初中九年级英语复习知识点精讲

hujiaming1997
hujiaming1997
hujiaming1997
584
文章
0
评论
2020年8月26日16:23:18 评论 42 次浏览 130567字阅读435分13秒
广告也精彩

目录(一、知识积累)

1.some 和any

2.复合不定代词

3.it is + adj. + for(of) sb. +to do sth

4.只跟不定式作宾语

5.跟不定式作宾补

6.动名词作宾语

  1. 既跟不定式又跟动名词的词

8.look 短语

9.提建议的句式

10.主语+系动词+形容词 (主系表结构)

11.seem 的用法

12.end的短语与用法

13.enough的用法

14.because of与because

15.到达的表示

16.too many、too much 与 much too

  1. decide的用法

18..nothing…but

19.how的短语

20.find的用法

21.afraid 的用法

22.sometimes , sometime, some times , some time

23 borrow, lend和keep

  1. 睡觉的表示
  2. good的短语
  3. 花钱与花时间
  4. such as与for example
  5. percent 百分数的表示
  6. free的用法
  7. at短语
  8. .bored与boringinteresting 与interested

32.常用的感叹句的结构:

33.few, little, a few, a little

34倒装句so/Neither/Nor+助动词/情态动词+主语

  1. Although与thougheven if与even though有区别
  2. not… at all 与not at all
  3. 比较级与最高级
  4. 比较级句型
  5. 原级句型
  6. both, either, neither的用法
  7. the same as... be similar to 、be different from
  8. give短语
  9. care短语
  10. out 短语
  11. as long as 与so long as
  12. .in 短语
  13. 形容词最高级
  14. 最高级与比较级转换的句型
  15. so far到目前为止
  16. 征求对方对某事的看法或评价的句型
  17. kind 的用法
  18. hear,see, feel, notice后跟不定式与动名词的区别
  19. the other, the others, other, others, another 辨析
  20. happen
  21. dress up
  22. doa good job
  23. .a friend who is similar to you
  24. 一般将来时(be going to + 动词原形)
  25. take up
  26. 太...以至于不能...的表示too…to do sth.
  27. play a part in
  28. Promise
  29. keep 的用法
  30. be sure、make sure
  31. help 的用法
  32. hundreds of、hundred
  33. mean的用法
  34. the meaning of ….的意思
  35. live to be+基数词 + years old
  36. want to be/become + (职业)名词“想要成为
  37. one of… 后跟可数名词复数
  38. be able to do与can
  39. Many与much
  40. .a numberof /a large number of 与the number of...
  41. fall的短语
  42. up
  43. There be 句型
  44. probably ad. maybe 与perhaps
  45. It's a time (for sb). to do st
  46. 主谓一致判断法:
  47. every 与 each 的区别:
  48. .during / for / in的用法
  49. turn的短语
  50. make 的短语
  51. fill with fill in 的用法
  52. on 短语
  53. cover的用法
  54. use的用法
  55. can you....?句型
  56. prepare 的用法
  57. 问星期和日期怎样
  58. invite的用法
  59. hang out的用法
  60. catch的用法
  61. accept的用法
  62. Surprise的用法
  63. hear的用法
  64. neither…nor/…either…or/not  only…but also…
  65. not…until的用法
  66. meeting 的用法
  67. advice – advise的用法
  68. else 的用法
  69. if(如果)引导的条件状语从句
  70. order 的用法
  71. when/if /as soon as/ until/unless
  72. 穿、戴
  73. .What do you mean by(+ v-ing)?
  74. prefer用法总结
  75. must、may 与have to
  76. care
  77. angry/mad
  78. how to do that

113.look forward to V-ing= expect to do sth.

114.What’s the matter的用法

115.healthy的用法

116..show sb. sth.=show sth. to sb

117.put 的单词用法

118.take的单词用法

  1. so..that.的用法

120.情态动词 should 的用法

121.反意疑问句

122.let...down 使…失望

123.be supposed to

124.复合句与简单句的转化

125.have/get + 名词或代词+过去分词

126.宾语从句

127.be made短语

128.allow的用法

129.too/ also/ either/ as well的用法

130 look for 与find的用法

  1. hear与listen to的用法
  2. happen与take place的用法
  3. 定语从句
  4. 状语从句

135.take pride in sth/ sb 与be proud of sth/ sb

136.fifteen-year-old/fifteen-year-olds/fifteen years old

137.afford(支付得起)的用法

138.agree with, agree on, agree to

139..noise, voice, sound

140.不定冠词有a和an

141.代词

142.数词

143.祈使句+ and… , = If……

144..lonely / alone 的区别

145.过去进行时

146.现在完成时

147.英语8大时态

148.被动语态

149.need的用法

150否定转移

  1. there is no time to do sth
  2. as ... as possible 尽可能
  3. Not all / everyone ...全部/部分否定)

154..bring, take, carry, fetch

155.Lose,forget,leave 的辨析

156.good/fine/well的辨析

157.watch/look/see/read的辨析

158.名词所有格

159.run的短语

160.send的短语

161.with短语

162.take your time 与take it easy

163.cut短语

164.add短语

165.so与such的区别

  1. die dead death

167.pick up的用法

  1. rather Than 和 instead of 有什么区别

169.anyway用法

170.be afraid

171.suggest

172.steal与rob

173.away短语

174.down短语

175.问路与指路的有关表达

176.动词prefer

177.如何穿戴

178.used to do sth.的用法

179.be terrified of sth与 be terrified of doing sth.

180.no more与 no longer

181.pretend的用法

182.in public 的用法

183.introduce sb. to sb的用法

184..plenty of 的用法

185.provide 与offer的用法

186.must, may , might, could, may , can’t表示推测

187.escape from …的用法

188.attempt 的用法

189.how与what的区别

190.be strict with与.  be strict in

191强调句型:It is(was)…that (who ,whom)…

  1. Volunteer的用法
  2. according to +名词
  3. make的用法
  4. agree的用法
  5. serve 的用法
  6. win与beat的用法
  7. remind 的用法
  8. what.....like?
  9. do with 和 deal with
  10. Set的用法
  11. join, join in, take part in 和attend 的用法
  12. valuable 与worth
  13. prevent /keep/stop…from doing sth
  14. It is said that …/It is believed that …
  15. down短语
  16. besides,except,but,except for,except that/when

208.alive, living, live与lively

209.marry v嫁娶

210动词不定式 — to do 的具体用法

  1. 动词-ing 形式的具体用法
    简单句的种类
    213.语法专项复习——简单句

214.中考英语常考重点句型

215补全对话

216.七年级至九年级的非谓语动词

217.动词的形式

218.warn

219.before long与long before

220.besides、 except 和 but基本区别

  1. with的用法
  2. go短语

223.get短语

二、能力提升

1.中考听力测试题的解答技巧

2..单项选择的题型特点和解题方法

3.中考英语补全对话八大答题技巧

4.中考阅读理解题型特点和解题技巧

5.完形填空题的题型特点和解题技巧

6中考词汇考查题的解答技巧

7.中考英语选词填空解题技巧

8.中考英语书面表达指导和训练

 

初中英语知识点集锦

(一)知识积累

  1. some 和anysome 多用于肯定句,any多用于否定句、疑问句和条件从句 表示请求建议的一般疑问句中用some,不用any, 问话者希望得到对方肯定回答。

Would you like some bananas?  Yes ,please /  No, thanks.

2.复合不定代词由some,any,no,every加上-body,-one,-thing构成的不定代词叫做复合不定代词。

  some any no every
thing something anything nothing everything
one someone anyone no one everyone
body somebody anybody nobody everybody

①.复合不定代词作主语时, 谓语动词用单数.Everyone knows what they have to do, don’t they ?

②形容词修饰不定代词时, 形容词放在不定代词之后.something interesting

③动词不定式修饰不定代词时,动词不定式放在不定代词之后.I have something important to tell you.

④复合不定代词用于反意疑问句中,

⑤指人的不定代词, 其反义疑问句中的主语用he 或they .  2)指物的不定代词, 其反义疑问句中的主语用 it .

any ,anything ,anyone, anybody 也可用于肯定句中,表示 “任何……/任何物/任何人”

Everything ______(begin ) to grow in spring , _______ _______ ?

Is there _________(一些有趣的事)in today’s newspaper ?   I want something ______ (eat ).

3.it is + adj. + for(of) sb. +to do sth对某人来说做…怎么样. It is good to relax by using the Internet or watching game shows. 通过上网或看游戏类节目是很好的放松方式。句中it 为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动词不定式短语。 此句型结构为:It’s+adj+(for sb.)+to do sth.  意为 “(对某人来说)做某事是的”。

It’s very important to listen carefully in class.上课认真听讲很重要。

It’s easy for us to swim.  对我们来说游泳很容易。  It’s very hard for him to study English.

---I often have hamburgers for lunch. ---You’d better not.

It’s bad for you   too much junk food.  A.eat   B.to eat   C.eating   D. ate

It’s important for us to learn English well. It’s kind of you to help me learn English so well.

4.只跟不定式作宾语  plan  hope  wish  expect  decide  want  invite  promise  dare need  try  love would like to do  be willing to do   愿意做某事  I am willing to help you. 我愿意帮你。

5.跟不定式作宾补

  • 省to  make  let  see  hear  watch  feel  notice  have sb. do

He made me stand a whole day.   We often saw a boy play basketball on the play ground.

I think a good friend makes me laugh

  • 不省to tell ask  allow  order  invite  want  advise  promise  encourage  warn

would like sb.(not) to do sth.

Our teacher told us not to play on the street.  His mother wants him to drink milk every day.

6.动名词作宾语  like   enjoy   keep   mind   practice   finish   can’t stand    spend  consider  be busy doing  look forward to doing  have fun /a good time doing sth .

have a problem/difficulty/ trouble doing sth/ feel like doing/ thanks for doing/what about doing /prefer doing....to doing ... I am considering changing my job. 我正在考虑换工作。Why not consider going to lu zhou?

常跟v-ing 作宾语的动词有: 考虑建议盼原谅:consider, suggest/advise, look forward to, excuse, pardon.

承认推迟没得想: admit, delay/put off, fancy.

避免错过继续练avoid, miss, keep/keep on, practice.否认完成能欣赏deny, finish, enjoy, appreciate.

不禁介意与逃亡: can’t help , mind, escape.  不准冒险凭想象: forbid, risk, imagine.

  1. 既跟不定式又跟动名词的词  Stop/forget /try /remember 的用法

stop to do sth.  停下来干某事   He is tired ,so he stop to have a rest.

stop doing  停止干某事  Stop talking,the teacher is coming.

Stop/keep/ prevent  sb/sth from doing sth. 阻止...干某事

The Great Green Wall will stop the wind from blowing the earth away.

 forget to do  忘记去做某事  Don’t forget to turn off the light before you leave the room.

forget doing 忘记做过某事  I forgot posting the letter yesterday.

try to do sth. 尽力干某事     try doing sth. 试着干某事

remember to do sth.记住干某事   remember doing sth. 记得干过某事

8.look 短语

look at 朝...看     (look at=have a look at) Please look at the map of China.请看中国地图。
look for 寻找  The old man is looking for his dog. 老人在寻找他的狗。
look like 看起来像  Nancy looks like her mother.  南希看起来像她母亲。
look the same 看上去一样   Li Ping and Li Jing look the same. 李萍和李晶看上去一样。
look up 查找  Please look up the word in the dictionary.请在词典中查找这个单词。
look over 仔细检查    The doctor looked over Mary carefully.  医生仔细检查了玛丽。
look after 照顾,照看  You must look after your old father. 你必须照顾你的老父亲。
look around 到处寻找、查看  We looked around, but we found nothing strange.
我们四处查看,但是我们没有发现奇怪的东西。

Look through 浏览Look through your notes before the examination.考试前把你的笔记从头至尾看一遍.

9.提建议的句式

  • Let’s do sth.
  • What about doing sth?        OK/All right/ Good idea.     You’d better not .
  • s do sth, shall we?   否  No ,thanks I'm sorry, I can't. I have to/must+V原 (陈述理由)
  • Why not do sth ?       定  I'd love/like to, but I … (理由)
  • Why don’t you do sth?       I'm afraid not. I…(理由)
  • Would you like sth?         Yes,please . / No thanks.
  • Would you like to do sth?    Sure/Yes/Of course, ,I’d like/love to     .
  • Would mind (not)doing sth?      Certainly not  /Of course not    Do you mind if I..../
  • Will you please do sth?      With pleasure.
  • Could you please do sth?    Sure /certainly  /of course    I’m sorry ,I can’t
  • You had better do sth.       You’d better not do sth.
  • It’s best for you to do sth.

10.主语+系动词+形容词 (主系表结构) taste + adj. 尝起来…look+adj. 看起来…smell 闻起来 sound 听起来 feel 感觉起turn become grow It tastes delicious .That sounds good. The music sounds very sweet. 这音乐听起来很入耳。 The smoke grew heavier and heavier. 烟雾变得越来越浓了。

  1. seem 的用法

seem + 形容词  看起来…...   You seem happy today.

seem + to do sth. 似乎/好像做某事  I seem to have a cold

It seems + 从句  似乎..….    It seems that no one believe you.

seem like ... 好像,似乎…..    It seems like a good idea.

  1. in the end 最后;终于 Xiao Ming passed the exam in the end.  =at last =finally

end up doing sth    终止做某事,结束做某事 The party ended up singing. 晚会以唱歌而结束。

end up with sth.    以…结束 The party ended up with her singing. 晚会以她的歌唱而告终

at the end of 在...尽头   There is a clothes shop at the end of the street

by the end of在.....末为至

① A,跟将来的时间,用一般将来时By the end of next month,I will finish reading this book.

② B 跟现在的时间,就用现在完成时 By the end of this week ,I have written two books .(到这个星期末,我已经写了两本书了)

③C 跟过去的时间,用过去完成By the end of last month ,I had planted thousands of trees.

  1. 13.enough+名词  足够的…...   enough money

形容词/副词+enough        large enough     old enough

14  .because of  +名/代/V-ing    He didn’t go to school yesterday because of his illness.

because+从句             He didn’t go to school yesterday because he was ill.

He can't take a walk because of the rain.

I don't buy the shirt because it was too expensive.

15.到达的表示 arrive in +大地点  arrive at +小地点     I arrived home at eleven last night.

get to+地点名                      “到达......”   She will get there soon.

reach+地点名                      They reached /got to /arrived in Shanghai yesterday.

(注:若后跟地点副词here/there/home, 介词需省略,如: arrive here; get home)

  1. too many太多,后接可数名词复数: Mother bought too many eggs yesterday.

too much 太多,修饰不可数名词,修饰动词作状语

We have too much work to do. Don’t talk too much. It’s much too difficult for us to learn English.

much too  太,修饰形容词或副词The hat is much too big for me. You’re walking much too fast.

口诀too much, much too, 用法区别看后头 much 后接不可数 too 后修饰形或副。 too many 要记住,后面名词必复数。

  1. 17. decide to do sth.决定做某事      They decide to visitthe museum.

decide + 疑问词 + 动词不定式  He can not decide when to leave.

decision  (n.) make a decision   They made a decision to study harder from now on.

18.nothing…but+动词原形   除了……之外什么都没有

The only problem was that there was nothing much to do in the evening but read.

  1. how的短语 how often 多久一次,用来提问动作发生的频率。回答用:once,twice, three times 等词语。

How often do you play sports?   Three times a year. / usually/often

how long  多长,用来询问多长时间,也可询问某物有多长。 For three years .

How long does it take to get to Shanghai from here?  How long is the ruler?

how far 多远, 用来询问距离,指路程的远近。It’s about ten minutes’ walk.

how far is it from here to the park?  It’s about 2 kilometers.

How soon 不久以后 多用来提问将来一段时间 How soon will he be back? ----In a week.

How many times 多少次 提问次数 How many times have you been to Beijing ? ---- Twice.

How old多大年龄how wide 多宽how deep多深 how tal(有生命)多高

how high 多高(无生命) how about...怎么样

How many+可数名词复数 How many sheep can you see in the picture?

How much +不可数名词   How much yogurt do you need ?  We need two cops of yogurt.

20.find + 宾语 +名词, 发现  : We have found him (to be) a good boy.

find + 宾语 + 形容词, 发现: He found the room dirty.

find + 宾语 + 现在分词, 发现 : I found her standing at the door.

Sb .find it +adi +to do He found it important to learn English well.He finds it very hard to travel around the big city

find 发现,找到 (侧重结果)  He found nothing in the room.

find out  查出,找出  查明真相 Could you help me find out when the plan will take off ?

look for  寻找(侧重动作) What’s he doing ?  He is looking for his dictionary.

21.afraid 形容词, 担心的,害怕的,在句中作表语,不用在名词前作定语。

I’m afraid we can’t come here on time.

be afraid of sb / sth 害怕某人 / 某事; Some children are afraid of the dark.

be afraid of doing sth.  害怕做某事。 Don’t be afraid of asking question.

I’m afraid + 从句, 恐怕, 担心: I’m afraid I have to go now.

be afraid to do sth 害怕做某事   I’m afraid to be late for school.

22..sometimes , sometime, some times , some time 的区别:

Sometimes =at times =from time to time. 频度副词, 有时。可位于句首、句中或句末。

Sometimes I get up very early.  ------How often do you get up?

sometime  副词,某个时候。 表示不确切或不具体的时间,常用于过去时或将来时,对它用疑问词when.

I will go to Shanghai sometime next week. ----When will you go to Shanghai next week?

some times  名词词组, 几次,几倍。其中time 是可数名词,对它提问用how many times.

I have read the story some times.  -------How many times have you read the story?

some time 名词短语, 一段时间. 表示“一段时间”时,句中谓语动词常为延续性动词,提问时用 How long.

I ‘ll stay here for some time.  -----How long will you stay here?

