用复数形式,有连字号“—”。

二分之一    读作 one half          三分之一        读作 one –third

三分之二   读作 two–thirds       二又五分之三     读作 two and three-fifths

⑧航班号码(Flight No.)的读法有两种:第一,直接读字母音。第二,如号码为三位,则第一位单独读,后两位合读:CA425读作:Four twenty-five  ⑨“二十四时制”的读法:两位各自分开读,一个零读O/  /,二个零合在一起则读:hundred.  0730  /  / seven thirty    1300 thirteen hundred

⑽hundred(百);  thousand(千);  million(百万);  billion(十亿);当表示“具体数字”时,这些词后不能加s ; 如果表示“不确定数目”时,这些时后加s,并用of,即: hundreds of  ; thousands of  ; millions of ; billions of ;但表示“几”,不能用several; some; many ;a lot of ; two hundred 等修饰 ; 如接many时,表示:“数……”。


  • 基数词表示“分子”,用序数词表示“分母”,但是这种情况一定要注意当分子大于一时,后面的序数词要用复数形式。
  • 分子和分母都使用基数词,但在分子和分母中间添加介词of,但这种情况应注意分子和分母都用基数词。

⑶ 分数所修饰的名词要加of,并把它看成一个整体,其后的谓语动词应使用单数形式;但也可用复数,由其修饰的名词来确定。

⑷ 在英语中,表示:第几大时。应用序数词加最高级表示。⑸ 比分中间的破折号或冒号都读作

【to】. The Chinese football team was beaten by Brazil by four to zero in the World Cup.


  1. 比较:big ; large ;great 的意义和用法:

① big 作形容词 ,比较级 :bigger , 最高级:biggest,  反义词:little 指体积之最大

② large 作形容词;比:larger   最:largest   反:small, 指面积之大

③ great 作形容词;比:greater 最: greatest , 反:little,small,指抽象的程度和表示数量,体积之大。

129.下列句型中只可用动名词和It作主语,不可用不定式短语作主语   ① It is no use +动名词(v-ing),表示“……没用”。= It’s  useless + 不定式(to do sth ). = It is of no use to do sth . = Ther is no use in ……(There is 之后要接表扬的介词短语)。        It is no use crying over spilt milk .   后悔是没用的。    =It’s useless to crying over spilt milk .         Reasoning with such a stubborn man is no use.= It is no use reasoning with such a stubborn.

  1. 分析连系动词seem 表示“似乎,好像”的用法:(1)It seems/appears that 从句….(相当于)

主语+seem /appear +to be +表语(形容词,名词或介词)  It seems that he is worried about his son = He seems to be worried about his son. 好像他在为他儿子担心。(2)主语+seem+动词不定式to do sth. 表示“似乎,好像去做……”⑶ 主语+seem/appear + 动词不定式to + have + 过去分词。 They appear / seem to have

just been to Japan. ⑷ It seems/appears to sb. that从句.



① 肯定式:主语 + be(am; is; are)+ 过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式:主语 + be(am; is; are)+not +过去分词+ 宾语 +其它.

③ 疑问式:Be (Am; Is; Are ) + 主语+ 过去分词 + 宾语 +其它 ?


① 肯定式: 主语 + be(was; were)+ 过去分词+ 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式: 主语 + be(was; were)+not +过去分词+ 宾语 +其它.

③ 疑问式: Be (Was; Were ) + 主语+ 过去分词+ 宾语 +其它 ?


① 肯定式: 主语 + be(am; is; are)+being+过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式: 主语 + be(am; is; are)+not +being+过去分词+ 宾语 +其它.

③ 疑问式:  Be (Am; Is; Are ) + 主语+ being +过去分词+ 宾语 +其它?


① 肯定式: 主语 + be(was; were)+being+过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式: 主语 + be(was; were)+not +being+过去分词+ 宾语 +其它.

③ 疑问式:  Be (Was; Were ) + 主语+ being +过去分词+ 宾语 +其它?

(5) 一般将来时的被动语态结构:

① 肯定式: 主语+ will / shall + be +过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式: 主语+ will / shall not + be +过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

③ 疑问式: Will /Shall +主语+be+过去分词+ 宾语 +其它?


① 肯定式: 主语+ would/ should+ be +过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式:主语+ would / should not + be +过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

③ 疑问式:Would/Should+主语+be+过去分词+ 宾语 +其它?


① 肯定式: 主语 + have / has +been +过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式:  主语+ have / has + not +been +过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

③ 疑问式:  Have / Has+主语 +been +过去分词+ 宾语 +其它?


① 肯定式: 主语 + had + been +过去分词 + 宾语 +其它.

② 否定式:  主语+ had + not +been +过去分词 + 宾语

③ 疑问式:  Had + 主语 +been +过去分词+ 宾语 +其它?


① 含有双宾语的主动语态变为被动语态时,一般把间接宾语作为被动语态的主语,直接宾语的位置不变。也可以把直接宾语作为被动语态的主语,间接宾语的位置不变,但常在其前面加上介词to或for.

buy/get sb sth(= buy/get / take sth for sb) 买某物给某人

sell sb sth (=sell sth to sb ) 卖某物给某人

sell out 表示卖完,卖光,相当于sell up ,与介词of连用.

sell well 畅销

sell your body 出卖肉体.

pass sb sth ( pass sth to sb ) 传某物给某人

pass…on…传给另一个人   Please read the note and then pass it on.

pass on 继续下去 Let’s now pass on to a new subject.

buy from…从……买来

注意:当双宾语动词中,直接宾语(物)是代词时,只能用双宾语动词+sth+to sb,等句型。但代词作直接宾语时;不说:双宾语动词 + sb + sth.

② 不及物动词通常不能变成被动语态,但是“不及物动词+相应介词”构成的短语动词可作及物动词看待,并可用于被动语态,但介词不可去掉。

  • be enjoyed by 被…喜爱; be covered with 表示被动,被覆盖cover with表示主动,“用…覆盖”

base…on…  以……为根据,用于被动语态。   He based his ideas on scientific experiment .

That’s done (被动语态)①干完(=done) ②行啦 ③干得好   When that is done ,you can go home .

▲  decorate ……with…… 用……装饰,(用被动语气)。  The streets were decorated with flags .

④ The satellite __B__ into the space yesterday .

A. is sent up   B. was sent up    C. were sent up    D. was send up


You must tidy your bedroom every day .  You bedroom must be tidied every day.

The farm grows cotton .  Cotton is grows at/on the farm .

Something is wrong with that machine .   That machine doesn’t work .

My father Smoked a lot , but now he doesn’t do it .    My father used to smoke , but now he gives it up .


feed to  以……作为食物喂养,其中to是介词

feed up  给予额外食物;其中up是介词

feed on  以……为食(指婴儿、动物)

feed…on… 为提供食物     We feed our dogs on fresh meat.

feed in   输入

  1. 常用词组cut 与副词in , away ,down 及介词across ,into , off 的搭配:   ● cut off 切断,

突然中止,中断,隔绝。相当于●keep off = cut / turn/ switch off(副词)断掉,休止。Pleaseturn

off the light when you go out.  The phone operator cut us off before we finishedour conversation

  • cut in 插嘴,打断;突然进来。如需后接宾语,通常需要使用介词on或with。 That stupid fool (傻
  • suddenly cut in on me .   As we were talking ,shecut in with a question.   cut away 砍

掉 We cut away all the dead wood from the tree .●cut down 消减,缩短,把……砍倒。

  • cut up( = cut into pieces )切碎 .   Our expenses are too high , we must cut them down somehow .