  1. borrow, lend和keep

borrow“借”为短暂性动词,表示主语“借入”,常用短语borrow sth from sb.;

lend“借”为短暂性动词,表示主语“借出”,常用短语lend sth to sb.;

keep“保存;借”为延续性动词,表“长时间地借”   How long can I keep this book? 这本书我能借多久?

I borrowed a book from the school library. / Could you lend your bike to me?你能把自行车借给我吗?

  1. 24. stay up late  指“熬夜到很晚,迟睡”。 Don’t stay up late next time.

stay up 指“熬夜,不睡觉”。 He stayed up all night to write his story.

go to bed 强调“上床睡觉”的动作及过程,但人不一定睡着。I went to bed at eleven last night.

go to sleep 强调“入睡,睡着,进入梦乡”。   She was so tired that she went to sleep soon.

fall asleep 入睡        sleepy是形容词,意思是:困倦的,想睡的,瞌睡的.

fall asleep 表示“入睡,往往含有”不想入睡而睡着了“或”不知不觉地睡着了“,

be asleep 表示”睡着,熟睡“的状态He was asleep with his head on his arms. One after another,all three of them fell asleep

go to sleep.指”入睡,进入梦乡“这个动作,强调动作的结果. Soon he went to sleep for he was very tired.

25.be good at = do well in 在......做得好 擅长于... She does well in English.

be good with ...   get on well with   对 ...有办法 善于应付的 Are you good with kids?

be good to...  be friendly to   对 ...友好 They are good to us.

be good for ...  对 .... 有益  be bad for... 对.....有害  Healthy food is good for our health.

26.sb. spend time with sb.和某人一起度过时光  ( spent)

  1. spend money on sth.在某方面花费时间/金钱
  2. Pay money forsth.(paid)            花钱

sth. cost sb. some money                  (cost)

  1. spend time /money in doing sth.在做某事上花费时间/金钱

It takes sb. some time to do sth.     (took)                   花时间

I will spend the holiday in Beijing with my family.

His sister spent $50 on the jacket     His sister paid $50 for the jacket .  The jacket cost his sister$50

He spent 15 days finishing reading the novel . It took him 15 days to finish reading the novel.

27.such as比如;诸如 (用来列举事物,插在被列举事物与前面的名词之间,一般不宜与and so on连用The farm grows various kinds of crops, such as wheat, corn, cotton and rice. 这个农场种植各种各样的庄稼,例如麦子,玉米,棉花和稻米。

for example  for example意为用来举例说明,有时可作为独立语,插在句中,不影响句子其他部分的语法关A lot of people here, for example, Mr John, would rather have coffee.   这儿的许多人,例如约翰先生,宁愿喝咖啡。

28.percent 百分数, 基数词 + percent: percent 没有复数形式,作主语时,根据所修饰的名词来判断谓语的单复数。 Forty percent of the students in our class are girls. Thirty percent of time passed. A hundred percent cotton 百分之百纯棉

29.free  ①空闲的,有空的, 反义词为 busy. be free 有空,闲着,相当于 have time.

I’ll be free next week. = I’ll have time next week.

②还可作“免费的、自由的”解。be free to do sth. 自由地做某事。

30.at least至少   as for 至于,关于 As for homework, I do it every day.

at last 最后=finally=in the end  Finally ,turn on the blender.

at first 起初,首先  At first I was nervous, but I soon started to relax.

first of all首先,用于开场白 first of all, I want to thank you all for coming.首先,我要感谢各位的光临。

at the beginning of ...在开始 At the beginning of the world, there was nothing but water.世界开始时只有水的存在)

31.bored与boring  interesting 与interested  excited与exciting

  1. bored意为“厌烦的;感到无聊的”,一般在句中修饰人。b. boring意为“无聊的;令人厌烦的”,一般在句中修饰事或物,加ed一般在句中修饰人 加ing一般在句中修饰事或物We were interested in the interesting story.

32.常用的感叹句的结构

1)What +adj.+ 复数名词 / 不可数名词+主语+谓语!  2)What +a/an+adj.+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!

3)How +adj. +a/an+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!       4)How+adj./adv. +主语+谓语!

1.What an interesting book it is!  = How interesting a book is!  那本书多么有趣啊!

2.____a clever girl she is!              A.Who    B.What  C.How   D.Where

  1. _____clever a girl she is!             A.Who     B.What   C.How  D.Where

4._____important jobs they have done!    A.What    B.Who  C.How D.Where

5._____sweet water it is!               A.Who     B.What  C.Where D. How

6._____interesting the dog is!           A.Who     B.What C. Where D. How

33.few, little, a few, a little :的用法few, a few修饰可数名词,little, a little修饰不可数名词。few, little具有否定意义,表示“几乎没有”,a few, a little具有肯定意义,表示“一些”。

He has little money, but few students want to lend money to him.他几乎没有钱,但是几乎没有学生想借钱给他。

There is a little milk and a few apples left in the fridge.冰箱里还有一些牛奶和一些苹果。

34倒装句:

倒装句:  由so+助动词(be/do/will/have)/情态动词+主语 意为:…也是一样

Neither/Nor + be动词/助动词/情态动词+主语(前为否定)  表示与前面所述事实一致.

She is a student. So am I.           她是一个学生,我也是。

She went to school just now. So did I .  她刚才去学校了,我也是

She has finished the work. So have I .  她已经完成了工作,我也完成了。

She will go to school. So will he.     她将去学校,他也是。  Tom can’t swim. Neither can John.

So +be/助动词/情态动词 + 主语…也一样    He has been to Beijing. So have I.

So +主语+be/助动词/ 情态动词 是呀,表示赞同别人的观点It’s a fine day. So it is.

Neither + be /助动词/ 情态动词+主语也不一样 用于否定句She doesn’t like eggs. Neither do I.

Here are the results.  这是(调查)结果。  here 位于句首,句子要倒装。当主语是名词性短语时,要用全倒装,即“here +谓语+主语”;当主语是人称代词时,要用半倒装,即“here+ 主语+谓语”。

Here is your jacket.  这是你的夹克。Here he comes. 他来到这儿。Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。

Only位于句首用倒装句  Only then will I have a chance to achieve my dream.只有那时我才有机会实现我的梦想。

  1. 35.Althoughmany students like to watch sports,game shows are the most popular. 尽管许多学生喜欢看运动类节目,但游戏类节目是最受欢迎的。  although  连词。意为“虽然,尽管”。but 意为“但是”。英语中,although与but不能同时使用。Eg:Although it rained,the boys still played outside.

= It rained,but the boys still played outside.   尽管天下雨了,但男孩们仍在外面玩耍。

though conj. 虽然;纵然;即使;尽管 = although Though he was poor he was happy. 虽然他很穷却很快乐。

Though it was raining,he went there. 虽然当时正下着雨,他还是到那里去了。

注 不能受汉语的影响在though引导的从句后使用but。Though he was poor,but he was happy.(误)

though   adv.. 不过,可是,然而,常用于句末,用逗号隔开。  Jim said that he would come, he didn’t , though.

even if与even though有区别:though, although在句首表“尽管”两者都可以用。
even if (=even though) even if一般引导的是把握不大或假设的事情, 与单 独使用的if比较接近

even though引出的是事实。相当 于汉语的“尽管”“虽然”。

He will come on time even though it rains.  即使下雨他也会准时到的。(天真得快下雨了)
He would come on time even though it were to rain. 即使天要下雨,他也回来的(天很好不会下雨)

They’ll stand by you even if you don’t succeed.   即使你不成功,他们也会支持你。

He went out even though it was raining   尽管在下雨,他还是出去了。

  1. 36. not… at all 意为“一点也不”,not应放在be动词、情态动词或助动词之后。

The story isn't interesting at all. 那个故事一点也没有趣。 I don’t know about it at all.  对那件事我一点也不知道。

拓展:not at all = you are welcome 意为“不用谢,不客气”

37比较级与最高级 (1)形容词和副词的原形就是原级  (2)比较级,表示较或更…  (3)最高级,表示最..

比较级与最高级变换规则

规则变化  单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est来构成比较级和最高级。

构成法 原级 比较级 最高级
一般单音节词末尾加-er,-est tall(高的)

great(巨大的)

taller

greater

tallest

greatest

以不发音的e结尾的单音节词和少数以-le结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st nice(好的)

large(大的)

nicer

larger

nicest

largest

以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-est big(大的)

hot(热的)

bigger

hotter

biggest

hottest

“以辅音字母+y”结尾的双音节词,改y为i,再加-er, -est easy(容易的)

busy(忙的)

easier

busier

easiest

busiest

少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词末尾加-er,-est clever(聪明的)

narrow(窄的)

cleverer

narrower

cleverest

narrowest

其他双音节词和多音节词,在前面加more,most来构成比较级和最高级 important(重要的)

easily(容易地)

more important

more easily

most important

most easily

 不规则变化

原级 比较级 最高级
good(好的)well(健康的) better best
bad(坏的)ill(有病的) worse worst
old(老的) older/elder oldest/eldest
much/many(多的) more most
little(少的) less least
far(远的) farther/further farthest/furthest

38.比较级句型: 

(1)A + be动词+形容词的比较级+than +B “A比B更……”(注意:A与B必须是同级的,即必须是人与人,物与物进行对比)She is more outgoing than my sister.  My sister is taller than I.= I’m shorter than my sister.

“A+实意动词+副词比较级+ than + B”表示“A比B…”  She runs faster than my sister does.

(2)比较A ,B两人/两事物问其中哪一个较…...时用句型:

“Who/which +谓语动词+ adj./adv.比较级,A or B ?”   Who is thinner, Jenny or Mary?

(3)“比较级+and+比较级”,意为“越来越”。多音节比较级用“more and more+原级”

Our school becomes more and more beautiful.  He runs faster and faster.

(4)“the+比较级(…), the+比较级(…)”意思是:”越…越…”The more, the better.

The harder you study,the better grades you will get.

(5)主+ is + the 形容词比较级+of the two+名复 “主语是两者中较...的”

Who is the taller of the two?  The man on the left.

(6)当需要表示一方超过另一方的程度时,可以用much, a lot, a little, a bit, 等来修饰形容词比较级。注意: 比较级不能用very, so, too, quite等修饰。

The sun is much bigger than the moon.  Can you come here a little earlier tomorrow?

  1. 原级句型  (look sound smell taste feel become turn grow be )
  • 主语+系动词+形容词(表语)  The food taste delicious.  It was fantastic.
  • 主语+谓语+形容词 (定语)+名词  He is an honest boy.   It’s an interesting book.
  • Keep/make +n,/pron. +adj (补语) You should keep you room clean and tidy.

(4)两者在某一方面相同: A+谓语动词/be动词+as+ adj./adv.原级+ as+ B.

Helen is as tall as Amy.  Peter studies as hard as Tom.

  • 表示两者在某一方面不及另一方时用“not as/so+形容词或副词原级+as”I am not so tall as my sister.
  • 主语+谓语+状语   It’s rainingheavily    She studies English well.   

40.both, either, neither的用法:

both意为“两者全都”,与复数连用。either意为“两者中间的任何一个”,neither 表示“两者之间一个也不是”,与单数连用。both of/neither of 表示“两者都/都不”。如:Both of the them come from London。他们两人都是伦敦人。

You may take either with you。 两个中间你随便带哪个都行。 Neither is correct。 两个都不对。

We both like sports. 我们两个都喜欢运动。    They are both tall. 他们两个都高。 (助后行前)
They both are students.= Both of them are students.  他们两个都是学生。
The girls both like English.=Both of the girls like English. 这两个女孩都喜欢英语。
Neither of them is a doctor. 他们两个都不是医生。
① There are lots of colorful flowers on___ sides of the streets. A.each    B.both     C.either   D.all
② What are your parents?   They       doctors. A.are all    B.are both  C.all are   D.both are
③Li Lei and Li Ming         black hair.   A.have both B.both have C.has both D.both has
④Both of them are doctors.(改为否定句)_______   _______ them _______  a doctor.

All 表示三者或三者以上的人或物都 none表示三者或三者以上的人或物都不

both ...and:表示"两者都...".注意:当both...and 连接主语时,后面动词一般要用复数。

not only... but also: "不仅...而且..."。注意:后面动词采用就近原则,与but also后的词保持一致。

either...or:"或者...或者..."。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。如:Either you or I am wrong.

neither...nor:"既不...也不..." 是 "either...or" 的否定形式。谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致  如:Neither you nor he is right.。

41.Peter likes to do the same things as me. 彼得喜欢和我做一样的事情。
My best friend Larry is quite different from me. 我最好的朋友拉里和我很不一样。

(1)the same as...意为“与••••••相同”。 be similar to 与…相似     例如:
My birthday is the same as Tom’s. 我的生日与汤姆的一样I have the same school bag as yours.我有一个和你一样的书包。

(2be different from...意为“和••••••不一样”,是the same as...的反义词组。
Lucy is different from Lily. 露西与莉莉不一样。
[拓展] difference 意为“不同;不用之处”,可做可数名词,也可用作不可数名词。例如:
There is no difference between the twins.那对双胞胎长得一模一There are some differences between Tom and Bob.
①Life in the country is quite__that in the city. A. the same  B. different from  C. full of  D.the same as
②Is your pen _____ Jim’s?    A.same as    B.the same      C.the same with  D.the same as
③ There is not much  _______ (different) in price between the two coats.
④ 我的妹妹和我不一样。My sister  _______   _______   _______  me.

42.hand out  分发            hand out bananas

give out 分发              give out sth to sb. 分….给某人

 give up doing 放弃…        give up smoking 放弃吸烟

give away 赠送 捐赠        give away sth. to …. give away money to kids

give sb. sth. 给某人某东西    give me money 给我钱

give sth. to sb. 给某人某东西  give money to me 给我线  give in 屈服

43.care短语  care about 关心    care for 关爱   take care (当/小心)  take care of (照顾)=look after

  1. out 短语 breakout   (战争等)爆发     bring out 使…显示出来;出版

carry out  执行; 贯彻                  come out   出版;结果是;开花

give out  分发;发出(气味,光热等)       go out    熄灭,外出·   find out查处,找出

hand out   分发                         look out    留神,注意·

set out    动身,起程,开始·             try out     试用,试验·

wear out   穿破,用坏;(使)疲乏       work out   算出,想出,制定出   take out  拿出·

45.. as long as  so long as只要;与…...一样长    You can go out, as / so long as you promise to be back before 11 o'clock. 你可以出去,只要你答应在11点以前回来.

一、用法区别  as long as 用于本义表示“与……一样长”时,与 so long as 在用法上是有区别的,即 as long as 可用于肯定句或否定句,而 so long as 只用于否定句,不用于肯定句。

1、He will be all right so long as you don't touch his sore spot.  只要你不提起他的伤心事,他是没有什么的。

2.He has been on a diet for as long as any of his friends can remember  在朋友的记忆中他一直都在节食。

二、引导条件状语从句

as long as 和 so long as 均可表示“只要”,用于引导条件状语从句,两者没什么区别。

1、He paused enough to consider the options but never so long as to lose the initiative.

他停顿了一会儿权衡自己有哪些选项,但并没有久到丧失主动权。

2、As long as I deliver the goods, my boss is very happy.   只要我做好本职工作,我的老板就很高兴。

as long as 和 so long as 本身都是连接主句和一个状语从句的固定结构,意思是“只要”。
比如例句:as long as you are fearless about your future, you will never be disappointed. 这里as long as 换成so long as 是没有任何区别的,都是“只要”的意思。 但是as long as 还可以作为和...一样长,而so long as 就不可以。
比如例句:my penis is as long as yours , 而不是 my penis is so long as yours

46.in 短语   1 介词:在...里,如:in the bag;用于某些时间名词前,in the morning  在...后,表示将来, in two hours
2 副词:在家 be in=be at home in class  in English-speaking countries  在说英语的国家里
have some problems ( in ) doing sth.做某事有问题    put sth.in order  把...排序
an e-mail from Lucy to her friend in the USA 露西给她美国朋友的邮件

in the open air  在户外 in the country在乡村   in the fields在田野   in the city 在城市
in summer 在夏季 the animals in cages 在笼子里的动物           in forests在森林里
fall in the water  掉进水里   fall in love with.爱上 某人或某物   in front of … 在...前面
in the back row  在后排       in the middle of …在...正中心  in the center of … 在.中心

stand in a row 站成一排       in a hurry  匆忙,急于      in a moment   立刻,一会儿

in this way 用这种方式       in a way   在某种程度上   in a word  简言之,总之

in all    总共,总计         in half   成两半     in no time 立即,马上  in fact事实上,实际上

in order   按顺序,按次序    in public  公开地,当众        in price      在价格上

in short    简言之,总之     in spite of    尽管               in silence  在沉默中

in the end  最后,终于       in the future   在未来              in the way   挡道

in tears   流着泪,在哭着     in time  及时        get in touch  联系,接触

in turn  依次,轮流,转而    be talented in music 在音乐方面有天赋

have….in common 有相同特征(想法、兴趣等方面)相同

play a role in(doing)sth 在...中发挥作用,有影响 They play a role in deciding the winner.

46.. sb. have some difficulty/trouble(in)doing sth. 某人做某事有困难

He has some difficulty (in) studying English. 他在学英语方面有困难。

  1. 形容词最高级:用于三者或三者以上的人或事物相比较。形容词最高级前须加定冠词the,副词最高级前可省略the。①标志词:表比较范围时用in/of  Jack is the youngest of all.

② 表示“三者(或以上)中最……的”的句型 He is the tallest of the three.

1)A + be + the 形容词最高级 + 表示范围(in/of介词短语) He sings best in our class.

2)A + 实意动词 + (the) 副词最高级 + 表示范围的of/in介词短语

③常用句式 1) Who/ Which…+ 最高级…, A, B or C ?  Which subject do you like best ,Chinese,math or English?

2) one of +the +形容词最高级 +名词复数形式,  意为“最…之一”。 Beijing is one of the biggest cities in China.

3)序数词后跟形容词最高级 Africa is the second largest continent.非洲是第二大洲

最高级与比较级转换的句型

最高级                           He is the tallest in his class.