You have to cut down your article to 200 words .  ●cut across抄近路,穿过,穿越。They were in a hurry , so they cut across the hills instead of going round by the road .    ●cut into 打断话头     It is impolite of you to cut into the conversation in this way .

134.在英语中,只能修饰事物的形容词有很多,下列是常用几个:( It is + adj + for sb)

hard 困难的; difficult 困难的; easy 容易的; worth while值得的 ; necessary(essential) 有必要的; interesting 感兴趣的; exciting 激动的; useful 有用的; useless无用的等,这些形容词,不可以修饰人,不可置于以人做主语的BE 动词之后。即千万不可以人做主语。It is necessary to see Mary.

I’m hard to spell this word.     It is worth while for him to do something.(二)只能修饰人的形容词有很多,下列是常用几个:stupid 愚蠢的,cruel 残酷的,wise 明智的,kind 亲切的,careful小心的,careless粗心的,impolite 无礼的,polite有礼貌的。 (三)既可修饰人亦可修饰事物的形容词有good , bad , foolish 三个,因此在It’s +adj +to do sth 句中可用介词of(人)或for放在sb之前。 It’s good of you to help the boy .  It will of foolish of you to say things like that .

135.在英语习惯用法中,It 代替不定式短语的句型:

It’s+形容词+to do sth 其中形容词不是表示人的思想品质

It is difficult to spell this word.        It is interesting to get along with him.

It is difficult to look at the stars.

It’s+形容词(修饰物)+for sb to do sth“做某事对某人来说 ”表示不定式动作的执行者;不用其它介词。

It is difficult for me to pronounce this word.

It is necessary for her to be careful.=It is necessary that she should be careful.

It’s+形容词(表示人的气质)+of sb to do sth 其中形容词必须时表示人的思想品质方面的形容词。

It is kind of you to help me.

It’s+名词+ to do sth.

It’s+形容词 + that 从句.

It ‘s +比较级+ to do sth + than to do sth else.(但than 后被省略)e.g:

She said that it was better to get some food before they got on the train because food on the train was usually too expensive.


⑴ To do sth is +adj. (不定式作主语时,表示一件未完成的事或目的。谓语动词用单数。)

⑵ Doing sth is + adj.(动名词作主语时,表示一件已知的事或经验。谓语动词用单数。)

注意:不能直接用动词做主语,而须将动词转为动名词或不定式短语方可。It 代替法,须注意原来


To study abroad has long been my dream.

To learn English writing is necessary for Peter.

136.常用动词 deal 的用法:① deal in sth 表示“经营、买卖;作为…的依据加以接受”。例句:

The company deals in computer software.

We don’t deal in rumours or guesswork.

② do/deal with sb/sth 表示“处理(人、物);应付;对待;与…做生意”.

She is used to dealing with all kinds of people in her job.

Have you dealt with these letters yet?

He’s good at dealing with pressure.


give up (可接动名词或名词)放弃(= stop learning/drop out of.)

give in  屈服、让步、投降

bring up  养育; raise/keep

pick up   拾起 ; 形成。强调一个从无到有的含义

pick out (=choose)选择

pull up   拔起

138.讲常用动词 look的用法:

look (1) 不及物动词,表示“看”(强调看的过程);后须跟副词或介词 at 连用。(2)系(感观)动词:

表示“看,”后须跟形容词。宾补可用(动词不定式符号“to”要省略)或动名词。如:look; seem; sound,

feel. smell;taste ; come; turn ; become; grow 作系动词时,后跟形容词。在表示人时,常用某些动

词的过去分词作形容词(3)名词:have a look 看一看。 the new look新气象⑷常用动词 look的用法:

① look out/at 表示“看着;探测” ②look after 照顾;确得有利于……. ③ look forwards to sb/sth盼望某人/某事物 ④ look around(round)/ about 环顾;环视 ⑤ look up 查字典;仰头看 ⑥look up to 尊敬某人 ⑦ look down 俯视 ⑧ look upon as 视为 ⑨ look through 仔细查看 ⑩  look into调查


① reach作及物动词,后直接跟地点。  They reached the meeting hall on time.

② get to后直接跟地点   They got to the meeting hall on time.

③ arrive at/in后直接跟地点    They arrived at the meeting hall on time.

140.表达“ 在某人的帮助下”的方法有两种:

①with the help of sb   ② with one’s help       ③ by means of


knock at/on: 表示“敲”一般用劲较轻


break 表示“打坏,摔坏”常指打坏门窗,杯子等东西。

bang 指猛击某物或猛关门,窗等,bang one’s fist指用拳头捶打。


① knowledge (作不可数名词)时,表示“知识”;指正规教育及日常生活中的阅历

② learning (作不可数名词)时,表示“渊博的知识”,指长期,细致的学习而获得系统的知识

143. ⑴ like better 表示“更喜欢”            ① 后接不定式时与rather than /instead of

⑵ prefer (及物动词)表示“更喜欢”   ② prefer 与介词to连用。

③ prefer 已含有比较之意;不用more 和most 连用。

⑶rather than宁可…… 不愿…… ,可连接形容词;时间 / 地点状语;名词 / 代词;动名词;动


He seems to be clever rather than honest .     I’d prefer to go in August rather than in July.

Evans is a historian rather than a writer.       I, rather than you ,should do the work.

He was engaged in writing a letter rather than reading the newspaper .

I believe it is important invest in new machinary rather than to increase wages.

I prefer to work rather than remain idle.

He called rather than said to me “Thank you” .

He went rather than stay as an unwelcome guest.

  1. 动词 put的用法:

put up张贴

put on 穿上

put off推迟

put down sth 放下

put sth down 把某物放下来

put down 降落(land on) ; 记下(write down)  ;下车(take off)

put in    穿上


(1)rob sb, of  sth抢劫某人某物

(2)mug sb sth 指暴力当街“抢劫”

(3)steal sb sth指趁人不在拿走。

  1. 表示时间的介词:at ;on和in的用法:

⑴ at用于“时刻;年龄”:

① 指一生之计,表示“年龄” at the age of + 数词

② 指一年之计,表示“年初,月终,周末”

③ 指一时之计,表示“钟点,黎明,黄昏” 如:at 2:00

④ 指其它的事物,表示“发生时刻,即时景象”


① 指一季之计,表示“何日,星期几,节日”如:on Sunday

② 指一日之计,表示“特指的单元”

③ 指其它的事物,表示“发生时机(天气),靠近”

(3)in 用于“年月和单元(上午,晚上,夜间,周,月,季,年)”

① 指一生之计:表示“年代,世纪”

② 指一年之计:表示“周,月,季,年”

③ 指一日之计:表示“上午,晚上,夜间”