比较级+ than any other +名词单数    He is taller than any other student in his class.

比较级+than the other +名词复数      He is taller than the other students in his class.

比较级+than all the other +名词复数   He is taller than all the other students in his class.

比较级+than the rest of the +名词复数  He is taller than the rest of the students in his class.

比较级+than anyone else.            He is taller than anyone else in his class.

48.so far 到目前为止,迄今为止多用于现在完成时。 I have learned 2000 English words so far.

How do you like it so far?   It’s fantastic. be up to由…决定/是…的职责,That’s up to you to decide.

make up 编造(故事、谎言等)  They think the lives of the performers are made up.

  1. 征求对方对某事的看法或评价的句型:

How do you like +名/代/V-ing = What do you think of :“ 你认为…怎么样?”

How do you like the TV show?  What do you think of the TV show?

50 .kind  1种类  2.和蔼的   kind of  意为"有几分,有点儿",相当于副词,其后多接形容词,口语中常用.
The boy is kind of nervous.那个男孩有点紧张.    He is kind of angry. 他有点生气.
(1)kind作名词,意为"种类,类型,类别".可构成以下词组:
a kine of 一种    what kind of 何种     this kind of 这种    that kind of 那种
many kinds of 许多种类的   many different kinds of 各种各样的  all kinds of 各种各样的
(2)kind可作形容词,意为"和蔼的,亲切的"
We should be kind to others. 我们应该待人友善. My teacher is kind to us. 我的老师对我们很好.
(3)句型 It's kind of you to do sth. 某人做某事真是太好了.
It's very kind of you to help me. 你帮助我真是太好了.It's very kind of him to stay here.你留下来真是太好了.   We should be kind ____ the old.  A for  B to  C at   D in

51 .It’s always interesting to watch other people show their talents.观看别人展示他们的天赋总是很有趣。

①It’s interesting to do sth. 意思是 “做某事有趣”, 它是It’s +adj+to do sth.句型的一种形式,it 作形式主语,to do sth.是真正的主语。例如:It’s very interesting to play computer games.玩电脑游戏很有趣。
② watch 在句中是感官动词。watch sb.do sth. 意为“观看某人做了某事或经常观看某人做某事”,强调“观看 动作的全过程”。例如:   I watched them play football the whole afternoon.整个下午我在看他们踢足球。 watch sb.doing sth. 则表示“观看某人正在做某事”强调“动作正在进行”。 I’m watching them playing football.  我正在观看他们踢足球。  hear,see, feel, notice 等感官动词的用法与watch一致。

I saw him get on the bus. 我看见他上了公共汽车。(动作已完成)
I saw him getting on the bus. 我看见他正在上公共汽车。(动作正在进行)
③ I saw my father____ . It made me ____better.  A.smiling; to feel B.smile; feeling  C.smile ; feel  D.smile; to feel
④. The young woman watched her daughter___ a yo-yo yesterday afternoon.

A.to play  B.to play with   C.playing with   D.played
⑤ I often hear her__________ in the room.A.sing  B.sang   C.singing  D.to sing
⑥ It’s nice of you __________me with my math. A.help   B.helping  C.to help  D.helped
52 .the other, the others, other, others, another 辨析

the other 表示特指两个或者两部份中的另一个或另一部分,可直接单数名词或复数名词。表示两个中的一个……另一个……时,常用one …the other…。  例:He has two brothers, one is a teacher, the other is a doctor.

the others  特指某一范围内的其他的(人或物),是the other的复数形式,相当于the other+复数名词。

the other + 复数名词 = any other + 名词单数。You two stay here, the others go with me.

I’m different from Jeff because I’m louder than the other kids (any other kid) in my class.

other 作代词或形容词,可修饰可数名词单数或复数。 We learn Chinese, Maths, English and other subjects.

others作代词泛指“其他的人或物” Some students are doing homework, others are talking loudly.

another 泛指同类事物中的三者或三者以上的“另一个”,只能代替或修饰单数可数名词。

I don’t like this one. Please show me another one.

another two students = two more students

one…another… 表示不确定数目中的另一个I don't like this one, can you show me another?

One the other表示两者中的另一个I have two brothers. One is a lawyer and the other is a manager.

some…others…表示没有范围限定的“一些…另一些...”Some go to school by bike and others go to school by bus.

some…the others… 表示某一范围的“一些...…其余的…...”

Some go to school by bike and the others go to school by bus.

each other(两者相互) each other’s(相互的)one another(三者或三者以上) one another’s(相互的)

  1. happen v.发生,一般指偶然发生,主语为事,不能为人。

Sth + happens to sb.     A traffic accident happened to his elder brother yesterday.

Sth + happens + 地点/时间, 某地/某时发生了某事 An accident happened on Park Street.

happen v,表示“碰巧”,主语可以是人,后常跟动词不定式to,表示“碰巧……”.

Sb + happens to do sth.        I happened to see my uncle on the street.

take place 意为“发生,举行,举办”,一般指非偶然性事件的“发生”,即这种事件的发生一定有某种原因或事先的安排。Great changes have taken place in China. The meeting will take place next Friday.

go on 发生,与 take place 同义  I wonder what was going on around the world..

  1. take one's place to do代替某人  She takes her father’s place to fight in the army.

take the place of 代替, 取代Plastics can sometimes take the place of wood and metal .塑料有时能代替木材和金属.

take one’s place 坐某人的位置, 代替某人的职务 Come to take my place. my seat is near the window . 来坐我的位置,我的座位靠近窗户

take place 常指“(某事)按计划进行或按计划发生”(二者都无被动)

55.dress up like a boy 装扮得象我男孩子          53.play Mulan’s role well 扮演木兰演得好

56.did a good job in the movie 在这部电影中演得好

57.a friend who is similar to you一个与你相似的朋友

a place where you can enjoy time一个你可以享受快乐时光的地方

58.一般将来时be going to + 动词原形——表示将来的打算、计划或安排。常与表示将来的tomorrow, next year等时间状语或when 引导的时间状语从句连用。各种句式变换都借助be 动词完成,be随主语有am, is, are 的变换,going to 后接动词原形。

肯定句: 主语 + be going to + 动词原形 + 其他。He is going to take the bus there.

否定句: 主语 + be not going to + 动词原形 + 其他 I’m not going to see my friends this weekend.  一般疑问句: Be + 主语 + going to + 动词原形 + 其他   肯定回答:Yes, 主语 + be.  否定回答:No, 主语 + be not.

Are you going to see your friends this weekend?   Yes ,I am.   /    No, I’m not.

特殊疑问句: 疑问词 + be + 主语 + going to + 动词原形 + 其他?

What is he going to do this weekend?   When are you going to see your friends?

2) 如果表示计划去某地,可直接用 be going to + 地点  We are going to Beijing for a holiday.

3) 表示位置移动的动词,如go , come, leave 等常用进行时表示将来。

The bus is coming.   My aunt is leaving for Beijing next week.

4) be going to 与 will 的区别:

① 对未来事情的预测用“ will + 动词原形”表达,will 没有人称和数的变化,变否定句要在will 后面加not,  也可用will 后面加 not,或者缩略式won’t, 变一般疑问句将will 提至 句首。 Will planes be large in the future?     Yes, they will. /  No, they won’t.

②will 常表示说话人相信或希望要发生的事情,而be going to 指某事肯定发生,常表示事情很快就要发生。

I believe Lucy will be a great doctor.

③ 陈述将来的某个事实用will.    I will ten years old next year.

④表示现在巨大将来要做的事情用 will.   I’m tired I will go to bed.

⑤ 表示意愿用will.     I’ll tell you the truth.

⑥ 表示计划、打算要做的事情用 be going to, 而不用 will.

I’m going to buy a computer this month. ---Let’s discuss the plan, shall we? ---Not now. I__ to an interview.     A. go  B. went   C. am going  D. was going

---Jack is busy packing luggage. --Yes. He __for America on vacation. A. leaves B. left  C. is leaving D. has been away

59take up sth./doing sth.(尤指为消遣)学着做开始做 I am going to take up cooking next year. 明年我将要学煮饭。

60 Sometimes the resolutions may be too difficult to keep.

too…to do sth.    太…而不能

so +adj. /adv + that(从句)   如此…以致

such +(a/an +adj.)+n.+ that(从句) 如此…以致…            太...以至于不能...

(not) enough (for sb.) to do sth.  (对某人来说)做某事(不)够

  1. The boy is too young to go to school.The boy is so young that he can’t go to school.

He is such a young boy that he can’t go to school.   The boy is not old enough to go to school.

too...to  The kid is too young to play this game.

so...that..not..   The kid is so young that he can’t play this game.

enough...to do   The kid isn’t old enough to play this game.

61.play a part in +名/代/V-ing. 参与某事/做某事

Everyone should play a part in saving the earth.

62.promise  n. 承诺;诺言  v. 许诺;承诺;答应

make a promise(to sb) (对某人)许下诺言  keep a promise 遵守诺言

break a promise 违背诺言                 promise (sb) to do sth. 许诺某人干某事

promise (sb) +that 从句                   He promised to help me. 他许诺过要帮助我。

I promise that I will study hard from now on. 我承诺从现在起努力学习。

63.keep on doing sth. 继续做某事(表动作的反复)They keep on writing the story.

keeping doing sth. 保持做某事(表动作或状态的持续) Why do you keep me waiting so long?

Keep+n./pron.+adj 让某人(物) 保持....  We should keep our classroom clean and tidy.

Keep sth from doing sth 阻止...干某事 The Green GreatWall stops the water from running away.

keep an eye on sth. 照看;密切注视   keep in mind 记住  keep /get in touch with 与……保持联系

keep pace with 与……同步前进     keep off 避开

keep back 隐瞒(信息),拒不告诉;保留,储存

keep one’s finger crossed 祝……好运    keep (one’s) eyes open or peeled 密切注视

keep (one’s) head above water (通过持续努力)生存,继续;勉强对付    keep up with 跟上;继续

keep up one’s spirits 振作精神      keep cool 保持冷静         keep count on 保持联系

keep sth. in mind 把……记在心上      keep(sth.)to oneself 不与人交往;保守某事

64  be sure about +名/代/V-ing“肯定” Are you sure about that?

make sure (that)+从句“...确保.…” Make sure that both doors are closed when you go out.

  1. 65. help (sb.) with sth. 帮助(某人)做某事He often helps me with my English.

help sb. (to) do sth. 帮助(某人)做…  He often helps me study English.

help oneself ( to ) 自用(食物等)    Help yourselves to some fish,children..  请随便吃鱼

help out 帮助某人摆脱困境 He helped me out with the task. 他帮我完成了任务

66.hundreds of + 名词复数 许多/大量...数词+hundred + 名词复数 几百...类似的数词还有thousand千 ,  million(万)There are four hundred students in our grade.There are hundreds of tourists in Beijing every year.

67.mean的用法  v. 表示…的意思;意思是;打算;产生…结果   ( meant  meant  )

adj. 吝啬的;刻薄的;破旧的;残忍的   n. 平均数;中间;几何平均;等比中数

一是表示“意思是,有……的意思”。例如:You mean it can be cured? 你的意思是能治好?

What does this word mean?  这个字是什么意思?

This is what is meant by “failure is the mother of success”. “失败是成功之母”就是这个意思。

二是表示“指”,例如:  Whom do you mean by “they”? 你说“他们”,指的是谁?

I mean the red one, not the green one. 我说的是那个红的,不是那个绿的。

三是表示“意味着”,后面可以接名词、动名词、从句。例如:

Silence means consent. 沉默就是同意。To take it apart now would mean wasting a lot of labour. (接动名词)现在把它拆卸开,就意味着浪费大量的劳动力。 Revolution means liberating the productive forces. 革命意味着解放生产力。

This mean we have to wait another week or so.(接从句)这就意味着我们还得等一个星期左右。

四是表示“打算;有……意图”,后面接名词、代词、不跟宾语、动词不定式,不定式的复合结构。例如:

They probably meant well. 他们或许用心是好的。  What do you mean to do with it? 你打算把它怎样处理?

I don’t mean to say we are perfect. 我不是说我们已经十全十美了。

We had meant to leave on Monday, but have stayed on. (与完成时连用,表“本打算”)我们本来是想早来的。

68.The meaning of ….的意思   Can you tell me the meaning of the words?

What do you mean by+v-ing ?    What do you mean by doing that?

69.live to be+基数词 + years old“活到...…岁”  People will live to be 200 hundred years.

70.want to be/become + (职业)名词“想要成为” I want to be (be) a scientist when I grow up.

71.. one of… 后跟可数名词复数,表示…之一。 其后的谓语动词用单数。

One of my favorite movies is Mr. Bean. 我最喜欢的电影之一是憨豆先生。

  1. be able to do sth. 能够做某事

(1)can : can+动词原形,无人称和数的变化。只能用于一般现在时和一般过去时,不能用于将来时。

be able to + 动词原形,有人称和数的变化,可用于多种时态。

(2)can 常指客观上能够;be able to 更侧重于经过努力克服一定困难有能力做成某事。

He will be able to(能够) speak English next year.(在此不能填can)

73.many+可数名词  许多... much +不可数名词  许多. lots of =a lot of + 可数/不可数名词

74.a number of /a large number of 许多  修饰可数名词当复数看the number of...的数量 当单数看

A number of visitors come to our school every year . Sometimes the number of the visitors is over 500.

  1. fall down倒下/落下The old lady fell down in the street and broke her leg.

倒塌: The old house soon fell down. 这座老房很快就倒塌了.

fall off 减少;跌落;下降;离开;衰退   When you are learning to ride a bicycle,you often fall off. 在你学骑自行车时,你常常会从车上摔下来.  fall behind 拖欠;落在后面  fall in love with 爱上  fall ill 生病   fall over 绊倒

When the babies see the keepers,they run over to them with excitement and some of the young pandas even walk into their friends and fall over.    Walk into 走路时撞着

  1. up 表“完全,彻底”的短语有:eat up(吃光) use up(用完)end up(结束,告终)we ate up all the food.   cut up(切碎)lock up(锁住)stick up(粘紧)nail up(钉牢);wrap up(包好)fix up(修理好) ,

she always locked up her house when she was away on holiday.
bring up(抚养大);speed up(加快速度);turn up)(开大声音);grow up(长大成人);

warm up(加热);would you please turn up the radio?
come up(走上来);catch up(with...)(赶上); keep up(with...)(跟上 hurry up(赶快)            look up(查阅 take up(拿起     give up 放弃mix up(混合)ring up(打电话put up(举起,建起)send up(发射)pick up(拾起)  cheer up 振奋人心? 一般讲cheer  up 有一种加油打气的意思 stand up 站起来 pick up 捡起来fix up 修好 go up 上升 get up 起床 wake up 醒来 take up 承担  学着做;开始做  I am going to take up cooking next year. 明年我将要学煮饭。

77.There be 句型 表示某地有某人或某处有某物 (be根据其后第一个主语决定单复数)

There is a pen and some books on the desk.  There are 31boys and one girl in the classroom.

There be 句型的一般将来时为 there will be 或there is going to be

 特殊句型 : There is/are + sb. + doing sth  有…正在做…

There are robots working in the factories.  There is a wallet lying on the ground.

78.probably ad. maybe 相当于 perhaps. 也许,大概,可能。作状语.

probably 用于句中,可能性最大。 He will probably come tomorrow.

maybe/perhaps 用于句首。  Maybe/Perhaps you are right.

during / for / in  介词,在……期间。说到某事是在某一段时间之间发生的用during; 说到某事持续多久则用for; 说到某事具体发生的时间用in.   We visited many places of interest during the summer holiday.

I’ve been here for two weeks.        They usually leave school in July.

79.. It's a time (for sb). to do sth.  该是(某人)做某事的时期了

It's time (for sb.)to do sth. =It's time for sth. 该是(某人)做某事的时间了。

It's a time for you to study English.   It's time for us to go to school.(It's time for school.)

80.主谓一致判断法:

⑴不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 No news is good news.

⑵动名词或动词不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

Doing morning exercise is good for your health.  To see one time is better than to hear a 100 times.

either…or…,要么要么  或者或者 neither…nor… 既不也不…, not only…but also..不但而且 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词与邻近的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。

Neither you nor he is a worker.   Not only you but also your sister studies hard.

在here, there 开头的倒装句中,谓语动词与后面的名词在数上保持一致。 Here comes the bus.

⑷形容词前如加定冠词表示一类人,如the rich(富人),the sick(病人),the poor(穷人),其后的谓语动词要用复数,如:The rich are not always happy.

⑸.当主语与谓语动词之间插入along with,with,as well as,together with, besides,except, but, including等短语时 ,谓语动词与第一个主语保持一致。 I along with my sister_am_(be) going to Shanghai next month.

⑹由“what”引导的名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。What I want to say_is_(be) just “ Take care!”.

⑺“…+ (of) +名词”作主语时,若“of”后的名词为单数(不可数名词),则谓语动词用单数,如果名词为复数,则谓语动词用复数。量词短语“数字+量词+ of +…”作主语时,谓语动词应与量词保持一致。 Most of the water here __is___(be) clean. Half of the apples _are_(be) red. 80% cotton __has_have) been sent to America.80%

A pair of shoes __is___(be) under the bed . Two pieces of paper ____are___(be) on the desk .

⑻从句、不定式、动名词等作主语时谓语动词用单数。

When to leave _has__(be) not been decided.  Watching TV too much __is_(be) bad for your eyes.

注:如果主语是两个(或两个以上)的名词性从句,谓语动词常用复数。

What he said and what he did __were___(be) always different last night .

⑼如果两个以上的名词组成一个整体概念作主语时,谓语动词须用单数。

当主语是两个名词由and 连接时,若表示一种事物或一种概念时,谓语用单数。

The teacher and writer is coming(同一个人) . / The teacher and the writer are coming .(不同人)

The novelist and poet __is___(be) going to Europe next year.

The novelist and the poet___are__(be) going to Europe next year.