④ 指其它的事物。表示:发生过程(在·····中)。

⑤ in 后面接时间段 。表示“在……时间之内”;用于将来时。如:in two hours ;但在after后面加上一段时间,表示“在……时间之外”用于过去时。

注意:当副词last & next和形容词this & that出现在名词前时,介词可省去不用。

147.比较each , every , both , all的用法:(一):each作形容词,代词和副词。表示



词单数;但指三者以上。not every 表示“部分否定”,指“并不是每个都……”(三):both



148.比较no matter后接疑问副词和疑问代词等用法(引导让步状语从句;从句中要用陈述句语序主谓宾)

(1):no matter when=whenever 连词&副词“ 无论什么时候,每当”。作状语

(2):no matter what=whatever作形容词、代词“无论什么”“所….的任何事情”作宾语和主语。

(3):no matter how=however 作连词、副词。“无论如何”“然而,但是,仍然”作状语。

(4):no matter where=wherever (连词&副词)“在···地任何地方,在哪儿”。作状语

⑸ no matter who=whoever 代词“···的那个人,任何人”,作主语

(6):no matter whether=whetherever作连词。“无论是否,不管···”

(7) no matter which= whichever 代词“···的那个;那些,无论哪个,无论哪些”作主语和宾语。

(8) no matter whom =:whomever 无论谁(作动词和介词的宾语)

⑼ no matter if 无论是否  I will go home no matter if I catch the bus.

如:No matter what the weather is like.

No matter where she is, I shall find her.

I shall wait for you no matter how late you come.

149.比较名词:journey, trip, tour和 travel的用法:

(1) journey 表示“旅行;路程”。 on journey在旅行,指目的地已经选定在陆地上作较


(2) trip 指目的地明确的短途的往返旅行。

(3) tour 指按一定的路线在几个地方做短暂停留后再到原地的巡回或观光旅行。

  • travel 指目的地不明确,在各地做长途漫游。“悠悠”。常用复数形式。
  • travel to +地点“去某地旅行” travel…with+人物“同某人一道旅行”
  1. 动词 encourage & discourage 的用法:

encourage sb to do sth   鼓励某人干某事

discourage sb from doing sth. 使某人不敢做某事

151.动词 live & stay的用法:

① live作不及物动词时,表示:居住,指长期居住。② stay 作不及物动词时,表示暂住,指短期居住。可用介词 in/at 放在地点名词前。跟人时应加介词with. ③ live on 继续活着

He is dead but his memory lives on.

  1. 当两个以上形容词修饰一个名词时,形容词的排列是:

Opshcom:   ① Op代表opinion 指表示人们观点的形容词

beautiful / horrible / lovely / nice 等

②Sh 代表shape 指描述形状的形容词

old / new / young 等

③C 代表Colour 指表示颜色的形容词

red / black / orange / green 等

④O 代表origin 指表示国籍,地区的形容词

Japanese / Chinese /German / Canadian 等

⑤M 代表 material 指表示材料的形容词

plastic / metal / iron / steal


a nice , long , new , British , plastic pen

  1. 动词的用法:

knock at/on   敲

point at 指点(主要用于指物),如果用来指人其意义含有不礼貌内容。

point to/towards 指着;指向

The teacher pointed to the map and told us an interesting story .

It is impolite to point at a person when we speak.

The Compass needle points towards the north.

154.辨两个介词through , across 表达“ 穿过,通过”的用法:(1)through (=by way of )指从空间的一头纵穿到另一头,含义与in有关。“通过窗户”才用介词through/out of the window  表示“在窗外”。Pass through the forest .Light comes in through the window (through the tunnel)       (2)across 指从一条线或一物体表面的一边到另一边;含义与on有关。   across the street

He swam across the river .         They live just across the road .

  1. 动词+while +动词-ing (现在分词。表示一边…一边…He talked to me while typing the letter .
  2. 常用词组搭配:

be full of      表示“充满的……”侧重表示主语所处的状态。

be filled with  表示“充/装满着……”强调动作。

fill …with 把……装入

He is filled with anger.                The room is full of people.

You can fill the pillow with feathers.= The pillow can be filled with feathers.

  1. 辨析if, in case , so (as) long as 的用法:
  • if 如果; 引导条件状语从句;这时的从句即使说的是将来的事,也得用一般现在时态。If you come

tomorrow , I’ll wait for you at the school gate . 【特别注意】的是,有时这种从句里出现will,但它不指将

来时态,而是情态动词,表示“愿意”: He’ll be pleased if you will come tomorrow .② in case “在…

情况下,万一”。后接“从句或of+名词” 。Ring up 119 in case of fire .  We have fitted a burglar alarm in

case somebody tries to break in . ③ so (as) long as “只要,如果”,具有较强的时间意思,在从句动作

进行期间,主句可成立;一旦从句的动作结束,主句立刻被推翻 。  You can use my car as long as you

drive carefully .

  1. 常用词组搭配:

wear out穿旧(=be in rag),磨坏;使…疲乏,耗尽

wear away时间慢慢过去;磨掉,相当于 wear down

wear off逐渐消逝

wear well继续另人满意

  1. 常用词组搭配:

by the way 顺便说,顺便问一下,用于转折话题

on the way 在路上,在途中,way指路途,路程

in the way 挡道,妨碍别人,way指道路

in a way 在某一点上,在某个方面,在某种意义上。

in this /that way 以这/那种方式(当表示“通过/用…….方法/方式/手段”时。in可省去)。

He always speaks in a careless way.             Only in that way can we finish the job.

We can finish the job that way.

160.辨:aloud .loudly 与loud三个副词的用法:

① loud 既作形容词,也作副词,侧重于给人的感觉,主要指说话和笑声等,常用比较级形式。

Is her voice loud enough to be heard ?  Don’t talk so loud .   Laugh loud and long .(笑口常开)

② aloud 相对默读而言,侧重于“出声”。声音不一定很大。指为使人能听见而发声。

It is good for you to read English aloud every morning .

③ loudly 多指发音的方式,含“响亮地,高声地”之意。指人声`敲门声或其它各种声音,强调声音高,不悦耳,喧叫。   He called loudly for help .           They argued loudly .

  1. 及物动词miss (反义词:hit/achieve/catch)① 表示“错过”常与考试/车次/机遇/目标”之类

的词语连用。miss an opportunity 错失良机; miss one’s aim未达到目标 ; miss one’s way 迷路;miss school缺课; miss the boat 错过机会 miss the point没领会到要点; miss farming season误农时; miss one’s footing (=step)失足 ;  miss  sb 想念某人;   miss  sth  丢失某物

miss doing sth  想念/错过……(不能接不定式 to do sth)   missing(lost ) 丢失的…

lose 丢失,常和事物名词连用,也常用来表示“迷路”② Miss 小姐(用于未婚女性的姓名前)。

  1. standing room only 只有立足之地,room 作不可数名词,表示地方空间,前面不加冠词。

stand in line = wait in a queue 表示“站在队里,站队”

eg: Everyone should stand in line when we are waiting for a has .