⑽ 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数。

10 minutes is enough.   Two hours ____is____(be) enough for us to get there .

⑾  加减乘除等数学运算谓语动词通常用单数。 2 and 3 __is____5.

⑿ “the +姓氏名词的复数”表示“一家人、….夫妇”,作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

The Blacks ___are___(enjoy) working in China.

⒀ “the +形容词(old /young /rich /poor )”表示“一类人”,作主语时,谓语用复数。

The young __like_(like) listening to popular song

⒁成双成对出现的复数名词(glasses,shoes,trousers,pants,gloves等)作主语时,通常谓语动词用复数,但前面有a /the pair of;a /the suit of等词语时,则谓语动词要与量词(pair, suit, piece )在单复数上保持一致

  1. 81. every 与 each 的区别:

every 用来表整体,each 用来表个体。each 最低需是两,every 最低需是三。every adj.

every 作主用单数,each 可单也可复,作主、作定用单数,其他情况用复数。 each  adj./ pron.

Every teacher knows her.   There are lots of trees on each side of the road.   Each of the road has a dictionary.

82.during / for / in  介词,在……期间。说到某事是在某一段时间之间发生的用during;

说到某事持续多久则用for  说到某事具体发生的时间用in.  They usually leave school in July.

We visited many places of interest during the summer holiday.  I’ve been here for two weeks.

83.turn on  打开,接通(电源,气,水),反义词是turn off.  turn up/turn down 调高/低音量。turn around 转身

in turn 轮流地→(反义)out of turn    turn in = hand in上交    turn into 把……变成

turn away 把(某人)打发走 turn blue/green 冻得青紫/羡慕,嫉妒    turn over 移交;再三考虑;翻转

turn over a new leaf 改变,(尤指)改过自新  turn to 翻到;转向;求助于 turn(one’s) stomach 使恶心;使作呕

turn up 突然发现;找到;出现  turn up (one’s) nose 拒绝       turn out 结果是;培养;生产;打扮

84..有关make 的短语:  make the bed  铺床   make tea   沏茶   make trouble  惹麻烦

make money   赚钱   make a decision  做决定   make a mistake   犯错误  make a living谋生

make a telephone call  打电话   make a noise 弄出噪音  make sure  务必 be made from由…原料制成

be made of由……材料制成   be made into被制成……   be made to do sth. 被迫去做
be made out of由…制成    be made up of由…所组成

make up 和解;组成;构成;编造,虚构(故事、借口等);给…化妆;为…打扮;凑足,补齐(数量);(加班)补足,补上(耽误的时间);配(食品、药等);铺(床);搭(铺)

1.I think it's very unkind of you to make up stories about him. 我认为你编造关于他的故事是很不友好的。

2.They'll have to make up time lost during the strike.  他们将不得不补上因罢工失去的时间。
make friends with与……交朋友   make one’s way to sp.向…走去  make a mistake 犯错误
make room/ way for为……让路    make sure/certain一定要;保证做到;核实
Make sure that you get there in time.     We  must make certain they will come in time.
make the best/most of尽量利用;充分利用  make up one’s mind决心;决定

make a long story short长话短说 make sb.’s hair stand on end使毛骨悚然  make a fire生火

make a fuss 大惊小怪;小题大做  make out 辨认出;理解;填写   make off with (迅速)拿走,偷走

make advances 取得进展  make war 发动战争  make an effort 努力  make a night of it 痛快的玩一晚make a day of it 做了一整天 make a living 谋生  make a comeback 东山再起   make a face 扮鬼脸

make sb do sth 让某人做某事         eg : I made him write 我以前让他写

sb be made to do sth 某人被迫干某事   eg: He was made to write

85 .fill with 用…填充… fill in 填入 Fill in the blanks with the proper words given.

be filled with  = be full of   充满…. The box is filled with the apples.

The boy filled the bottle with sand.    The bag was full of clothes.

86.on 短语   live on靠…为生 hold on(打电话时)等一会,不挂断come on来吧,跟着来,赶

and so on等等     try on试穿   on the other hand另一方面   work on继续工作

have on穿着,戴着  go on继续    get on上车   later on后来,稍后   be on上演, 上映

turn on开,旋开(电灯等)  put on穿上,戴上,上演,增加 (体重) on time准时  depend on依靠,依赖   on earth究竟,到底   from now on从现在起,今后   get along  (with)进展,与...相处

get on well with与…相处融洽 on business有事, 出差   on duty值班,上班  on foot步行,走路  on one's way to在去的路on sale出售,贱卖on show在展出 on the other hand..另一方面… on the phone听电话 on the right在右边on top of在…之上    try on试穿  on weekdays在工作日  operate on sb.为某人动手术  give…some advice on给…一些忠告go on (doing)继续(做…) from then on从那时起    on the left (right)在左(右)边    on the other side of在……另一边   on the radio通过收音机  late on过后,后来  on the beach在海滩 on one's back在某人的背上  on Monday在周一  on the playground在操场上  on the wall在墙上  on the tree在树上   on one's way to school 在上学的路上 on one's way home在回家的路上  on the computer电脑上    insist on坚持   study on computers通过电脑学习 on a piece of paper在一张纸上 on vacation度假

land on ...降落... on Friday evening在星期五晚上  pass sth. on to sb.把...传给...  on July 2nd.2019 .

on my seventh birthday  在我第七个生日  on stage在舞台上 on the weekend在周末

spend some money on sth.  on New Year's Eve在除夕   on the third floor在三层

on the early morning某一天清早  hit sb. on the nose打某人的鼻子

put on performances演出,表演   play a trick on sb.  跟某人开玩笑,欺骗某人

agree on 就...达成协议决定, 同意,赞成   based on以...为基础  on display展出

on the earth在地球上   make a living on sth.以...为生  on earth 究竟,到底

87.cover n. 封面,盖子。 cover…with…  用…把…覆盖     be covered with   被…所覆盖。

Ann covered her face with her hands.  /  The cover of the magazine is nice.

87(1)on the way, in the way, by the way, in this way

on the way 指在路上 in the way 指挡道  by the way 指顺便问一句 in this way 用这样的方法

87(2)in the tree, on the tree   in the tree 指动物或人在树上,而on the tree 指果实、树叶长在树上

  1. 88.used to do sth. 过去常常做…       I used to go to work by bus. Now I take a taxi.

get/be used to sth./doing sth. 习惯于…He used to be a problem boy. She used to be very shy.

I’m used to drinking a cup of water after meal. He’s been used to living in the dormitory.

be used to do  被用于做…(被动语态) This machine is used to clean the floor.

be used by     由(被)…使用(被动语态)English is used as a foreign language

be used as …   被当做…使用(被动语态)The girl is being used as a servant in the house.

be used for doing 被用于做…(被动语态)A knife can be used for cutting bread.

89..Can you come to my party on Saturday afternoon?  Sure, I’d love to. / Sorry, I can’t. I have to prepare for an exam.

  1. 90.prepare for sth. 为…准备好 prepare to do sth  准备做某事be prepared to do sth

get/be ready意为“准备好”,强调准备的结果。

①be ready(for sth.  ②get sth. ready  (准备干某事,乐于干某事)

③be ready(for sth   ④be get ready to do  They are busy getting ready for the finally exam.

We _____ the mid-term examination.  Miss Li said, “Everyone should ______before class.

91What’s today?         It’s Monday the 14th.     (问星期和日期)

What’s the date today?     It’s December 12th.      (问日期)

What day is it today?      It’s Wednesday.         (问星期)

92..invite  v. 邀请  n. invitation  invite sb. to+地点名词 邀请某人干某事

invite sb. to do sth.“邀请某人干某事”  Mr. Green invited me to visit his factory last week.

  1. 93. hang out 常去某处,泡在某处 hang on 紧紧抓住  hang up  挂电话,悬挂,挂起

94.catch you = bye bye  catch a cold  感冒 catch sb’s eye  引起某人注意 catch the train  赶上火车catch up with  赶上,,跟上     catch hold of   抓住

95..accept 接受 , 反义词为: refuse。  accept指主观上愿意接受,receive 收到,指客观上收到或拿到,但主观上不一定会接受。 I received his gift yesterday, but I wouldn’t like to accept it.  turn down = refuse 拒绝

96.surprised 形容词,感到意外的,主语是人be surprised to do sth  对做某事感到意外

surprising 形容词,令人惊讶的,主语是物  The news was surprising.

surprise 名词,惊奇、惊讶 to one’s surprise     in surprise 惊奇的

动词,使惊奇,使感到意外 It surprise sb to do sth.

  • I was surprised at the news. 我对这消息感到吃惊。The news is surprising. 这消息令人感到惊奇。

① To my surprise,they lost!  使我惊奇的是他们输了!
② He said to me in surprise, “Can’t you skate?”  他惊奇地对我说:“你不会滑冰”?

The surprising success makes us very happy. 这出人意料的成功使我们非常高兴。

97.hear from sb. 收到某人的来信 = receive a letter from sb. (heard)  hear of = hear about 听说

98.neither…nor… 既不…也不(两者都不)

either…or…要么…要么/或者…或者/不是…就是 以上三个词做主语时,要用就近原则

not  only…but also… 不但…而且 Not only my mother but also my father is a teacher.

  1. Neither you nor he has been to the USA.Either he or you go to the park.

neither of  两者都不 either of两者选一 none of 没有一个以上三个做主语时谓语动词用单数

All of 全部       Both of 两者都   以上二个做主语时,谓语动词用复数

Neither of the answer is right .   None of them is later for class. Both of his parents are doctors.

not only...... but also 的用法
“Not only…but also”这个英语词组的意思是“不仅...而且....”,是很常见的一个关联词组,用于连接2个表示并列关系的成分,强调的是后者。also有时候是能省略的,它的主要用法如下:
一、主要用法
1.“Not only…but also”用于连接主语、谓语动词、宾语、 宾语补足语、表语 、状语 、定语。
【1】Not only I but also my mother is proud of my success .  不仅我,而且我的妈妈都为我的成功感到自豪。
Mary and Tom not only go to the same school but also share a same room. 玛丽和汤姆不仅上同一所学校,而且还住同一个房间。
【4】Money make people not only happier but more desired. 钱不但使人高兴,也会使人充满欲望。
【5】My father was not only a actor but (also) a singer。 我爸爸不仅是一位演员,而且是一位歌手。
If your friend reminds you of your mistake, take what she says not only pleasantly but gratefully.
如果你的朋友指出来你的缺点,你不但要愉快的接受,而且要心怀感激。
2.Not only…but also连接句子时, not only 可以置于句首表示强调,这时第一分句要采用倒装结构。例如:
【1】Not only has he a brave heart but also he is a hard worker.

Not only does the sun give us light but also it gives us heat.   太阳不仅给了我们阳光, 也给了我们热量。

Not only did he speak English correctly, but also he speaks it fluently. 他不仅英语说的正确, 还说得流利。

99 .not…until  直到...才   He didn’t go to bed until his mother came back.

after引导的时间状语从句  He went to bed after his mother came back.

100.meeting n.at a/the meeting在开会 attend a meeting参加会议 sports meeting运动会 meeting room会议室

  1. 101.advice – adviseadvise  v.“劝告;建议”n. advice, 不可数名词. Give me some advice!

a piece of advice 一条建议  give advice 给出建议  take the advice 采纳建议

advise sb.. (not)to do 建议某人(不)做某事advise doing sth. 建议做某事。

advise sb.(not)to do sth. 建议某人(不)做某事  I advise waiting till the right time. 我建议等到适当的时候。

I advise him not to sleep late every day. 我建议他不要每天睡懒觉。

102 else  adv.放在不定代词或疑问代词后,别的,另外的 ,其他

someone else其他人  anything else别的东西  something else别的东西  everyone else其他所有人;其他每个人 or else否则;要不然 nothing else没有别的东西;没有别的事情  who else还有谁 Who else do you like?

103.if(如果) 引导的条件状语从句。If是连词,所连接的句子 叫条件状语 从句,表示假设或条件,意思是  “ 如果…的话”,用法如下:

1.表示假设,表示将会发生和可能发生的事,或进行提醒警告。新| 课  |标|第   |一| 网

if条件句:条件句用于陈述语气,表示假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是“如果”的意思。

构 成 条件从句 主句
时 态 If+一般现在时, 主语+shall/will+动词原形
例 句 If he comes, he will take us to the zoo.

(1)if “如果”,引导条件状语从句,主句用一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时。如:
If it rains tomorrow, we won’t go there. 如果明天下雨,我们就不去那了。

(2)若主句是祈使句,if引导的条件状语从句仍用一般现在时。 Put up your hand if you have any questions to ask.

If (是否)连接宾语从句 I don’t know if he will come .If he comes ,he will take me to the zoo.

  1. 104.order(1).及物 订购,订货,点菜,命令。 Let’s order food from the restaurant.

(2)命令order sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事。 His father orders him to act at once

105.When(当…的时候), if (如果), as soon as(一…就), until(直到…才), unless(除非/如果…不)这几个词引导的时间或条件状语从句时,主句用一般将来时,从句要用一般现在时.

  1. I will call you when he comes.If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will have a picnic.

As soon as I get to Beijing, I’ll come to see you.   He won’t go to bed until his parents come back.

Unless you work hard, you won’t catch up with others.

  1. 106. 几个“穿、戴”put on  put on 指“穿上、戴上”,强调动作,代词放在中间。put on 表动作,接服装(→take off)ou must put on a raincoat; it's pelting down now. 你必须穿上雨衣,正下着大雨呢。

Wear  wear 指“穿着,戴着”,表示状态接服装、手套、眼镜、香水等。

eg:He was wearing a brown uniform. 他穿着一件棕色制服。I sometimes wear contact lenses.我有时候戴隐形眼镜。

 dress指“给某人穿衣服”,其宾语是人dress 表动作,接sb/ oneself   get dressed穿衣   dress up盛装打扮  She was wearing a black dress她穿着一套黑色连衣裙。 含有 dress 的短语有: dress oneself 打扮;给自己穿衣服; dress up 打扮,装饰;穿上盛装; dress in (使)穿…的服装  dress for 为… 而打扮。  try on试穿(动副结构) try it on  (be) in+颜色或衣服   eg:The girl in a red coat is my sister.

107.What do you mean by(+ v-ing)?=What does .. mean?=what is the meaning of...?  是什么意思?

① 表示…的意思; 意思是; 本意是; 打算; 意欲; 有…的目的;② adj吝啬的; 小气的; 不善良; 刻薄的; 要发怒的; 要发狂的;

I mean that's his own decision to resign or not.我的意思是说辞不辞职是他自己的决定。

Don't be so mean to your little brother!别对你弟弟那麽刻薄

  1. What do you mean by “computer”?=What does “computer” mean?=what is the meaning of "computer"?

108 导语:prefer用法总结: prefer =like better 更喜欢   prefer sb/sth ---偏爱某人(物)

1)prefer doing sth---更喜欢做某事prefer +名词/动名词+to+名词/动名词---喜欢(做)....胜过(做)....

2)prefer A to B 喜欢做A,不喜欢作B   I prefer dogs to cats. 在狗与猫之间我更喜欢狗。

Most people prefer trains to buses.  大多数人愿意坐火车而不愿坐汽车。

3)prefer doing A to doing B 喜欢做A,不喜欢作B

I prefer swimming to skating.(I like swimming better than skating.)我喜欢游泳胜过滑冰.

I prefer staying at home to going out. 我觉得在家里比出去好。

4).prefer to do A rather than do B 喜欢做A,不喜欢作B

I prefer to watch TV rather than go out.我宁愿呆在家里也不出去.

He prefers to die rather than become traitor.他宁死也不做叛徒

5) prefer 用法的常用成语及习惯用语  prefer to die rather than surrender 宁死不屈

109.must / may 与have to

must 1) 表示主观“必须”“一定要”;后跟动词原形,无人称和时态的变化,否定回答: needn't 或 don't have to (不必)。mustn't 表示“禁止”.

Must I be home before eight o'clock? 8点之前我必须回家吗—Yes, you must. / No, you needn't. / No, you don't have to.

2)表示肯定推测一定是。The book must belong to Tom . His name is on it.

否定推测用can’t“可能不是” The book can’t be mine . My book is on the desk.

If this is true, that must be false. 如果这个是真的,那个必然是假的。 She can’t be your daughter. 她不可能是你女儿。

may “允许,可以” 一般疑问句否定回答用can’t 或mustn’t. 过去式为might 。

May I watch TV now? Yes, you may . No , you can’t / mustn’t.   May god bless you.上帝保佑

have to表客观需要,有人称和时态变化,否: don't / doesn't / didn't have to (没必要)

110 care  v.  n.  小心,在意 .careless  adj. 粗心的;反义词:careful, 意为“小心的”。

carelessly adv. carefully. adv. The boy is very careless. 这个男孩很粗心。He is more careful than me. 他比我认真。

take care 注意;小心   take care of 照顾;注意;抚养 take good care 好好照顾;珍重

take care of oneself 照顾自己;颐养  take good care of 照顾好;好好照看
care about v. 担心,关心  care for 关心,照顾;喜欢 skin care 护肤品;皮肤护理
don't care 不管,不在意   I don’t really care if my good friends are the same as me or different.
111 .angry 愤怒的, 生气的 be angry with sb. 对某人生气 We were angry with him for keeping us waiting.  be angry at/about sth. 对某事生气 He is angry at/about your answer.

I was very angry at what he said.   I was angry with myself for making such a stupid mistake.

我因为犯了这麽愚蠢的错误而在生自己的气.

mad多指发疯,表生气时程度比angry强She was mad at/with him for losing the match. 她对他输了这场比赛极为恼怒 She was mad at/with the dog for eating her shoe (她)因狗咬她的鞋而发怒.

112.how to do that. “该怎么做” ,疑问词+to do sth常用来做宾语可与宾语从句转换。

I don't know how to make a banana milk shake.= I don’t know how I can make a banana milk shake

I don't know what to do.= I don’t know what I should do.

I wonder where to go to spend my holiday.= I wonder where I should go to spend my holiday.