A.fall behind  B. stand up  C. be a queue jumper  D.wait in a queue

163.① one of +the +形容词最高级+复数名词,表示(在众多当中)“最……之一”;当“one of +复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词应用单数形式。② pair + of + n 作主语时,谓语动词要与pair一致用单数。

  • half the +复数名词,表示“半数的……”作主语是用复数的谓语动词。④quarter of +“可数名词”,


one quarter 四分之一 Three quarters 四分之三 (quarter须用复数形式)。

① Surfing is one of the worlds most popular water sports.

 One of the British schools is to give classes on happiness.

A pair of gloves is a welcome present.

④ He wore blue trousers(= He wore a pair of blue trousers.)

  1. 常用词组搭配:

① raise 作及物动词,表示“举起,提起,抬高”说明主语发生的动词,主要用于其它事物。

② rise作不及物动词,表示“升起,上升,起立,起床”,说明主语自身移项较高的位置。

③ receive指接收的动作或事实,并不包含接收者本人是否“接受”的意思。

I received a letter from my mother .

④ accept 指经过考虑,同意或愿意接受。强调接收者“受到”的结果是“接受”了。

We didn’t accept the present / gift.

⑤ Welcome 作感叹句时其后不接人,表示“欢迎你(们)到……来”多用“welcome to +地点”来表达,如果welcome 后接地点副词,介词to要省去, welcome here!欢迎你到这里来。

  • fail to do sth 失败做……  The letter failed to arrive .
  • fail in sth / doing 在……失败。 Iwould be failing in my duty if I don’t do it .

165.比较四个名词:①smoke 指“烟”; ② mist“雾” 指“薄雾,烟雾”可观察到其漂移,比 fog 稀薄;③ fog 雾;指“浓雾”。④ haze常指暑气而起,也指烟雾。例句:

The mountain top was covered with mist.

Mist on the car window could be seen.  There are patches of thick fog on the motorway.

We often have bad fog on the south coast during winter.

The mountains were covered in haze.

  1. 常用词组搭配:① be pleased with 对……感到满意   =  be satisfied with

② on show (=on display ) 展出,展览。 在句中可作表语,状语,on sale 出售,  on business 出差 on a journey 正在旅行。 on fire 着火;失火。 on strike在罢工 on holiday 在度假  Some of her paintings are on show in London this month. ③ show in +one’s eyes 从某人的眼睛里看出  His fear showed in his eyes .  ▲show at the cinema 在电影院上映。  What’s showing at the cinema ? ▲show on the film 放映电影。 ▲  show in the TV在电视上放映

  1. 比较unless = if …not …“如果不……,除非……”的用法:【共同点】if not( =unless )“如果


Don’t leave the office unless I tell you.

I’ll certainly attend the meeting next week unless I fall ill. (= if I do not fall ill ) .

【不同点】但下列情况只能用if not .① 在虚拟语气条件状语从句中。  If he were not to write the essay , he

would have time to watch Tv. ② 在“条件状语从句”的内容尚未发生,从而使“主句的内容发生”的情

况下。I’ll be amazed if such an old car doesn’t break down .  ③  if not 可单独作为省略成分的从句来用。 It is good, if not an excellent film . 【替换要点】祈使句+or+另一个句子=if 引导的含有肯定意义的条件状语从句。if…not…,unless… 表示“除非……;否则” Hurry up or we’ll be late

If we don’t hurry up we’ll be late

▲祈使句+and +另一个句子=if 引导的含有肯定意义的条件状语从句。Use your head, and you’ll find a way to do work well =If you use your head ,you’ll find a way to do the work well.

  1. 比较:引导条件状语从句if only 和 only if 的用法。
  • if only 作“要是…就…”解.  If only I had another chance. I’d do better. (主句用一般将来时,从句

用一般现在时)。② if only 作“…但愿 … ”解时,表示愿望。(用虚拟语气)。单独使用,不必有主语。

If only it would stop raining. ③ only if (=only when). “只有…才”不用虚拟语气,从句用一般现在时。

I will come only if you promise not to invite Mary.

  1. 讲述:动词send与介词for和副词in ; off;out ; over , up 等的用法。

(1) send for 表示“派人请,派人去叫”, 而用send sb for sth ,派某人去拿。  He was so sick that we had

to send for a doctor at once .  (2) send in 交上去,送来  Applications (申请书)must be sent in by November1 .  (3) send off 送别=see off    We sent them off in high spirits (兴高采烈). (4) send out 发出 指“光、热、气味” 。 The rose sends out a nice smell .  The sun sends out light and heat . (5) send up 发

射,把……往上送 。 使价格/温度上升   China sent up the first man-made satellite in 1970 .  The hot summer sent up the price of the air-conditionings(空调)。 Man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries .   (6) send over 派遣,派出 。   They sent him over to the police .

  1. 表达“避免、阻止、使无法”的译法:

⑴ stop sb from (= prevent sb from =keep sb from) +动名词doing sth . 注意介词from不可省去。

⑵ keep …from sb /sth .例句:① Illness prevented him from going to school .

② What stopped him from smoking ? ③ The heavy rain kept us from going out this morning .

④ Keep the ice cream away from the fire .

  1. 副词away的用法:(1)表示离开,远离,在句中作表语,状语等。 He is away in the country side .  The sports are two weeks away .   He pointed to the high mountains far away .  (2) 表示“……去,……掉”,与动词搭配构成短语。 如:① take away 拿走,拿开   Don’t take away the books on the bookshelf . ②run away (人)跑掉,流走  Forests help to keep water from running away so drought does not often happen .③  blow away 吹走,吹掉  The Great Green Wall will stop the wind from blowing the earth away . ④ wash away 洗掉(水)冲走   The soil is easily washed away .
  2. 常用词组搭配:表达“与某人结婚”(1)marry sb (2)be married to sb

(3)get married to sb    (4)marry to sb   ⑸get married at 在几岁结婚

She got married at 25.       He left school at the age of 16.

  1. 系动词come , go , turn , become; fall; get; run 表示“变化”时的区别:

(1)come后面常接褒义或肯定的形容词作表语。 (2)go常指往坏处变,又是后面也加表示颜色的形容词,表示颜色并不非长久不变。 (3)become指人和事物,并与大部分类形的形容词连用。

The sky becomes cloudy .      The leaves are turning brown .

His face went red when they made fun of him .

  1. 过去完成进行时,表示动作从过去开始持续到现在都还在进行。其结构 had been+现在分词。

He has been teaching for years.

175.① more 作形容词的用法:(1)more than (=over )+数词+名词,超过……“more +名词+than+名词” ② most的用法①作名词。most of+名词复数,前不加the ,大多数……  ③作形/副词的最高级。形容词前必须加the 。用于多音节形/副词前。但在副词前可省略。

most of the time 大部分时间

all the time一直;始终(用于现在进行时)

all/in one’s life 一生中

  1. 常用词组搭配
  • play against  和……进行比赛
  • play with sb 与某人玩耍。

▲ give birth to +名称,(=bear)“分娩”

she gave birth to a healthy body .

▲ be born in +地名“出生于”

▲ at birth 出生  The body weighed 20 pounds at birth .      she is a girl of birth (出生名门)


offer 后一般不加 that 从句。

offer sb sth 提供某人某物

offer sb/sth to do sth 提供去做某事

offer常与can , could , be able to 连用

Julia has offered us to each English.       They have offered their help to us.