113.look forward to (介词)+名/代/V-ing= expect to do sth.

I look forward to your reply.我期待你的答复I look forward to seeing you again. I expect to see you again.

 

114.. What’s the matter? 怎么了?

= What’s the trouble (with you)?   = What’s your trouble?  What happen to sb?

= What’s wrong (with you)?      = What’ the matter (with you)?

=What has happened to you?     = Is there anything wrong (with you)?   = what’s up?

have the flu 患感冒  have a cold  感冒  have a cough   咳嗽  have a fever  发烧

have a sore throat   喉咙痛    have a headache    头痛    have a toothache  牙痛

I have something wrong with.....      I have pain in.....   My...hurt

115 healthy 健康的 名词 health副词  healthily .  healthy food 健康食品

stay healthy 保持健康  =keep healthy=keep /stay in good health = keep fit

116 .show sb. Sth.=show sth. to sb.出示某物给某人看  (give pass sell buy make )

give me the book=give the book to me 给我书,

pass me the cup=pass the cup to me 把杯子递给我,

sell me the house=sell the house to me 把房子卖给我

buy me a book =buy a book for me 给我买书,

make me a cake = make a cake for me给我做蛋糕

  1. 117.put 短语    put up举起,抬起,挂起,张贴,建造;put on穿上,戴上,上演(戏剧)增加体重

put down=write down=copy down 写下来,平息; The government soon put ___ the revolt(暴乱)

put out 伸出,扑灭;  熄灭;解雇;给…添麻烦,冒犯put out with 对某人生气 put out by 由于某事而生气

put away 收起来,收好;He put ____ half his wage every week.

put off推迟;   put off doing     put one’s heart into…全神贯注于…,全身心投入…

put an end to = put a stop to 终止 put aside 撇开  put across 沟通,交流,被理解

put away 把……放回原处;收起来 put into practice 实践     put sth. in order 把……弄整齐

put to use 使用   put up with 容忍;忍受    put up to (doing)怂恿,唆使  put over on 欺骗,愚弄 118.take的单词用法

  1. (动词)1. take是英语中含义最多,搭配能力最强的动词之一,基本意思是“拿,取,带,抓”,指用手取物、接受东西、把人或物移到某处。可根据上下文灵活译为“吃,喝,服(药),容纳”“接,接受,提,买”“以为,把…看作…”“花费”“记录,量取”“拍摄”“承担,容忍”“乘坐,搭乘,租用”“取得,获得,得到”“采取,选”“攻下,占领,夺走,赢得”“上钩”“发生效用”等。

2.take可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词。用作及物动词时可接名词或代词作宾语,也可接双宾语,作“带给”解时其间接宾语可转化为介词to的宾语。用作不及物动词时主动形式可表示被动意义。

3.take与某些名词连用,表示做某一动作,相当于have。

4.take还可接以“to be/as/for n./adj. ”充当补足语的复合宾语。

5.take有时可作“易于”解,可接动名词短语作宾语。

二、词汇搭配  1.take after的意思是“像,与…相似”。   2.take back的意思是“收回,撤回”。

3.take down的意思是“写下,记录下”。  4.take in的意思是“接纳,吸入,收容”“欺骗”。

5.take off的意思是“脱下(衣帽等),除去,拿开”。6.take on的意思是“呈现(面貌),具有(特征)”。接受;雇佣;承受  7.take out的意思是“发泄”。    8、take over的意思是“接管,接任,继承”

9、take up with的意思是“与…来往,与…结交”。take one’s time doing sth.从容不迫做某事

take up的意思是:拿起;开始;从事;吸收;接纳;占去;继续做;做某事消遣。

take-up accumulator 收线储存器 ; 收线储线器 take-up package 卷取筒子 ; 成型筒子 ; 卷装量

take-up unit 收线架 ; 收线装置 ; 引取装置 ; 张紧装置 take it for granted 把……当成理所当然

take a look at  看一看    take/leave a message  捎/留口信  take a rest 休息   take after  长得像  take away  拿走 take care 保重,当心   take care of  照顾  take down  取下,记下来

take /have medicine  服药     take off  脱掉衣服;起飞;休假;拿开take one’s temperature  给某人量体温

take one’s time 不急,慢慢干;用去某人的时间   take out 取出;把(某物)拿出来;把(某人)带出去 take an active part in 积极参加  take part in  参加  take pictures/photos  照相

take the train  乘火车 take…to… 带……去… take a boat/bus  坐船/公共汽车

take a taxi 打的,乘出租车  take a photo/picture 拍照  take good care of 好好照顾

take exercise 做运动  take lessons (in) 跟人学习   take one’s place 代替某人的职务 take action 采取行动

take advantage of 利用   take after 仿效;(相貌、脾气或性格)与…相似,像   take care of 照顾

take effect 生效  take(sb.)for a ride 欺骗,蒙骗(某人) take charge of 负责;管理 take over 接管;接收

① take some food          take some medicine (=have吃,喝)

② take notes做笔记        ③ take one’s temperature  ( 测量 )

④ It takes sb some time/money to do something  ( 花费,需要 )

⑤ I’ll take this coat.(=buy购买) ⑥ take somebody / something to ( 带领,拿去,取 )

⑦take a train to Chongqing ( 乘坐 )   ⑧ take off( 脱下,飞机起飞)

  1. He insisted that we take upthe matter at the meeting.  他坚持我们在会上把这个问题说清楚。

2.She took up the receiver and began to dial the number.  她拿起听筒开始拨电话号码。

3.When did you take up Japanese as a second foreign language? 你什么时间开始选修日语作为第二语言?

119 so..that.… 引导结果状语从句 太...以致于

句型1:主语+谓语+so+形容词/副词+that 从句

① The wind was so strong that we could hardly move forward.

句型2:so+形容词+a / an+单数名词+that 从句 ① It was so hot a day that they all went swimming.

句型3:so+many / few+复数名词+that 从句 ① He has so few friends that he often feels lonely.

句型4:so+much/little+不可数名词+that 从句 ① I had so little money that I couldn't buy a pen.

120.情态动词 should 的用法

1.should 为情态动词,意为“应该;应当”,否定式为 shouldn't ,其后接动词原形,无人称和数的变化。常用来表示征询意见、建议、劝告、要求或义务等。

① You should drink more water.  你应该多喝水。 ② He should put his head back. 他应该把头后仰。

③ We should try our best to help him. 我们应当尽力去帮助他。 ④ You shouldn 't watch TV.

2.should 用于主语为第一人称的疑问句,表示征询意见。

① Should I put some medicine on it?  我应当给它敷上药吗?

② Should we tell her about it? 我们应该告诉她这件事吗?

121.疑问句的回答      结构: 陈述句, 简短问句?   

— You enjoy playing basketball, don’t you?  — Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

【结论】 由以上例句可知,反意疑问句的回答需依据事实:

① 肯定事实用“Yes+ 肯定回答”;  ② 否定事实用“No+ 否定回答”。

特殊变化的反意疑问句

  1. Please turn off the TV,will you?       2. Let’s go to school, shall we?
  2. I am a very kind girl,aren’t I?        4. He is never late for school, is he?
  3. There are some books on the desk, aren’t there?6. Nobody knows about it, does he/do they?
  4. Something is wrong with my computer,isn’t it?   8.I think he can answer the question,can’t he?

由以上例句可知,特殊变化的反义疑问句有以下几种:

① 当陈述部分为祈使句时,附加问句部分通常用will you,如例句1;

② 当陈述部分以 Let’s 开头,附加问句部分用 shall we,如例句2;

③ 当陈述句部分是 I am,附加问句部分要用 aren’t I,如例句3;

④ 当陈述句含有no, never, little, few, hardly, seldom 等否定意义的词时,附加问句用肯定形式如4;

⑤ 当陈述句为there be 句型时,附加问句用“be 动词 +there”,如例句 5;

⑥ 当陈述句的主语为指人的不定代词 everybody/ everyone,anybody/anyone,somebody/someone, nobody/no one 时,附加问句的主语用 he 或 they,

⑦ 当陈述句的主语为指物的不定代词 everything,anything,something,nothing 等时,附加问句的主语用 it,如例句7。

⑧ 当陈述句的主语为I、we谓语为 think suppose believe时根据从句变附加问句。如例8

122.let...down 使…失望

I hope you can win this match. Don’t let me down. 我希望你能赢得这次比赛。不要让我失望。

let ... down 为动词短语,常用结构 let sb. down,“使某人失望”,与 make sb.disappointed 同义,

123.be supposed to be supposed to do sth =should =ought to

  be supposed to 意为“被期望或要求…”,其中 to 是动词不定式符号,其后要跟动词原 形,be 有人称和时态的变化,其否定形式要在 be 后加 not。

当 be supposed to 的主语是“人”时,意为“应该…”,它可以用来表示劝告、建议、义务、责任等,相当于情态动词 should  。  当 be supposed to 的主语是“物”时,表示“本应;本该”,用于表示“某事本应该发生而没有发生”, 例句1. You are supposed to stop smoking. 你应该停止吸烟。

例句 2. The new law is supposed to prevent crime. 新法令本该起到预防犯罪的作用。

  1. can do nothing but do sth.=have no choice but to do只好/只能......

I can do nothing but tell him the truth. 我只好告诉他事实。

复合句与简单句的转化:.

① when ------ at the age of …      ② so…that…----- too… to…. / enough to …

③ so that…------ in order to do sth.  ④ because…----- because of…

⑤ if ….----- without /  with…     ⑥ if…----- 祈使句+ and / or + 简单句

⑦ 宾语从句----特殊疑问词+动词不定式

⑧ be afraid   be afraid  that +从句---- 动词不定式

⑨ It seems / seemed that sb…--- sb. seems / seemed to do sth.

⑩ Sb. hopes / hoped that …---sb. hopes / hoped to do sth.

125.have/get + 名词或代词+过去分词 表示请某人干某事,叫某人干某事

get their ears pierced 穿耳洞  让/使(别人)做某事  get sth. done(过去分词) have sth. done

I get my car repaired. == I have my car repaired. 我让别人修好我的车   I want to have my hair cut. 我要理发.

126.宾语从句(P55)     

一、直接引语变间接引语  1.人称的变化:一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新。

1). “一随主”指若直接引语中的主语为第一人称时,变间接引语时应与主句的主语人称一致.

She said “I like playing basketball”. She said that _____ _____ playing basketball .

2). “二随宾”指若直接宾语中的主语为第二人称时,变间接宾语时应与主句的宾语人称一致.

She asked Tom “Can I have a look at your picture”.  She asked Tom if ______ could have a look at ______ picture .

3). “第三人称不更新”指若直接宾语中的主语为第三人称时,变间接宾语时人称保持不变.

She said to me “They want to help me”. She told me that _____ _____ to help me .

2.指示代词,时间、地点状语的变化

  直接引语 间接引语
指示代词 this that
that those
时间状语 now then
today that day
this morning that morning
three days ago three days before
Last week the week before
tomorrow the next / following day
next year the next year
地点状语 here there
动词 come go
  1. 二. 宾语从句的考查

宾语从句在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。

1.考查宾语从句的语序: 宾语从句的语序用陈述句语序。即 “主语+谓语+……

Do you know when __________?

A.does the next train leave  B.the next train leaves   C.will the next train leave   D.the next train will leave

注:若从句时疑问句,但语序不变的有:

1).who在从句中作主语。  Can you tell me _________?(谁将来这儿)

2).what’s wrong / the matter ?    He asked what was the matter with me .

3).what happened           I don’t know what happened yesterday .

4).which is the way to ….?   Can you tell me which is the way to the park ?

2.考查宾语从句的引导词

1).若宾语从句时陈述句时,引导词用that 且that 可省掉。

She said “I’m glad to see you”   =   She said _____ _____ ______ gald to see me .

2).宾语从句时一般疑问句时,引导词用if 或whether . 一般情况下if /whether 可互换,但后有or not / or 、动词不定式或介词的后面时,只能用whether .

He asked me “Are you going to Wuhan ?” =  He asked me ______ _____ _____ going to Wuhan.

I’m thinking about ______ to go there . A.if  B.whether  C.that

3).宾语从句时特殊疑问句时,引导词用特殊疑问词。

Do you know _____? I’m not sure ,Maybe he is a businessman .

A.who he is  B.who is he   C.what he does  D.what does he do

4).若宾语从句时肯定祈使句时,就改为ask /tell sb to do sth .若为否定祈使句,就改为ask /tell sb not to sth . “Don’t open the door” The teacher said .   =  The teacher told me ___ ____ ___ the door .

3.宾语从句的时态

  1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句该用什麽时态就用什麽时态。

Can you tell me ______?  He is a doctor .  A.what is he   B.what he was   C.what he is  D.what was he

  1. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态

(一般过去时, 过去进行时, 过去将来时,过去完成时)。

He asked _____.  A.what time it is  B.what time is it     C.what time it was  D.what time was it

He told me that he ______ for the sports meet.  A.is preparing  B.was preparing   C.will prepare  D.has prepared

注:1) 如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。

Our teacher said that January_____(be) the first month of the year.

Our teacher said that the earth ___(go) around the sun.

   2).若主句为could you …..?表示请求客气的语气,从句的时态仍然不变。

Could you tell me ___? A.what he was doing B.what was he doing C.what he is doing D.what is he doing

4.if /when 引导状语从句和宾语从句这两种从句。从句的时态的确定。

  if When if/when从句的时态
条件/时间状语从句 如果、假如 当…的时候 一般现在时
宾语从句 是否 什么时候 一般将来时

Can you guess if they___ to play football with us ? I think they will come if they ____free.

  1. come , are  B. will come , will be  C. will come , are   D. come , will be

Can you tell me when he____here tomorrow ?   When he _____ here , please call me .

  1. comes , comes  B. will come , will come   C. will come ,comes  D. comes, will come

5.宾语从句的简化:

1).宾语从句是陈述句时,且主、从句的主语一致,可简化为“动词+ to do sth”.

I hope I can meet you again . I hope _____ _____ you again .

2).宾语从句是疑问句时,且主、从句的主语一致,或从句的主语与主句的宾语一致。可简化为“疑问词+ to do sth”. I don’t know what I should do next . I don’t know ____ ____ _____ next .

Could you tell me how I can get there ? Could you tell me ____ ____ _____ there ?

John didn’t decide which shirt he would buy . John didn’t decide _____ ____ _____ _____ .

3).hear / see / find + that + 从句 ,可改为“hear / see / find + sb (要用宾格) + doing sth”.

I heard that they were singing in the next room.= I heard _____ _____ in the next room .

We found that she was playing with the cat under the tree . We found _____ _____ with the cat under the tree.

  1. 127.be made of 由...制作/制造(材料):在成品中能看出原材料

be made from由...制造/制成(材料):在成品中看不出原材料

be made in在...制作/制造 (产地)   Made in China.中国制造

be made up of 由...组成

The desk is made of wood.  Bread is made of flour.           The paper is made from wood.

Wine is made of grapes.    This kind of plane is made in China. The chair is made of bamboo.

be made up of意为“由……组成(构成)”,强调由部分组成整体,可用于人或物。
Our class is made up of 56 students.    我们班56名同学组成。
A computer is made up of many different parts.    电脑其由不同的部件组成。

allow sb to do sth允许某人做某事  My boss doesn't allow me to use the telephone.

128.allow doing sth  允许做某事  They allowed smoking in this room only.

be allowed to do sth 被允许做某事We were not allowed to talk in class.

Please allow me to come in.    注意:allow只可搭配动名词短语作宾语,不可直接搭用动词不定式作宾补,即只可说allow doing sth,不可说allow to do sth.

129 .also 也 用于肯定句句中     I also like apples.

too  /as well 也 用于肯定句句末  I like apples, too.

either 也不 用于否定句句末 I don’t like apples, either.

as well 有“也,又;同样地;还不如”的意思,一般放句尾, 前面有逗号.

I'm coming to London and my sister's coming as well. 我要来伦敦,我妹妹也会来.

130.look for 寻找 指过程  I am looking for a pen. 我正在找一支笔。(指找的过程)

find 找到 指结果 I found my pen just now. 我刚刚找到了我的笔。(指找的结果)

find out 查找 查询   Could you help me find out when the train will leave ?

  1. listen 听 指听的过程 如:I often listen to the music. 我经常听音乐。(指听的过程)

hear 听 指听的结果Did you hear anything ? 你听到了吗?(指听的结果,听或没听到)

hear of 听说   hear from 收到...的来信=get/receive a letter from.

132.happen常指具体事件的发生,特别指那些偶然或未能预见的“发生”

例:Great changes have taken place in China since.  New things are happening all around us.

take place还有“举行”之意。 例:The meeting will take place next Friday.

happen还可表示“碰巧;恰好”之意  例:It happened that I had no money on me.

(1)happen to do sth. 碰巧做某事

I happened to meet one of my old friends in the park yesterday .昨天我在公园碰巧遇见我的一个老朋友。

(2)sth happens to sb. 某人发生了某事 An car accident happened to him last month.上个月他发生了交通事故.

take place 发生

(1)按计划进行或按计划发生Great changes have taken place in China in recent years.最近几年中国发生了巨大的变化.

(2)(运动/ 活动/会议等) 举行   The meeting will take place next Friday. 运动会将于下星期五举行。

133定语从句   观察两个句子,看看有什么区别:

an interesting book        形容词interesting做定语修饰book

a book that/ which  is interesting    that is interesting句子做定语修饰book

interesting/that is interesting作用是相同的,都是用作定语来修饰名词book, 这种在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。  

定义:复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句要跟在所修饰的名词或代词后面,被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫做先行词。定语从句一般用关系代词who,that,which和whose来引导,放在从句的句首使从句与主句相连,并在句中担当一定的成分。

I like music that I can dance to.  (作宾语) I prefer singers who can write their own songs. (作主语)

注1:That在从句中作主语或宾语(作宾语时that 可省略)

(指物)A plane is a machine that can fly.(作主语) The noodles(that)I cooked were delicious(作宾语)

(指人)Who is the man that is reading the book over there? (作主语)

The girl (that) we say yesterday was Jim’s sister.  (作宾语)

注2从句的谓语和先行词的单复数保持一致 I like a sandwich that is really delicious. I love singers who are beautiful.

注3Which在从句中作主语或宾语(作宾语时可省)(指物The silk which is produced in Hangzhou sells well. (作主语)

The songs (which)Liu Dehua sang were very popular. (作宾语)

注4Who(主语), whom(宾语)(指人)例.The boy who break the window is called Roy. (作主语)

The person to whom you just talked is Mr. Li.(作宾语)

注5:Whose 在从句中作定语指人或物的所有格  I like the girl whose hair is long. (作定语)

that与which, who, whom的用法区别:

情况 用法说明 例句
只用that的情况 1.先行词为all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。
2.先行词被all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few等修饰时
3.先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时
4.先行词既指人又指物时
5.先行词被the only, the very修饰时
6.句中已经有who或which时,为了避免重复时
1.He told me everything that he knows.
2.All the books that you offered has been given out.
3.This is the best film that I have ever read.
4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered.
5.He is the only man that I want to see.
6.Who is the man that is making a speech?
只用which, who, whom的情况 1.在非限制性定语从句中,只能用which指代物,用who/whom指人
2.在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中,只能用which指物,whom指人。
3.先行词本身是that时,关系词用which, 先行词为those, one, he时多用who。
He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study.
I like the person to whom the teacher is talking.
Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

134.状语从句   1.时间状语从句

1).由when 、 while、as(当……时候)引导的时间状语从句。 When jack got home , his mother was cooking .

When引导的时间状语从句(1)主句一般将来时,从句一般现在时 I will call you when he comes back.

  • 主句过去进行时,从句一般过去式。(表示从句动作发生时主句表示的动作正在进行)

What were you doing when the UFO arrived?  I was reading English.

  • 主句过去完成时,从句一般过去式。(表示从句动作发生时主句表示的动作已经完成)

When I got to the cinema the film had already been on.

While 引导的时间状语从句 主句一般过去式,从句过去进行时;或主、从句均可用过去进行时

While I was lying on in bed ,my mother came in.

I was plying the computer games while my sister was doing her homework.

2).由after/ before (在之后/ 前)引导的时间状语从句The football match played after school was over .

3).由as soon as (一…..就……)引导的时间状语从句。I’ll ring you as soon as I reach Beijing .

4).由not….until(直到…..才…..)引导的时间状语从句。 They didn’t stop until they finished the work .

2.原因状语从句  由because  since  as(因为、既然、由于)引导的原因状语从句。

Since you have known about that , please tell us what to do .

3.地点状语从句  由wherever(无论在哪儿) 引导的地点状语从句 Wherever he goes , he always brings his pet dog .

4.目的状语从句 由so that (以便为的是)引导目的状语从句。He got up very early so that he could catch the early bus .

5.条件状语从句 由if或unless 引导条件状语从句。I won’t go to his party unless I am invited .

6.比较状语从句 由than、as…as、not as…as 引导比较状语从句。There are more students in our class than in theirs .

7.让步状语从句  由though 、even though/ if 、although引导让步状语从句。

Although he didn’t pass the exam ,his father didn’t get angry with him .

8.方式状语从句 由as if (好像)引导方式状语从句。He talked about that as if he knew everything .

9.结果状语从句 由so…that…、such….that…(如此…..以致于…)引导结果状语从句。

It was raining so hard that we couldn’t see the road .

二、状语从句与主句的时态问题

1.时间状语从句、条件状语从句与主句的时态不一致。(主句用将来时,而时间、条件状语从句用一般现在时)If it _____(not rain) tomorrow ,we____(go) to climb the hill . He _____ (become) a soldier when he ____(grow) up .

2.since引导的时间状语从句。 It is + 时间+ since + 一般过去时  It___(be) ten years since we ____(leave) that city .

3.由when、while引导的时间状语从句的时态:

主句(过去进行时)+when +从句(一般过去时) 主句(一般过去时)+when +从句(过去进行时)

主句(一般过去时)+while +从句(过去进行时) 主句(过去进行时)+while +从句(过去进行时)

注意:看动词为短暂性动词用一般过去时,动词为延续性动词则用过去进行时。

Mother _______(cook)supper when I ______(get)home yesterday.

Last Sunday I_______(meet)Lin Hong when I _______(walk)in the street .

While Han Meimei _______(sweep)the floor , Lucy _______(carry) water.

When the students ________(have)a meeting, the teacher _______(come) in .

4.由when、after、before、by the time引导的时间状语从句的时态:

主、从句的谓语动作都以完成,则先发生的动作用过去完成时,后发生的动作用一般过去时。

When they _______(get) to the cinema last light , the film ________(start) .

I _________(go) out with my friends after I _______(finish) all the homework last night .

  1. 135.take pride in sth/ sb = be proud of sth/ sb 为…感到自豪He was watching me and take pride in everything good I do.

I take pride in my child. =I’m proud of my child.

136.fifteen-year-old 作形容词 15岁的 a fifteen-year-old boy 一个15岁的男孩

fifteen-year-olds 作名词指15岁的人fifteen-year-olds like to sing. 15岁的人喜欢唱歌。

fifteen years old 指年龄 15岁 如:I am fifteen years old . 我是15岁。

137.afford(支付得起)的用法  afford sth 买得起… afford to do sth 有足够的…去做…

例:His mother couldn’t afford to pay for her child’s education.

They did not consider whether they could afford the time or not.  We can’t afford to pay such a price.

138.agree with, agree on, agree to

agree on表示“就…取得一致意见”?  We all agree on (making) an early start. 我们一致同意及早出发?

agree with表示“与...意见一致”,后面既可以跟表示人的名词或人称代词,也可以跟表示意见?看法的名词或what引导的从句?  I agree with you without reservation。我毫无保留地同意你的意见?

We agree with what you said just now。我们同意你刚才所说的意见?

agree to后面不能接人,只能接“提议,计划,方案”等词句?  I agree to the terms proposed. 我同意拟议的条件?

139.noise, voice, sound 这三个词都作“声音”解,在表示“听到声音”这个意思时,三者可以通用?但又各有特定的含义?sound 作“声音”解,含义最广,指可以听到的任何声音,如:a weak sound 微弱的声?

noise作“噪音,嘈杂声,吵闹声”解,指不悦耳,不和谐的声音?它既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词?如:Another kind of pollution is noise. 另外一种污染是噪音?

voice 作“声音”解时,多指人发出的声音,包括说话声?歌声和笑声?如:He shouted at the top of voice. 他高声呼喊?有时也用于引申意义,作“意见?发言权”解?如:I have no voice in the matter. 对于这件事,我没有发言权?

140.不定冠词有a和an两种形式,a用于辅音(不是辅音字母)开头的词前,an用于元音(不是元音字母)开头的词前。  例:a boy, a university, a European country; an hour, an honor, an island, an elephant, an umbrella, an honest man ,a useful book     不看字母看读音,不见原因(元音)别施恩(n)

141人称代词:人称代词主格作主语位于动词前,宾格作宾语位于动词或介词后。

三种人称代词并列时,顺序为: 单数:二,三,一 (You, she and I 复数:一,二,三 (we , you and they )

注:若把责任担,第一人称最当先,(即若做错事时,把第一人称放在最前面.)

She and I have been to Beijing .   Who broke the window ? I and Mike . He teaches us_(we) Chinese .

人称 单数 复数
主格 宾格 主格 宾格
第一人称 I me we us
第二人称 you you you you
第三人称 it/she/he it/her/him they them

1).物主代词.物主代词中,形容词性的物主代词作定语放在名词前,不能单独使用。

名词性的物主代词,后面不能加名词。名词性的物主代词常与of 连用

Our classroom is as big as  theirs _(they) . This is a friend of_ mine (my).

注: 1)名词性的物主代词相当于形容词性的物主代词加一个名词名词性的物主代词=形容词性的物主代词+ 名词)

  • 形容词性的物主代词与own 连用时,后面可跟名词也可不跟名词.My own house = a house of my own
类别 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
单数 复数 单数 复数 单数 复数
形容词性 my our your your its/his/her their
名词性 mine ours yours yours its/his/hers theirs

反身代词   表示“某人自己 ”  help /teach/ hurt/ enjoy/dress/ by oneself.look after oneself    leave sb by oneself、 lose oneself in say to oneself for oneself  improve oneself see oneself in the mirror

  • Make yourself at home! 别客气!
主格 I you he she it we you they
反身代词 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves
我自己 你自己 他自己 她自己 它自己 我们自己 你们自己 他们自己

She wrote her name with her pen by herself.

142.数词的特殊用法

(1)名词(首字母要大写) + 基数词 = the +序数词 +名词  Lesson One = the first lesson

有些编号,一般仅用第一种表达法。   Room 101  101号房间

(2)基数词的复数形式表示年代和年龄

1)表示年代: in the + 年份的复数   在几世纪几十年代.在十九世纪七十年代.in the 1870s  _

.in the 1930s:在二十世纪三十年代(1930年至1939年) in the 2010s:在二十一世纪10年代(2010年至2019年)

2)表年龄: in one’s + 整十的复数    表示在某人几十岁时在他四十岁时: _in his forties___

3)hundred / thousand /million /billion

1)hundred / thousand /million /billion前有基数词时,其后不加s,也不加of .若没有时,既加s也要带of .

①Every year _____ visitors come to China .  ②There are two _____ students in our school .

A.thousand    B.thousands    C.thousands of   D.thousand of

③Two___the students in our school are from the countryside . A.hundred B. hundred of C.hundreds of   D.hundreds

(4)分数词的表达法:  1).结构: a).分子用基数词,分母用序数词.    b).当分子大于1时,分母加复数.

3/4--- three fourths (three-fourths) = three quarters 3/7  three sevens.

2).注意:  a).分数词的几种特殊形式. 1/3—one third = a third 1/4—one fourth = a quarter 1/2—one second = a half 3/4—three fourths = three quarters

b).分数词作主语时, 谓语动词根据分数词后面的名词来确定.

Two fifths of the milk__   (be ) drunk by Tom .   One third of the students _______(be )girls .

几个半的表达法:   基数词 + and + a half +名词复数 = 基数词 +名词(单数/复数) +and +a half

two and a half hours  = two hours and a half

量词的用法:不可数名词常用“数字+量词+不可数名词”来表示。如:

a piece of bread一片面包  比较:two pieces of bread两片面包(bread为不可数名词)

a glass of orange 一玻璃杯橘子汁   one spoon of butter 一勺黄油

143.祈使句+ and …… , “and” 表示“那么”之意。= If…

Study hard , and you will succeed .= _____ _____ study hard , you will succeed .

祈使句……,or …”  or 表示否则。= If …not …, …

Study hard , or you will fail. = _____ you _____study hard , you will fail .

144..lonely / alone 的区别   1).alone 独自一人/没有同伴, 既可作adj 也可作adv.

2).lonely 表示孤独,寂寞, 也可修饰地点,表示荒凉,偏僻的,常与feel 连用。

He lives _____ on a _____ island .   He is _____ ,but he doesn’t feel ______.

145.过去进行时:  1.概念: 表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

2.时间状语: at this/that time yesterday, at that time ,at six yesterday evening ,from eight o’clock to nine o’clock last night  或以when/while引导的时间状语(过去进行时+when+一般过去时/ 一般过去时+while +过去进行时/ 过去进行时+while +过去进行时)。

3.基本结构:  was/were+doing  4.否定形式: was/were + not + doing.  5.一般疑问句 把was或were放于句首。

146.现在完成时:

1.概念:过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

2.时间状语recently, lately,in the past few years, already ,yet ,never ,ever, just, before, so far,once, twice,  since…for…,etc.

3.基本结构:  have/has + done       4.否定形式:   have/has + not +done.

5.一般疑问句:   把have或has放于句首。    

6.反义疑问句: 直接用has /have 进行反问 I have never been to the Great Wall ,have I ?

7.注意: 1).have been to /have gone to /have been in 的区别

have been to +地点  表示曾经去过某地,现人已返回。(once ,twice ….)

have gone to +地点  表示人已去了某地,人还未返回。(where is sb ?)

have been in +地点 表示在某地呆多长时间。 (for…../ since …..)

2).与时间段连用时,短暂性动词应改为相应的延续性动词。

Come/go to ------ be at /in   leave ----be away from  buy ----have   borrow /lend -----keep  open ---be open  close---be closed   die---dead   start/begin ----be on  join—--be in /be a member of /be a soldier   become –be   make friend ---be friend  get up ---be up  fall asleep ---be asleep  catch a cold – have a cold  reach/get/arrive---stay/be

3).现在完成时的四种句型:   A).主语+短暂性动词的过去式+ 时间+ago

B).主语+have/has +延续性动词的过去分词+for…./since …. ago .

C).It’s +时间段+since +短暂性动词的过去式   D).时间段+has passed +since +短暂性动词的过去式

His grandfather died two years ago . His grandfather has ____ ____ for two years.

_____two years _____ his grandfather ____. Two years ____ ____ ____ his grandfather _____.

4).现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

现在完成时与现在有关的时态,他侧重于过去的动作对现在造成的影响。而一般过去时侧重于表示过去的动作与现在无关,若询问该动作发生的具体的时间时,只能用一般现在时。

Has he returned the library book ? Yes, he has.  When ___ he ____(return) it ?He ___ (return)it yesterday afternoon .

147. 英语8大时态一篇全搞定,初一到初三都能用! 英语八大时态:

一般现在时 v/v-es 现在进行时 be+v-ing 一般将来时shall/will+v 现在完成时 have/has+p.p.  
一般过去式 v-ed 过去进行时was/were+v-ing 过去将来时 should/would+v 过去完成时 had+p.p.  

01 一般现在时 标志:动词原形

  1. 表示经常性或习惯性动作,常与表频度的时间状语连用:

She often speaks English.I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

  1. 表示现在的状态、特征、职业、能力、感觉等:

He seems to feel a bit down today.   He works as a driver.

  1. 表示真理、客观存在、科学事实或用于格言警句中:

Shanghai lies in the east of China. Columbus proved that the earth is round.

Where there is a will, there is a way.

  1. 表示现在瞬间的动作:Here comes the bus!
  2. 表示将来1) 表按规定、计划、安排将要发生的动作(仅限于某些表示“来、去、动、停、开始、结束、继续”等的趋向动词),可以与表示未来的时间状语搭配使用。常见的用法是:飞机、火车、轮船、汽车等定期定点运行的交通状况。如: The next train leaves at 3 o’clock this afternoon.   How often does the shuttle bus run?

2) 在时间和条件状语从句中常使用一般现在时表示将来发生的事情: When Bill comes (不用will come), ask him to wait for me.  I shall go there tomorrow unless I’m too busy.

02 一般过去时 标志:动词过去式

表示过去某时所发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示过去的时间状语连用(e.g. yesterday, this morning, just now, a moment ago, in May, last night / year / week, once upon a time, the other day, before …, when …, in the past等)。  Jim rang you just now.

*闭音节:元音字母a, e, i, o, u如果发字母本来的音则称为开音节,否则称为闭音节。  Liu Ying was in America last year.

  1. 表示过去经常或反复发生的动作,特别是used to do表达的句型,本身表示的就是过去常常When I was a kid, I often played football in the street.She used to visit her mother once a week.

*注意区分sb. used to do sth.(某人过去常常做某事,此处to是动词不定式标志符号)sb. be used to sth./doing sth.(某人习惯于某物/做某事,此处to是介词)。

代替一般现在时,表示一种婉转、客气、礼貌、商量的语气。此用法仅适用于少数动词(如want, hope, wonder, think, intend等)及情态动词could, would。 Would you mind my sitting here?

I wondered if you could have a word with me.  I hoped you could help me with my English.

  1. 虚拟语气中用一般过去时表示现在或将来时间的动作或状态。常用句型有:

It is time that sb. did sth. “某人该做某事了”  would rather sb. do sth. “宁愿某人做某事”

03 一般将来时  标志:will / shall + 动词原形

  1. 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态,通常与表示将来的时间状语连用(e.g. tomorrow, next week, in the future等)。We shall have a lot of rain next month.My husband will come back in a few days.
  2. 表示倾向性和习惯性Fish will die without water. When it gets warmer, the snow will start to melt.
  3. 一般将来时的几种句式结构辨析:

1) will / shall + 动词原形  多用于表达主观愿望或必定会发生的事情(“将会如何”)

*shall作助动词时一般只用于第一人称

2) be going to + 动词原形 表示即将发生或打算要做的事:It is going to rain. We are going to have a meeting today.

3) be to + 动词原形  表示按计划或安排即将要发生的动作:

He is to visit Japan next year.  We are to discuss the report on Monday.

4)  be about to + 动词原形 表示即将发生的动作,意为“马上要做某事”,后面一般不跟时间状语,如:

The plane is about to start.  Don’t worry. I am about to make a close examination on you.

04 现在进行时    志:beam、is、are  + 动词的现在分词

  1. 表示说话时正在进行的动作: She is writing a letter upstairs.   Who are you waiting for?  It is raining hard.
  2. 表示现阶段一直在进行的动作(说话时动作未必正在进行):I hear Mr. Green is writing another novel.
  3. 表示反复出现或习惯性的动作,往往包含说话者赞扬、责备、厌恶等情绪,通常与always, constantly, continually, forever等频度副词连用。John is forever asking silly questions like a stupid.  He is always thinking of others first.
  4. 表示将来1)  表示按计划、安排将要发生的动作,仅适用于部分趋向动词(如go, come, leave, start, arrive等)。如:Uncle Wang is coming.  They're leaving for Beijing.

2)  在时间和条件状语从句中,现在进行时表示将来某时正在发生的事情。

Please drop in when you are passing my way.  If he is still sleeping, don’t wake him up.