178.①have an idea = find a way 有了一个主意。(注意:在idea前可用形容词 good/bad 加以修饰)

② all kinds of 各种各样的,all kinds of people 形形色色的人 ③ a kind of 表达“一种”但

“kinds of” 是复数形式,其后加单数名词(=a type of ).【注意】在书面英语中,一般说this / that kind of questions ,而不说these /those kind of questions .

▲ That kind of watches are stronger than the others .  ▲ a kind of book . two kinds of books

179.比较harm; injure; hurt; damage; wound的用法:

  • harm 作及物动词“损伤,伤害”,后面不接不定式,含使人感到痛苦或烦恼之意,可指肉体或

精神上的伤害;语气较轻。几形容词: harmful (反义词)harmless, 短语 harm set , harm get 或harm watch ,harm catch 害人反害己。 be harmful to sb ,  do sb harm 或do harm to sb 对某人有害。

  • hurt 伤害,损害。形容词(hurtful  反hurtles)可指肉体上或精神上的的伤害,语气比harm重,

常含“伤口疼痛”之意。这时与injure 同义,常互换。但injure的伤势较重,hurt 还可表达感情的创伤。平时事故弄伤要用injure. 【注意】hurt 表示“受伤”,可用badly / slightly / seriously 等副词来修饰。 hurt “伤感”,可用much 或very much来修饰。

I’m seriously hurt in the leg .           I was very much hurt at his words .

③ damage 伤害,损害,指对无生命的东西的破坏,使之成为无用、无价值之物,也可指一种损失。

④ wound 伤,受伤,指战场上或暴力引起的“刀、枪”的受伤,也可指精神“名誉”的创伤。

180.表示“在某世纪、年代”的结构,in +the+年份(复数形式) in the 1920s(=in the 1920s’)

在表示时间的长短中、年岁时,应该用系表结构。“In + one’s  + 基数词”In his fifties

  1. 词汇表达日常用语:ENTRANCE 入口  EXIT 出口  PUSH 推 PULL 拉  NO SMOKING 禁止吸


DANGER 危险    BUSINESS HOURS 9:00--- 2:00   营业时间  9:00 ---- 2:000   PLAY 播放

STOP 停止 PAUSE 暂停  ON 开  OFF 关  NO EATING 禁止吃东西 NO DRINKING 禁止喝饮料

“exit to +名词/动名词。相当于go out to 出去,离去。exist in 存在  exist on 靠…维持生命

exist as 以……形式存在

182.thanks to 表示原因“由于……幸好;多亏”注意thanks不能省去s. to 是介词。后接名词。

not…at all表示“根本上,一点而也不”或作为回应别人的感谢时的客套语。

The lady found her son, thanks to the police.

183. hang (1) 悬挂 hung(过去式)——hung(过去分词)(2)吊死,绞丝 hanged----hanged

184.the first day of the New year新年的第一天。

  1. 常用词组搭配: show sb around +地点,表示“带领……参观” show sb into 领某人进入

show sb to the door 把某人领到门口。

  1.  hand 用作动词时,可与副词in ,out , on , down等搭配,构成含义不同的动词短语。

⑴ and in 表示“ 交进,交上,上交”其反义词hand out 。  You should hand in the wallet that

you picked up in the street . (2) hand out 表示“把……拿出来,分派”,  Tom ,you should hand out the sweets to your little friends .  (3) hand on 表示“ 把……传递下去” , The torch (火 炬)of the ports meet was handed on to a basketball player .  (4) hand down表示“把…… 传下来”。   This tradition was handed down from generation to generation (一 代一代)。

  1. 常用词组搭配:fly to a place 相当于go to a place by air


laugh at sb ,嘲笑某人,“因……而笑”

laugh in +one’s face 暗暗的笑,某人的脸。(也可接语言)

make fun of sb 取笑某人

sneer at sb 冷笑某人

smile 微笑

189.① at home 在家,指人在自己家里 ② in sb’s home /in the home表示某物在家里,或人在别人家里。

I was in Mary’s home yesterday .             Sorry . I left your CD in my home .

We should learn to do the first aid (急救)in the home .

190.      have lessons/classes      学生作主语


give lessons/classes      老师作主语

191.Open 作形容词用作表语时,着重表示开着的状态;用作不及物动词时,只说明一种动作,没有别的特殊的含义;而作为及物动词用在被动结构时,着重动作发生的情况。终止性动词,在肯定句中不与表示时间段的状语连用。The swimming pool was opened ten hours ago . = It’s ten hours since the swimming pool was opened .       an opening ceremony 开会 (开学 ,…)典礼  open up  开发  open out 打开;展开/展现(相当于show);keep one’s eyes open 留心地看着 in the open air /outdoor   在户外

be open with sb about  关于某事对某人毫无隐瞒

  1.  part from 与……分手“瞬时性动作”   指人

part with =give up 断绝关系,  跟……分别……  指物

193.What’s your number ? 是个特殊疑问句,用来询问某人的号码或座位号。 在英语中,一个集体,单位或场所的名称和号码,应作为一个专有名词处理,单词的第一个字母一般要大写。其中,基数词如果用英语表示,它的第一个字母一般要大写。如果表示“第几”的基数词要放在名词的后面,即名词在前,数词在后。

  1. train  (动词)培养,教育,训练,(相当于teach和drill),

train sb not to do sth 教育某人作某事    train sb for sth     train sb in……

  1. 表示“打电话“的几个动词及短语:

① call sb up   Call up 119 at once if there is a fire .

② ring sb up    Ring up 110 when you are in trouble .

③ phone sb     Phone the doctor at once .

④ call one’s name  表示“喊某人的名字或叫某人的名字”

⑤ name  (作动词时)表示“给…命名或取名”

  1. hold on  拿着

sit on    坐在……

sit down  坐下

clean up 把……清扫干净     It’s your turn to clean the kitchen up .

clean driving licence 没有不良的驾驶记录。

around(=round) 作介词,表示“在……外面一层”circle around 环绕圆圈

  1. 介词for常用于表示用途,对象等,后接名词,代词等或V-ing 形式。

The play is performed for children .    This email is for you .   It was for serving wine .

  1. ① for one thing 常用于举出理由,一来,一则  ② for an other 二来,再则   for  one thing we can’t afford it ,and for another it’s ugly.
  2. 表示“对……要求严格:”的句型:

be strict in sth.     He is strict in his work.

Be strict with sb     He is strict with himself.

200.固定词组:read and write 表示“读写”的意思。

You must read and write carefully.


  1. (1):过去分词作表语,表示主语的特点或所处的状态,其前面的系动词可用be , get , fee, become 等。As we joined the big crowd I got  A  from my friends .

A: separated    B: spared   C: lost    D: missed

(2):过去分词作定语:①单独一个过去分词作定语时通常放在所修饰名词前,过去分词短语作定语时,通常放在所修饰名词的后面,表示完成和被动的意义,但如果被修饰的词是复合不定代词或指示代词时, 去分词要放在被修饰的词之后。

Polluted (被污染的)air and water are harmful to our health .     The problem discussed at the meeting yesterday was very difficult to solve.    The prize of the game show is$30,000 and an all expenses  B  vacation to China .

A: paying    B: paid    C: to be paid   D: being paid .

It is an organized activity .   The boy named Tom is my brother ,  There was nobody invited here.

(3):过去分词作定语与定语从句的关系:①(及物动词)的过去分词表示已完成的动作,且含有被动意义,可转换为被动形式的定语从句。但不能用现在分词被动式的完成形式来表示。例:A letter posted today will reach him the day after tomorrow,(=A letter which / that was posted today will reach him the day after tomorrow .    Scientists found many stones marked with members on the hill . ②部分不及物动词的过去分词只表示动作已完成,不含有被动意义,可转换为谓语动词为完成时态的定语从句。 We saw the risen sun , full of hope = We saw the sun which / that has risen , full of hope .

(4):请将下面的句子改写为过去分词作定语的句子。  I don’t like to read a letter which is written in pencil. = I don’t like to read a letter written in pencil .

Most of the artists who were invited to the party were from Italy .= Most of the artists invited to the party were from Italy .      There are many leaves which have fallen on the ground . = There are many fallen leaves on the ground .

They finally came to the areas that had been liberated(解放).= They finally came to the liberated area.     We are going to talk about the problem which was discussed at the last meeting .= We are going to talk about the problem discussed at the last meeting .





14.maybe (adv)

比较:maybe, probably和 perhaps几个表示“可能”,“也许”,“大概”副词用法的区别:

①maybe 指事物也许如此,但不能确定。常用于口语中。可用来提出礼貌的建议或要求,可放在句首。如: Maybe we should meet sometime next week.  Maybe you are right.

Maybe he will come, and maybe he won’t. 他也许来,也许不来。

  • probably 可放在句首和行为动词之前和助动词、情态动词或系动词be 之后。不可紧接于not等否定词之后;可与maybe替换。强调可能性很大。相当于:most like.g:

Probably he might be cured.(治愈)    I probably didn’t try hard enough.

It’ll probably rain.                   Probably he won’t come.

“Can you come here on time?”       “Probably”.

He won’t come probably.          不说:He won’t probably come.

③ perhaps 在句中位置的不同,意思也不同。相对probably来说,可能性稍小。反义词 surely .相当于maybe.   e.g:   Perhaps he will leave for home.(也许)

He will perhaps leave for home.(恐怕)  Perhaps it will rain this afternoon.今天下午也许会下雨。(也许不下)

  • possibly (形容词 possible )用于肯定句中。常与can , may , must等情态动词连用,比probably语气弱。用于否定句、疑问句中,意思为“无论如何,不管怎样”。g:

I’ll do all I possible can.       It may be possible so.       He can’t possibly forget it.

Can it possibly rain tonight?

⑤likely 其主语可以是人、物或it ,句型结构:主语+ be likely + 动词不定式”: It is likely that 从句;但不说:It is likely for sb to do sth ; 通常与 most, very 连用(用于口语中)。e.g: The weather is likely to be fine. = It is likely that the weather will be fine.

Most likely she is over thirty. 她也许已经过30 了。

备注:may be 是由“情态动词may + be(动词原形)”结构作谓语。表示“或许”,具有可能性;对现在事情的推测。其后可用形容词、名词、代词及介词短语等作表语。e .g:  It may be true.



  1. about

比较: 表示“关于”的about 、on 和 of 介词的区别:

⑴ about 表示“关于,有关”。指内容较为普通,不正式,含有随便谈论的意思。涉及的内容广泛。

在搭配上,只有about才适合与dream, talk, speak, know, think, write, quarrel, agree, teach, learn, tell, read, hear, find out 等动词及story. ideas, oppinions等名词连用,这些情况不能用on 搭配。注意:about

(=around)作副词,表示“周围”“附近”。          Is there anybody about?

⑵ on表示“关于”指内容较为严肃或学术性的。可供专门研究问题的人阅读或参考。

⑶ of说及,提及。只表示事情的存在或发生,并不涉及详情。常与动词:dream, talk, speak, know, think, write, quarrel, agree, teach, learn, tell, read, hear,  e.g:

I know nothing about the matter.    I have never hear of such things.


He has written a lot of books on the history of Japan.    I know of her.  Please hear me out.


Have you heard from Mrs Scobie?          You’ll hear from you father when he gets home.

I heard of(about) it long ago.               How did you hear about(of) our product?




4.辨析:情态动词 must , can和may 表示“推测”的用法:


⑴ must 表示“推测”,只能用于肯定句中,意为“很可能”。语气比may 肯定。

常用:“must have + 动词过去分词”,表示“一定已经”。

⑵ can 表示“推测”,可用来代替“must” 推测,意为“可能会”;帮助构成否定。

如:can’t + 动词原形(推断现在);can’t have + 过去分词(推断过去)。意为“不可能”。构成“反意疑问句”中的附加成分需根据must 后的动词选用相应的形式。

⑶ may 表示可能性;意为“可能,也许”。对现在事情的推测用“may + 动词原形”;对已经发生的事情的推测用“may + have +过去分词”。e.g:

That must be Tom. 那一定是汤姆。

They must be wrong, aren’t they? 他们一定错了,是不是?


⑷.小结“情态动词+have +done ”的用法:

① must have done 对过去发生的事情的肯定推测,“一定……” They must have got lost .

② can’t / couldn’t have done对过去发生的事情的否定推测,“一定没有”  they can’t have got lost .

③ needn’t have done 过去没有必要做却做了,“本来不必做… He need not have come last night .

④ should/ ought to have done 表示“应该做某事却没有做,本来应该做……”

但 should be doing 表示“应该正在做……”

You shouldn’t have told him about this .

You should have come here five minutes ago .

⑤ shouldn’t / oughtn’t have done 本来不该做却做了。  They shouldn’t have come .

⑥ might / may have done 过去可能做了某事(可能性小)“可能已经…… ”

She isn’t by now ,she may have missed her train .

⑦ could have done 过去本来可能做却未做,“本来可以做 ……”。

My English-Chinese dictionary has disappeared , who could have taken it ?

⑧ would have done 愿意做某事却不能做,“本来想要做…… ”

If I had had a chance , I would have tried .


  1. 辨析a few; few 和 a little;  little ;  a good few ;  quite a few 的用法:

⑴ a few; few 修饰或替代可数名词复数形式。既作名词又作形容词,意为“少数”, “几个”。表示虽

少但还有一些,常作定语,后面接可数名词复数形式。a few 表示肯定;few 表示否定。但也可作主语。I have a few English books besides this one.

They will be here in a few days.

A few of the survivors (幸存者)are still living.

He made few friends except Jane.

Few people knew the theory of relativity(相对论)then.

⑵ a little; little 修饰或替代不可数名词。既作名词又作形容词和副词。意为“一些”, “一点儿”。表示几乎没有,常作定语,后面接不可数名词。a little 表示肯定 ;但not a little 不少许(含双层否定,等于肯定); little 表示否定。但也可作主语、宾语。He was not a little afraid.       There is a little milk left in the cup.