05 过去进行时

  1. 表示过去某一时刻或一段时间正在进行的动作。标志:was / were + 动词的现在分词

时间状语the whole morning, all day yesterday, from January to March last year等。

I was having a talk with Lucy at that time.   They were watching TV at home last night.

  1. 表示过去反复出现或习惯性的动作,往往包含说话者赞扬、责备、厌恶等情绪,通常与always, constantly, continually, forever等频度副词连用。如:My brother was always losing his keys.
  2. 表示按计划、安排过去某时刻将要发生的动作,仅适用于部分趋向动词(如go, come, leave, start, arrive等)。如:He said they were leaving for Beijing this afternoon.
  3. 过去进行时有一个主要用法就是描述一件事情发生的背景(一个长动作延续的时候,另一个短动作发生):Granny fell asleep when she was reading.   It was raining when they left the station.

06 现在完成时  标志:have / has + 动词的过去分词

  1. 表示一个过去发生并已完成的动作对现在产生影响或结果,强调的是现在的状况(表示“已完成”)。

He has left the city. (结果:他目前不在这个城市)  Someone has broken the window. (结果:窗户破了)

  1. 表示一个动作开始于过去,持续到现在,也可能还会继续持续下去(表示“未完成”)。

I have been busy since last week.   He has taught in our school for 30 years.  I’ve finished half so far.

注意 瞬间动词通常是不能用现在完成时表持续性的,但其否定结构则可以。如:

She hasn’t seen you for ages.   His father hasn’t touched beer for a whole week.

  1. 表示过去到现在为止反复发生的动作或多次出现的状态,常与表示频度的副词always, often, every day等连用。I have often heard that he is the cleverest person in that company.

4.在时间和条件状语从句中,现在完成时表示将来某时完成的动作 I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework.    If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we’ll go the park.

  1. 与现在完成时连用的常见词语能与现在完成时连用的词语很多,just, already, yet, before, never, ever, recently等,但常见的有:1) since 自从   I have been there many times since the war.

We haven’t seen each other since last week.  We have been friends ever since.

2) in / for / during the past/last … years 在过去/最近…中I have been here (for) the last/past month.

I’ve been ill for the past three weeks.    Great changes have take place in the last ten years.

so far 到目前为止We haven’t had any trouble so far. So far the search for the missing middle-aged woman has been fruitless.

4)  up to/until now 到现在为止   Up to now, the work has been easy.   I have heard nothing from him up till now.

Up till now we have planted over 2000 trees.

5)  It is/will be the first/second … time that … 这是第一/二…次…

It’s the first time (that) I’ve been here.  It will be the first time (that) I’ve spoken in public.

It is the second time (that) I have met him today.

6)  This is + 形容词最高级 + that … 这是最…  This is the best film that I’ve (ever) seen.

  1. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

1) 现在完成时强调对现在的影响和结果,与现在有联系;而一般过去时强调这个动作发生的时间是在过去,不涉及对现在的影响。I have seen this film.(我已经看过了这部电影)I saw this film yesterday.(我是昨天看的这部电影)

2) 现在完成时常与模糊的时间状语连用(如for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, always等),或者干脆没有时间状语 而一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用(yesterday, last night, …ago, in 1980, in February

3) 现在完成时表示持续时一般使用延续性动词(如live, teach, work, know等);

而一般过去时常使用瞬间动词(如begin, buy, die, marry等)。如:

He has lived in Hangzhou since last spring.   My grandfather bought the car five years ago.

  1. 易错点辨析

1)  考生容易把一些瞬间动词用现在完成时表达,这是错误的。如:

(×) He has died for two years. 他死了两年了。 (√) He has been dead for two years.

(√) He died two years ago.  (×) The film has begun for 10 minutes. 电影开演十分钟了。

(√) The film has been on for 10 minutes.  (√) The film began 10 minutes ago.

(×) She has married for three years. 她结婚有三年了。

(√) She has been married for three years.  (√) She married Mike three years ago.

2) 考生不懂如何区分have been to和have gone to,尽管两者均可后接地点,但have been to表示去过某地(现在已经回来了),have gone to表示到某地去了(现在还没回来)。如:

She has been to Paris (three times).  She has gone to Paris.

07 过去完成时  标志:had + 动词的过去分词

  1. 表示在过去的某个时间或动作以前已经发生的动作或已经存在的状态。如:

By the end of last week he had finished the work.  He had left when I arrived.

  1. 表示从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态。如:

We had not seen each other since I left Beijing.    The film had been on for 5 minutes when I got to the cinema.

  1. 某些表意向的动词(如intend, think, plan, expect, hope等)的过去完成时表示主语未曾实现的愿望、希望、打算。如:I had intended to visit you last night, but someone called and I couldn’t get away.

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn’t.

(虚拟语气)在条件状体从句或wish / would rather等后面的从句中,使用过去完成时表示与过去事实相反的主观愿望。

The party wouldn’t have been so perfect if you hadn’t come.  I wish I had gone with you to the concert that day.

  1. 过去完成时与一般过去时

1) 基本区别:过去完成时表示以过去某时间为起点以前所发生的动作或存在的状态,即过去完成时强调“过去的过去”,而一般过去时只表示以现在时间为起点以前所发生的事情或存在的状态。如: He studied there two years ago.他两年前在那儿学习(离现在两年)He said he had studied there two years before.他说他两年前在那儿学习过。(离他说话时两年)

2) 特别注意:两个动作如果按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或者用then, and, but等连词连接时,多用一般过去时。如: When she saw the mouse, she screamed. My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

08 过去将来时  标志:would + 动词原形

  1. 表示从过去某一时间来看将要发生的动作或存在的状态,一般用于主句为过去时的宾语从句中。He said he would come here next Friday.I knew that he would help us when we were in trouble.
  2. 表示过去的动作习惯或倾向:

The old man would sit on a bench in the quite park for hours without doing anything.

When I worked on that farm, I would get up at 5 am.

  1. 用于虚拟语气中If I were you, I would not do that.If he were here, he would show us how to do it.
  2. 过去将来时的其他形式1)  was / were going to + 动词原形。如:

He told us that he was going to attend the meeting. She said that I was going to be sent to meet her at the railway station.

2) was / were to + 动词原形。The building was to be completed next month. Li Lei was to arrive soon.

3)  was / were about to + 动词原形。如:He was about to have lunch when the bell rang.

We were about to leave there when it began to rain heavily and suddenly.

  1. 被动语态

语态:①英语有两种语态:主动语态和补动语态   主动语态表示是动作的执行者

被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者 

Cats  eat  fish. (主动语态)猫吃鱼。Fish  is eaten  by cats. (被动语态)鱼被猫吃。

  1. 被动语态

(1). 被动语态表示句子的主语是谓语动词所表示的动作承受者。

(2). 被动语态基本结构:be+及物动词的过去分词 (如果是不用物动词,其过去分词应带有相应的介词)

(3). 被动语态中的be 是助动词,有人称、数和时态的变化。

一般现在时被动语态为:am/is/are+过去分词     一般过去时被动语态为:was/were+ 过去分词

与情态动词连用的被动语态:情态动词+ be + 过去分词

(4). 被动语态中动作的发出者或执行者做介词by的宾语,放在句 末,by 表示“由,被”的意思   为取胜更清晰、更深刻地理解被动语态的含义,可以将主动语态和被动语态的句子结构进行比较。

主动语态: 主语+    谓语动词   +   宾语  + 其他成分

被动语态: 主语+  be +过去分词 +  by +宾语   +其他成分

如:      Many people    speak  English.  被动语态 English      is spoken   by many people.

被动语态的构成   由“助动词be +及物动词的过去分词”构成

助动词be 有人称、数和时态的变化,其变化规则与be 作为连系动词时完全一样。

一.被动语态的时态:      be+动词的过去分词

1.一般现在时的被动语态:  am /is/ are +动词的过去分词English is spoken in many countries.

2.一般过去时的被动语态:  was /were +动词的过去分词This bridge was built in 1989.

3.一般将来时的被动语态:  will be +动词的过去分词

4.现在进行时的被动语态:  am /is /are +being +动词的过去分词

5.现在完成时的被动语态:  have /has +been +动词的过去分词

6.情态动词的被动语态:    情态动词 + be +动词的过去分词The work must be done right now.

③被动语态的用法  当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者,或者只需强调动作的承受者时,要用被动语态。

二.主动语态变被动语态的变法: 口诀:宾变主,主变宾,谓变be done ,时不变,数格必须随被变。

注:1.主动、被动的时态要一致。 2.主动、被动的句式要一致。

3.变成的被动语态的主语与谓语在单复数上保持一致。

三.特殊情况的被动语态:

1.带双宾语的被动语态:动词+ sb(间宾) +sth(直宾)  如遇双宾语,一般变间宾,若把直宾变,to /for 间宾连。

1).give/pass /show 与介词to 搭配。give sb sth —— sb +be given sth  或 sth +be given +to sb .

2).buy/make/cook 与介词for 搭配。buy sb sth — sb +be bought + sth  或 sth +be bought +for sb

He gave me a book     I ______ ______ a book by him.

A book ____ ____ _____ me by him .  My mother made me a cake .

I ____ _____ a cake by my mother     A cake ____ ____ ____ me by my mother .

2.带省to 的不定式作宾补的被动语态:动词+ sb + do sth .

口诀:感使动词真叫怪,to来to去记心怀,主动语态to离去,被动语态to回来。

动词:make / let /have /see /hear /feel /watch  make sb do sth ----sb + be +made +to do sth

The boss made the workers work all day  The workers ____ ____ ____ work all day by the boss.

3.在see /hear /notice /keep +sb +doing sth 句型中变被动语态时,doing 不变。

I heard Tom singing just now Tom _____ _____ _____ by me just now .

4.以动词短语作谓语的主动语态变被动语态时,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。

We should take care of the old . The old should ______ _____ _____ _____ .

四.注意事项: 1.有些及物动词或动词短语不能用于被动语态: last ,have ,own …..belong to ,suit…fine  ,

2.不及物动词是没有被动语态: happen ,take place ,appear , hold (容纳)

3.系动词是没有被动语态: Look, feel ,sound ,smell ,taste …  The dish tastes good .

4.有些词组没有被动语态: sell well , write well ,ride well ,drive well This kind of skirt sells well.

5.need表示需要时,后面常接doing 形式表示被动意义,相当于to be done .

All the computers need repairing .= All the computers need _____ _____ _____ .

  1. need的用法need既可用作情态动词,也可用作实义动词作实义动词,意为"需要,必要"之意.
    (1)need sth 需要某物.   I need a bag.   Do you need help?   We need a lot of food.
    (2)need to do sth  We need to go to school every day.   He needs to stay at home by himself.
    (3)need doing sth 需要被....=need to be done My clothes need washing.=My clothes need to be washed

His bike needs repairing. = His bike need to be repaired.
(4)need 还可作名词,意为"需要,需求,必要".    There's no need to stay here.
(5)need还可作情态动词,多用于疑问句和否定句中,此时后面加动词原形,need引导的一般疑问句,其答语肯定用must,否定用needn't.   I needn't go to school today.   Need you finish your homework before six o'clock?
-Need I go now? -Yes, you ______.   A need  B must  C can   D may

150否定转移  I don’t think his answer is right.我认为他的答案不对。
例如:(1)I can’t believe she is right.我相信她是不对的。
(2)You don’t think they will come tomorrow, do you?你认为他们明天不会来,是吗?
注意点:think、believe、suppose 等接宾语从句时,表示否定时否定主句。变为反意疑问句时,若主语是第一人称,简短问句与宾语从句的主谓语保持一致,若主句主语是其他人称,与主句主谓语保持一致。例(1)变为反意疑问句应为:I can’t believe she is right, is she?

151.there is no time to do sth    sb have no time to do sth   There was no time to think. 没有时间思考。

152.... as ... as possible 尽可能...I hope to see him as soon as possible. 我希望能尽快见到他。

... as ... as sb can If you want to study English well,you should speak it as often as possible./ you can.

153 Not all / everyone ... 并非全部、每个....(表示部分否定)

Not all sharks are alike.  并不是所有的鲨鱼都一样。  Not everyone likes dumplings. 并不是每个人都喜欢饺子。

部分否定:all,both,everyone,everybody,everything,everywhere,every,each,always等与not连用表示部分否定。

全部否定:all—none,both—neither,everyone—no one/ nobody/ not anyone,everything—nothing/ not anything,every—no,always—never

154..bring, take, carry, fetch 

bring意为"拿来,带来",表示"拿到靠说话人近的地方"  Remember to bring your home work to school tomorrow.

take意为"拿走,带走",表示"拿到远离说话人远的地方" Please take the books to the classroom.

carry 意为"扛,搬",用力移动,没有方向性,The bag is very heavy, please carry it to my office.
fetch 意为"去取,去拿"表示往返拿物。 She's gone to fetch the kids from school.

  1. Lose,forget,leave  Lose意为"丢失,失去"   Forget"忘记"后可跟不定式和动名词
    Leave sth. +地点"把某物落在某处"I left my homework at home.
    I lost my notebook yesterday. I must find it  He forgot to post the letter to his friend.

156.good/fine/well  (1)good表示品质,道德,质量等"好".在句中作定语,表语,补语等.
(2)well作形容词时,只表示身体好,无病的,在句中只作表语. (3)fine可用来表示天气,身体状况好.
-How are you? -Fine, thank you.        My father is a good doctor.
I'm not well today so I can't go to school. It's a ____day, isn't it? A good B fine C well D best
157.watch/look/see/read (1)watch 作及物动词,意为"观看,注视",指看电视,看电影,比赛等.强调长时间观看某一活动的场面. I often watch TV at home.
(2)look强调看的动作,不注重结果.不及物动词,接宾语时用介词at Look at the blackboard, please.
(3)see强调看的结果为及物动词,后面可以直接加宾语.   I can't see any birds in the tree.
(4)read作及物动词,意为"看,读",其宾语为"书,报纸,杂志"等. My father likes reading newspaper.
-Where is Jim?-He__ a picture book in the library. A is reading B is look at C is seeing D is watching

158.名词所有格在英语中,英语名词可加"'s"来表示所有关系,称之为该名词的所有格.
(1)表示有生命的东西的名词所有格在词尾加"'s".若以"s", "es"结尾的名词复数加"'".
Mary's bike  my father's room  Women's Day  the students' books   my friends' beds
(2)表示时间,距离,集体,城市,国家,自然现象,世界,天体和固定名词等名词的所有格.
today's newspaper  a week's time   the city's park   twenty minutes' walk
(3)并列名词各自的所有格,在每个名词后加"'s".表示诸多名词"共有",则在最后一个名词后加"'s". Jim and Tom's room   Lucy's and Lily's shoes  Xiao Ming and Xiao Gang's mother
(4)名词所有格所修饰的名词,如上文提到过,再次出现时,该名词可以省略.
My uncle is at Mr Black's (home).   I went to a butcher's (shop) and bought some meat.

159.run across偶然碰到I ran _____ a friend of mine in the exhibition.
run after追逐,追捕 Why do you always run __________ adventure?
run away逃跑 摆脱 In that way you will only run __________ difficulties.
run for竞选He didn't want to run ___________ president that year.
run into偶然碰到(困难)遇见(人),相撞If you drive so fast, you'll run ___ someone some day.
run out of用完Our water has run __________. Can you fill up some more bottles?
160.send for派人去请     send off送行    send out发出(光亮)等   send up发射

set up建立   set off出发,触发,引起     set out动身,着手(to do),陈述
161.with 短语 talk with 和.交谈  come up with  想出  argue with sb. about sth. 与某人争论某事
play with 和.玩        be covered with 被…覆盖   be fed up with 厌倦
agree with 同意.       compare with 与...比较     be satisfied with 对...感到满意
walk with the crutches 用拐杖走路   be popular with sb. 受某人欢迎
along with 和.一起 be pleased with 对…感到高兴    do with 处置, 处理(常what 连用)

be strict with +sb/in +sth 对谁/某事严格   be concerned with 关心,挂念;从事于

end up with 以...而结束     fall in love with 相爱,爱上  put up with 忍受,容忍(讨厌的人)

fight with =have a fight with sb. 与某人打架   get on/along well with 与 ……相处融洽

have a word with sb.和某人说句话 have words with(=quarrel with)和..发生口角与..争吵(用于贬义)

have something to do with 与...有关系       keep in touch with 和...保持联系

make friends with 与…交朋友    quarrel with (和某人)吵架 put up with 忍受,容忍(讨厌的人)

together with 和;加之;连同      with the help of /with one's help 在……的帮助下

162.take your time 与take it easy

take your time的意思是别着急,指时间上。当劝别人不要太赶时间,还来得及;

take it easy的意思是放轻松,指心情上。劝别人不要紧张,事情没有那么严重的时候用take it easy。

take it easy不着急,不紧张,从容不迫,轻松
take it easy! Be patient and enjoy yourself.     别紧张!要有耐性,并让自己快乐!

Take your time, don't cut corners and follow instructions to the letter. 慢慢来,不要图省事,要严格按照说明去做

163.cut down砍倒,削减       Don't cut ___ this tree. It will be very shady in summer.
cut off切断,割掉,断绝关系  The electricity was cut _____ when the lady refused to pay the bill
cut up连根拔除,切碎      Cutting___ the apples means cutting the tree into pieces.
cut out删(省)掉,戒掉You must cut ___the number of cigarettes you smoke, or it will cause illness.

cut across抄近路  We decided to cut _______ the moor(旷野) to the village.

164.add…to…把…加到…上 add to增加、添加    add up把…加在一起    add up to合计

165.so与such的区别

⑴so修饰形容词或副词;such 修饰名词,My brother runs so fast that I can’t follow him.   He is such a boy.

⑵so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数

such+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数

such+形容词+可数名词复数/不可数名词

He is __clever a boy.=He is ____ a clever boy.  It is____cold weather. They are _____good students.

⑶名词前有many ,much, few ,little (少量的) 用so 不用such .(多多少少仍用so)

但little 表示 “小的” 用such.     There are ___ little sheep on the hill .