I am a little tired.               There is little water in the lake.

Little remains to be done about it.

⑶ few; little 含有否定意义。

⑷ a few ; a little 含有肯定意义。

①------Good morning, Mr Brown. Would you please tell me the result of the exam?

-----OK, you did quite well. You’ve made          mistakes.

  1. few    B. a few     C. little   D. a little

② There is      salt on it.   A. few    B. a few   C. little    D. a little

⑸ a good few (意思相当于)too many 表示“相当多;很多”。与可数名词复数连用。

e.g:  A good few cars parked there.

⑹ quite a few (意思相当于)a good many 表示“相当多;很多”。与可数名词复数连用.

There are quite a few picture-books in our library.

I have been teaching at university a good many years.

⑺ a bit “一点儿”,“一些”;常作状语,修饰动词、形容词。a bit 后可接名词,of用连接。not a bit 表示“不多”(含否定)。注意:a bit 在for之后表示“一会儿;一些时间”。例a bit of water 一点水;            know a bit of English 懂点英语;          a bit of good advice一点宝贵意见

He was not a bit afraid.                  The weather is a bit warmer.

He didn’t care a bit.                    I feel a little bit cold.


  1. 辨析:用代替词 So 表达“也是如此”、“确实如此”的句式:

⑴ So + be(助动词、情态动词)+主语。表示“……也是如此”。(肯定句式)表示前面所说的情况也适


要一致。如果表示“某人也不”。可用“Neither + 助动词 + 主语”的句型。(表示否定式)

---- I have a younger sister. ----- So do I.

---- I am not happy.   ------ Neither is he.

⑵ So+主语+be(助动词、情态动词)。表示“……的确如此”。表示确认,重复并强调前句所说的


①----Jim enjoys listening to pop music.  ----       .

  1. So does Helen   B. Also is Helen   C. Helen likes also   D. So Helen does

②----You’ve left the light on.   ----           . I’ll go and turn it off.

  1. So I have    B. So do I   C. Nor have I   D. Neither I do

③----It may be in the bag. ----Ah,        .

  1. So is it    B. So it is   C. Nor has it  D. Neither it is

④----They eat a lot of potatoes.   ----       .

  1. So we do   B. Also do we   C. So do we    D. We like also

⑶ 用替代词so 还是 not  ① 替代词so可以跟在动词:think,hope,believe,tell,do,speak,say,expect,imagine, suppose 等之后。表示“这样,如此”。替代肯定结构的that从句,为了避免重复,变为否定式有两种:第一种可用动词的否定结构,或用not 代替so .第二种替代词not 只能代替否定结构的that 从句。e.g:  ① It was his duty to do so.    ② Don’t you think so.

③ Do you think it’s going to snow today? ------ I believe not.

④ I think not.= I don’t think so.

⑤ I hope so.只能说:I hope not. 而不说:I dont hope so.

  1. 辨析:be good for;be good to; be good at 的用法:

⑴ be good for……接指物的名词。表示“对……有好处”

⑵ be good to ……接指人的名词或代词。表示“对……有好处”

⑶ be good at ……接名词、代词(宾格)或v-ing 形式。意为“擅长”

① Chocolate is good    D    your health.

  1. at           B. to            C. with      D. for

② ---- I think drinking milk is good     A    our health.

---- Yes, I agree      you.

  1. for ; with     B. to ; to        C. with; to    D. at; with

9.辨析:either…or ;neither…nor ;both…and ;not only … but also…的用法:

⑴ either…or… 作并列连词,通常连接并列主语、谓语、宾语、状语或表语。当连接并列主语时,谓语动词必须与or.后面的主语在人称和数上保持一致。意为“不是…就是…;要么…要么…;或者…或者…。”

⑵ neither…nor… (否定式)并列连词,所连接的成分一定要对称或平衡。当连接并列主语时,其谓语动词的形式应与动词邻近的单词的数一致。意为“既不……也不…既非……又非…”

⑶ both…and…关联连词,通常连接两个名词(词组)或与之相当的代词。在其句中充当主语、宾语或表语;连接两个形容词可充当表语,连接两个动词(短语),可充当谓语;其连接的两个词语最好是同性的。意为“不但……而且……;既……又……”。

⑷ not only…but also… ▲连接主语时,谓语动词须和邻近的主语保持一致。▲连接谓语时,not 前

不可有助动词。▲连接其它部分,位于句首时not only 后的主谓需要倒装;but also 后的主谓不能倒

装。意为“不但……而且……” 。▲ also 有时可用too 替换;当连接的是两从句,而且每个从句都

有自己的主语时,also 常可省略。▲但 not …but …(否定前部分,肯定后部分)“不是 …… 而是”。

① Either my father or my mother  B  dinner on weekdays.

  1. cook      B. cooks    C. is cooking    D. cooking

② Either Jane or Steven   B    watching TV now.

  1. were      B. is        C. are           D. was

③ ---- Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning?

----    A     is ok. I’m free today and tomorrow.

  1. Either     B. Neither       C. Both      D. None

④ ---- Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk?

----   B   , thanks. I’d like just a cup of tea.

  1. Either     B. Neither    C. Both    D. None

⑤ ---- That place is not interesting at all.(一点也不)

-----    A    of us wants to go there.

  1. Neither   B. Both    C. All    D. Some

⑥ His hobby is  D    taking photos    D   collecting stamps. It is growing flowers.

  1. either …or     B. both …and …   C. not only … but also …   D. neither … nor ….

⑦ —— Have you sent your parents an-e-mail telling them you arrived safe?

---- No.__C__ of them can use a computer.

  1. none          B. both        C. neither       D. All




15.no matter what …+ be like 表示“不管……如何或是怎样的情况”含有让步状语的主从复合句

中,若主句是一般将来时,则从句要用一般现在时来表示将来。但 no matter how (不与like)连用。


16.现在完成时态:“由 have/has + 动词的过去分词” 构成:【注意要点】

⑴ 现在完成时态表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,可用非延续性动词。如果表示过去发生的动作或状态一直延续到现在必须用延续性动词。

  • 在完成时态中,必须用延续性谓语动词表示动作的延续。(work是延续性动词);
  • 在完成时态中,终止性动词由于表示的动作及其短暂,不能持续,因此不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。但可用: It is +一段时间+since +一般过去时间的句式。表示“自从…以来有…的时间… ”。It’s…since…


⑷ 现在完成时态可用于包括现在时间在内的时间状语,表示到目前为止,today, this month /year 等。

already 作副词,(常放在行为动词前或系动词后),表示“已经”,常用于完成时态的肯定句中。

但all ready意义为“都准备好了”。

⑸  yet 作副词,(常放在句末),表示“已经”,常用于疑问句和否定句中。

still 作副词,表示“仍然”,用于疑问句和肯定句中。其反义句为“not yet”

ever 作副词,表示“曾经”,指从过去到目前为止的任何时候,相当于at any time;用于一般现在时表示频率。可用于完成时态的肯定,疑问和否定句中。其反义词“never从未”。

⑹ how long (副词)表示某个动作或某种状态持续多久(持续过程没有中断)。提问时


作或状态持续到现在甚至将来;必须和延续动词连用。答语可用:for/about /since /until/

from…to…表示一段时间的词组连用。如:for /about two weeks. 而since /ever since + 时

间点或一般过去时的句子,表示一段时间。如:Since 2004. 还有during+时间段,是现

在完成时的时间志,表示“在一段时间内”,但during更强调过程。但:“in + 一段过去

时间”只能用于一般过去时。⑦ by then 表示“到那时”; so far “迄今为止”“`到目前

为止”。不表示距离,而表示时间。相当于(till now); 用于现在完成时态。但how many hours

of 表示以小时计数某事物的总量反复出现,不一定是持续发生的。How long were you in

Shanghai last year ? ------ Two weeks. How many hours of reading do you do every day?


【1】时间状语:just, never , ever, already, before, yet , ever since, lately 和表示过去至现在做过某事几次的词语so far , recently , in the past / last + 一段时间 ;over the last …year ,for +一段时间 ;since +时间点(含从句),since after …. 但just now (= a moment ago ) ①表示“刚才”用于一般过去时。②表示“现在”相当于now,用于一般现在时。③表示“过一会儿”用于一般将来时。

【2】 基本概念:现在完成时态主要强调过去发生的动作对现在的影响,以及过去发生的动作还未结束,一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。(无时间状语、需要从上下文认真去分析才行)。

【3】与一般过去时态的区别:①现在完成时强调现在的情况,不能和表示过去的时间状语(yesterday , last night , three weeks ago , in 1990等连用。② 一般过去时态:强调过去的动作或状态和现在不发生关系。它只与表示过去时间状语(yesterday; last night; three weeks ago; in 1990 )等连用。

【4】①have been in +地点:表示“在某地(多长时间 )”常与表示一段时间的状语连用②have been to +

地点:表示“曾经去过某地”但现在已不在那个地方了(多指在说话现场)③have gone

to +地点:表示“去了某地”指主语已不在说话的现场可能到了去的 地方,也可能在路


【5】非延续性动词的用法:它在现在完成时态中不能与for 和since 引导的表示一段时间的状语连用。如:come, go, arrive, leave, begin / start ,open, buy, die, borrow, sell,lend , close , get to. join 等。

【6】解决的办法有三种:一是用过去时态来翻译句子。二是该动词的 相应的 延续动词来代替。(延续性动词:live / stay ;know ; study ; work ; keep ; sleep ; be 等。)三是用It is +一段时间+ since从句来翻译。

说明:现将非延续性动词及替换形式归纳如下:⑴ 用状态动词替代非延续性动词。注意:在否定句中,非延续性动词已成为一种能够延续的状语,因此可和表示一般时间的状语连用。

① come ------ be here              ⑨ come to ----- be in / at

② leave -----be away from                      ⑩ go out ----- be out

③ begin/start ----- be on                        ⑾ put on------ wear

④ borrow ----- keep             (12)  get to know------- know

⑤ die ------ be dead                      (13)  catch a cold ------ have a cold

⑥ join ------ be in/a(an) (14)  fall asleep / go to sleep------- be asleep / sleep

⑦ become------ be (15)  arrive in / at ------ be in at

⑧ marry ----- be married to sb (16)  buy ------ have

⑵ 用系表结构替代句中谓语和其它成分。

⑶ 一般过去时替代现在完成时。同时将for 短语改为ago短语

【7】例外:① 时间段+later 表示“经过一段时间以后”。如: in ten minutes later  十分钟之后

② after + 时间段:只用于一般过去时态中。如:after a short time 一段时间之后;但“in + 一段

时间”用于将来时。③ so far有时也可以与现在时强调现在的情况和过去时(强调过去的动作或情况)

连用。        So far you are right.

【三】 how often 提问频率是多久?答语:Once/Twice./Very often./Sometimes./Never…

how much 提问价格是多少?

how many 提问……多少?

how long  提问具体事物的长度和时间长度?

how soon 提问“需要多长时间”;其谓语动词用终止性动词,时态用一般将来

时。其答语:In a week/month…

how far away …? 提问距离有多远?相当于:How many kilometers is it from …to…?

例如:(1)how far away……    (2) how many kilometers

①----- How far away are man-made satellites from the earth?

----- They’re 8,000 kilometers away from the earth .

②-----How far away is Britain from France ?  ----It’s only 30 kilometres away from France .

③-----How many kilometers is it by train from Kunming to Guangzhou ?  -----2,216

④-----How many kilometres by train is it from Nanjing to Wuhan ?  ----1,229.


  1. 反意疑问句:对陈述句所说的情况提出相反疑问的句子。它由两部分组成,前一部分



分动词保持一致。当陈述句中含有表否定意义的词few; little; never; hardly;scarcely;

seldom;no;not等构成反意疑句时,附加疑问句应用肯定式。例句:You can speak

Greek, can’t you?    ----- She is a League member, isn’t she? ----- Yes, she is.

① a great many 语气比强;表示“很多,非常多”跟可数名词复数。

I have a great many books to read.

18.  ② a great deal of 大量多;非常多跟可数名词复数

She spent a great deal of time studying English.

③ plenty of 足够多;许多;大量。跟可数名词或不可数名词。

There are plenty of trees on the campus.

There is plenty of time.

21.比较代词 anyone & anybody & none & no one的用法:

⑴ anyone/anybody一般作单数处理。当指普遍现象而非个别特殊情况;表示“全部,毫无例外”。也作复数处理。作主语部分时,后面不宜用否定式的谓语动词,应将该词改为none/no one /nobody+谓语动词肯定形式。Hardly anyone/ anybody/ anything …..表示“简直没有什么人(事物)”。

⑵ no one 表示“没有人或物,”当他作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,其后不能接of,注意两个单词不能写成一个。相当于nobody,常用于回答who引导的问句。

⑶ none (作代词)表示:“没有人或物”,指三个或三个以上的人或物。当它作主语时,谓语动词可用单复数形式,其后可接of,表示全部否定,但not all表示部分否定;意义为“未必全部都常”。回答How many / much 提问的句子。    None has left there. None of them have left there.             Who came to see me just now? ----- No,one.   ----- How many people came just now? ----- None.

⑷ neither of + 名词复数作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

22.在英语句子中,为了避免重复,通常用it , one , that , those 和 so 来替代上文提到的

人或事物:(1)It 代替“the+名词”,指前面提过的同一事物。(2)表示人时一般用he,




之前可用描绘性形容词,以及the , this , that , which , either等词修饰.one 的复数形式是

ones,它一般不能直接放在名词所有格、物主代词、数词以及some ,several ,these ,those ,

dozen , own , a 等词之后。除非前面有描绘性形容词。如:a new one / your red ones. one 前

用了the ,可替代带有前置或后置定语的可数名词,指特定的人或事物。(4)that 带后

置定语时,可替代句中某一个不可数名词。that可用来指代前句全部。(5)so 代替前句

中提到的事物. so用在动词think / expect / hope / believe / guess / suppose 后,替代一个起


  1. happenings发生的事情;  doings所做的事;  greetings问候;   surroundings环境