  1. 166. die v.死亡,消失     died过去式die like a dog  悲惨地死去

dead  adj死亡的,无生命的  dead dog  have/ has been dead for…=died…ago

dying    adj垂死的,快死的   death    n 死亡     the death of…

die意为“死”,表示生命的结束,是不及物动词,不能用于被动语态;强调动作,是瞬间动词,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。例如: His father died five years ago. 他父亲去世五年了。
Plants and people die without water. 没有水,植物就要枯死,人就要渴死。
die可以用于进行时态,表示“即将死去;奄奄一息”。例如: He is dying. 他快要死了。
die 的形容词形式是dead,意为“死的”,可作表语或定语。作表语时,表示状态。例如:
His dog has been dead for two weeks.他的狗已死了两周了

The ground was covered with dead flowers. 地上覆盖着凋落的花。
die的名词形式是death,意为“死亡”。His mother's death was a great blow to him. 他母亲的去世对他是一个巨大的打击。
●常用短语 die from 意为“由于……而死”,但一般常用于由外伤、衰老引起的死亡。

The old man died from a car accident last year. 这个老人去年死于一场车祸。
die of意思同die from,但它一般指由于疾病、情感等原因引起的死亡。例如:
His grandfather died of liver cancer in 1992. 他的祖父1992年死于肝癌。
die out 意为(家族、物种等)灭绝;绝迹”Dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago. 恐龙在六千五百万年前灭绝了。

167.pick up  1. 拾起  The boy picked up the hat for the old man. 男孩替老人拾起了帽子。
2. 收拾  You should pick up the tools after work. 工作结束后应该把工具收拾好。
3. 学到;获得  He was picking up the skills quickly. 他正在很快地掌握技术。
4. 与...偶然结识 We picked up a couple of girls at the pub last Friday. 上星期五我们在酒吧结识了几个女孩。
5.接  Where should we pick you up? 我们应该去哪儿接你?
6.好转 Business is beginning to pick up. 生意正在好转。

168 rather Than 和 instead of 有什么区别

instead 代替 用在句末,副词(字面上常不译出来)

instead of sth. / doing sth. 代替,而不是 用在句中,动词

三个都有“而不是”的意思。区别在于:instead后面可以接句子或(that 从句)。而instead of 后面不能接完整的句子,接短语。 instead of 和rather than 的区别主要在在它后面所接词语的用法。因为instead of 是介词短语,of 是介词,所以当它的后面接动词的话必须是ing形式。而rather than 是连词,后面接动词原形。另外,instead和instead of 还有代替的意思。instead 单独用,用逗号隔开时,可以灵活翻译为“相反地”。比如:You shouldn't give up,instead,I think you should try your best to finish it well.(你不应该放弃,相反地,你应该尽你最大的努力来把它漂漂亮亮地完成。)又:You should try your best to finish it instead of giving up.(你应该尽力完成它而不是放弃)

rather than 是连词,表否定后边的,"而不是."
instead of 是副词,意思跟rather than差不多,都表示否定后面的部分,只是在句子中的位置有些区别

Last summer I went to Beijing. This year I’m going to Shanghai instead.去年夏天我去北京, 今年我将要去上海

I will go instead of you.我将代替你去He stayed at home instead of going swimming.他呆在家里而不是去游泳。

、rather than用作连词,连接两个平行结构.既可以表示主观愿望上的决择,“与其…宁可…”,也可以表示客观程度上的差异,“与其说是…不如说是…”.例如:
1.接代词 1)I,rather than you,should do the work. 该做这工作的是我,而不是你.
2.接名词 2)John ought to go rather than Jean.约翰比琴更应该去.
3)I think I'll have a cold drink rather than coffee. 我想我该要一杯冷饮,而不要咖啡.
试比较: 4)We sometimes eat rice instead of potatoes. 有时候我们不吃土豆,而吃米饭.
3.接形容词 5)These shoes are comfortable rather than for your friend. 这鞋不好看可是舒服.
6)You are doing this for yourself rather than for your friend. 你不是为你朋友,而是为你自己做这种事.
7)I'd prefer to go in August rather than in July.我愿8月去不愿7月去.
5.接动名词  8)I always prefer starting early,rather than leaving everything to the last minute,
我总是愿意早开始而不愿意把所有事情都留到最后才做.
9)He was engaged in writing a letter rather than reading the newspaper. 他那时是在写信而不是看报纸.
6.接过去分词 10)She insisted on having the room papered rather than painted.
她坚持要用纸裱糊房间,而不是把房间粉刷一下.
7.接谓语动词  He told a lie rather than get his friend into trouble.  他宁愿说谎也不愿连累朋友.
15)Shall we go for a walk rather than watch television? 咱们不看电视,出去散步,好不好?
16)He ran rather than walked.他跑步而不是步行.
rather than后接动词原形表示主观抉择,接一个动词的过去式则表示客观差异.

169.anyway用法:anyway的意思是“不管怎样说,无论如何,至少”“不论用何种方法,无论从什么角度”,主要用于对刚讲过的话另加一个忽然想到的附注,此附注使上文显得不太重要或不太恰当。

三、侧重点不同  1.any way侧重点:侧重于指方法,不管用什么2.anyway侧重点:侧重于感觉,竭尽所能。

Anyway 无论如何,不管怎样;总之 Anyway we have to accept it. 不管怎样,我们必须接受它。

Anyway, I would believe it. 反正,我有可能会信。

be away 离开was away 2days ago. 我两天前离开了。 I will be away for a few days. 我将离开一些天。

170.be afraid of doing sth. / sth.害怕 be afraid of being alone

be afraid to do sth.害怕    be afraid that恐怕担心,表示委婉语气

171.suggest v. “建议,提议”;后接名词、代词、或动名词;还可接that引导的宾语从句, 但从句要用虚拟语气。 ① suggest +n/pron.   Tony suggested a walk.

②suggest +v-ing   Tony suggested going out for a walk.

③suggest +that sb.(should) +v  Tony suggested that we should go out for a walk.

suggest 与 advise 的区别

advise “建议”, 可用于 advise sb. to do sth. (建议某人做某事) e.g. He advised us to leave earlier.

但suggest 用于suggest sb . doing sth.  e.g. He suggested us leaving earlier.

172.steal(过去式)stole  (过去分词)stolen    rob    rob sb of sth.

steal sth. for sb.  为某人偷某物   steal sth from sb.从某人那里偷取某物

173 . wash away冲走冲掉 Our house was washed away in the flood.我们的房子在洪水中被冲走了。

away短语 put away把...收起 go away 走开run away 逃走逃跑take away 解除消除(感情、痛苦等)

174shoot down 射下击落 shoot--shot  turn down  put down  let...down  calm down look down write down

175问路与指路的有关表达

①  常用的问路句型:

  1. Excuse me, where is the park, please?2. Excuse me, how can I get to the park?
  2. Excuse me, is there a park nearby?4. Do you know the way to the park?
  3. Could you tell me how to get to the park?6. Could you tell me how I can get to the park?

Could you tell me how to get to the park?请你告诉我怎么才能去邮局好吗?

中的how to get to the park 疑问词与动词不定式连用,用作宾语,但不是宾语从句,可是 相当于how I can get to the park(宾语从句)如:

I don’t know how to solve the problem. = I don’t know how I can solve the problem.我不知道如何解决这个问题

Can you tell me when to leave?  = Can you tell me when I ill leave? 你能告诉我什么时候离开?

How far is it?    Can I take a bus?    Which bus can I take ?   How long does it take?

常用的指路句型:  1Go straight.   2· Go along/down the street. It’s on your right.

3· Turn right / left at the second crossing. You can’t miss it.  You can find it.

4· Walk down the street to the end. The bank is beside a bookstore.

5.It’s between...and.... /across from .....   It’s about ...kilometers away from here.

不知道路径时的表达方式:

Sorry, I don’t know. I’m new here.  Sorry, I don’t know, either.  Sorry, I’m just passing here.

④. 日常交际用语 take the elevator / escalator to the … floor.乘电梯/自动扶梯到…楼

turn left / right = take a left / right  向左/ 右转   go past 经过    go straight 向前直走

⑤ next to 旁边、紧接着  如:Lily is next to Ann.  莉莉就在安的旁边。

⑥ between … and… 在…和…之间  Lily is between Ann and Tom. 莉莉就在安和汤姆的之间。

176.prefer动词 1.prefer  v.更喜爱,更喜欢,相当于like……better,其过去式、过去分词为preferred,常用于以下结构:    ① prefer sth. 更喜欢某事 I prefer English. 我更喜欢英语。

② prefer doing/ to do 宁愿做某事 I prefer sitting/ to sit.我宁愿坐着。

③ prefer sth to sth. 同…相比更喜欢… I prefer dogs to cats. 与猫相比我更喜欢狗。

④prefer doing to doing 宁愿做某事而不愿做某事 I prefer walking to sitting. 我宁愿走路也不愿坐着

⑤ prefer to do rather than do 宁愿做某事而不愿做某事   I prefer to work rather than be free.

They prefer to play games rather than watch TV.

⑥ would rather … than … (= would … rather than)宁愿,而不愿。 前后连接两个动词原形,否定形式

would rather not do sth

①would rather … than … = prefer … to … 但prefer … to … 若连接两个动词,动词应为v-ing 形式。

He would rather jog than play football. =He prefers jogging to playing football.

②would rather 常单独使用,表示“宁愿做…” He would rather watch TV at home.

③rather than = instead of 而不是(连接两个并列成分,前后对称)。

I’d prefer to go to in summer rather than in winter.   I decided to write rather than telephone.

I like going out with you rather than with him.   She enjoys listening rather than speaking.

177.如何穿戴 put on “穿上,戴上”; 强调穿戴的动作。It’s cold outside. You’d better put on your coat.

“上演,增加体重”   They’re going to put on Hamlet  .<<哈姆雷特>>  He put on five pounds.

wear “穿着,戴着”; 强调穿戴的状态。The old man wears a pair of glasses.

dress v. “给某人穿衣”,后常接人; n. 裙子She can’t dress herself.  The dress is too long.

dress up表示“穿上盛装;乔装打扮”; Mary dressed up and went to the party.

dress in表示“穿……颜色的衣服”;My good friend dresses in red today.

dress up as表示“打扮成……”。The kids dressed up as ghosts.

178.used to do sth. 过去常常做某事  否定形式: didn’t use to do sth. / used not to do sth.

如:He used to play football after school. 放学后他过去常常踢足球。

Did he use to play football?  Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.      He didn’t use to smoke. 他过去不吸烟。

get/be used to sth. 习惯于…I wash clothes everyday. But I’m used to it.我每天都洗衣服,但我习惯了

get/be used to doing 习惯于…I am used to washing clothes. 我习惯于洗衣服了。

be used to do   被用于做…   The knives are used to cut things. 小刀被用来切东西。

be used for doing 被用于做…   The knives are used for cutting things. 小刀被用来切东西。

used to do 过去常常做…     She used to watch TV after school. 她过去放学后常常看电视。

  1. be terrified of sth.如:I am terrified of the dog.    be terrified of doing sth. 如:I am terrified of speaking.

180.不再  ①no more == no longer 如:  I play tennis no more/ longer.我不再打网球。

not …any more == not …any longer ;I don’t play tennis any more/longer. 我不再打网球。

181.pretend to do sth. 假装做某事  I pretended to sleep just now.

pretend +从句 假装…   I pretended that I fell asleep.

  1. in public在公共场所 如: Don’t smoke in public. 请不要在公共场所吸烟
  2. introduce sb. to sb.把某人介绍给某人如I introduced Lily to Anna. 我把莉莉介绍给安娜。

184.plenty of 修饰不可数名词,也可以修饰可数名词 许多They have plenty of food/ apples.他们有许多的食物/苹果。

185.offer sb. sth. 给某人提供某物  offer sth.to sb 

provide sb. with sth 供应某人某物= provide sth for sb.

They provide us with water.        They provide water for us

  1. 情态动词must, may , might, could, may , can’t表示推测含义与用法

后面都接动词原形,都可以表示对现在情况的揣测和推断但他们含义有所不同

must 一定 肯定 (100%的可能性)

may, might, could有可能,也许(20%-80%的可能性) can’t 不可能不会  (可能性几乎为零)

The dictionary must be mine. It has my name on it.

The CD might/could/may belong to Tony because he likes listening to pop music.

The hair band can’t be Bob’s. After all, he is boy!

187.escape from …从哪里逃跑出来He escaped from the burning building. 他从燃烧的大概中逃出来

188.attempt to do 试图 如 The boys attempted to leave for Beijing. 男孩子们试图想去北京。

try one’s best to do sth. 尽某人的最大努力去做某 He tried his best to run. 他尽他的最大努力去跑。

189.how与what的区别:

how通常对方式或程度提问,意思有:怎么样 如何,通常用来做状语、表语。

what通常对动作的发出者或接受者提问,意思为 什么,通常做宾语,主语。

①How is your summer holiday?  It’s OK.(how表示程度 做表语)

②How did you travel around the world?  I travel by air.

③What do you learn at school?  I learn English, math and many other subjects.

① What…think of…?  How…like…?  What do you think of this book?=How do you like this book?

② What…do with…?  How…deal with…?

I don’t know what I should do with the matter.  =I don’t know how I should deal with it.

  • What…like about…? How…like…?  What do you like about China?=How do you like China?

④ What’s the weather like today? How’s the weather today?

⑤ What to do? How to do it?  I don’t know what to do next step?=I don’t know how to do it next step?

㊣ What good / bad weather it is today!(weather为不可数名词,其前不能加 a )

㊣ What a fine / bad day it is today!   (day为可数名词,其前要加 a )

190..be strict with+人.  be strict in+事物. The head teacher is strict with his students He is strict in the work.

191.强调句型:It is(was)…that (who ,whom)…

(1) 强调句型可用来强调各种句子成分

(2) 强调句中的连词who,whom只用来指代人,that 即可以指代人也可以指代物被强调部分是时间,地点等仍用that

(3)that,whom, who 后的句中的谓语与原句保持一致

(4)强调句中只有it is ,it was 两种时态形式, 如:I am right ------It is I who(that) am right.

又如:They will have a meeting tomorrow.     It is they who(that) will have a meeting tomorrow.

It′s a meeting that they will have tomorrow.  It′s tomorrow that they will have a meeting.

192.volunteer    ①可数名词 “志愿者”   ②adj. 自愿的     vi. volunteer to do sth

They are the Chinese People’s Volunteers. 他们是中国人民志愿军。 I volunteer to help you. 我自愿帮助你。

193.according to +名词...根据according to an legend  according to this article根据这篇文章 根据一个神话

194.make的用法

(1)make+n.make food 做饭make a plane做飞机make the bed 铺床 make money 赚钱 make sb./sth.+adj.使某人(感到),使……处于某种状态

(2)make的宾语之后可跟名词、形容词、分词来充当宾语的补足语

1)名词作make的宾语补足语   The party made her a good teacher.党把她培养成为一名好教师.

2)形容词作make的宾语补足语   如:Soccer makes me crazy.足球使我疯狂。

The soft music makes Tina sleepy.轻柔的音乐使Tina快睡着了。

Waiting for her made me angry.我很生气一直等着她。

可用到的形容词有:happy,pleased,surprised,angry,annoyed,sad,upset,unhappy,worried,anxious,excited,relaxed,stressed out,tense,calm,scared,comfortable,sick…

3)分词作make的宾语补足语   I made myself understood by all the students.

You must make yourself respected.

(3). make sb./sth.+do…使某人做某事(不能带不定式符号to) Wars make the peace go away.战争使和平远离。

注意:当make用于被动语态时,必须带不定式符号to. We were made to work all night.我们被迫日夜工作。

(4). make it习惯用语,及时赶到,到达目的地 I just made it to my class.(Unit 9)我恰好赶到班级。(arrived in time)

(5). make of /from./out of  make of 原材料制成成品后,原材料未经任何化学变化,仍保持原有性质.

如:The chair is made of wood.   make from当原材料制成成品后,经过了化学变化,失去了原有性质.

(6). make up of 常用于被动结构:be made up of…相当于consist of…(由……组成)

make up from 由…..所制造   如:A car is made up of many different parts.

She wore a necklace made up from gold coins.她戴着一串由金币制成的项链.

195.I agree with you. 我同意你的看法。

agree with sb./sb.’s idea/ sb.’s view同意某人,同意某人的观点、想法、主意。

如/My mother doesn’t agree with my father and me.我妈妈不同意我和爸爸的想法。

agree还有许多的用法

用于简短回答中“同意”或“赞成”。Chocolate is good for your health. Do you agree?Yes,I agree./No,I don’t agree.

(2)agree to do sth同意去做某事。如:I agree to ask someone for help.我同意向别人求助。

(3)agree to sth赞成某个建议、安排等。如:He agreed to your suggestion.他赞成你的建议。

(4)agree on sth. 在……方面达成一致。如:We agree on a price for the car.我们就车价达成一致意见。

(5)agree that+从句。如:Tom’s mother agree that he went on with his study.

196.small restaurants can serve many people every day. (P104)……小饭店每天就可以多接待些顾客。 句中的serve 有“服侍,侍候,招待”等意思,常用于以下结构中:

◎ serve+宾语  They were busy serving the day’s last buyers.他们正忙着接待这天的最后一批顾客。

Nobody can serve two masters. 一人不能侍奉二主。

◎ serve sb sth, 或serve sth to sb Mrs Turner served us a very good dinner. =Mrs Turner served a very good dinner to us.  特纳太太招待我们吃了一顿丰盛的晚餐。

◎ serve sb with sth  We served them with beer and wine. 我们用啤酒和红酒招待他们。

197.win可表示“赢得比赛,战斗”等,宾语一般是比赛,竞赛,战争等名词,与beat近义。

win与beat的用法 两者在表示“赢”,“胜”的意思时,后面所接的宾语有所不同。“赢比赛或一场战斗”用win;“赢某人”是beat。   We won the match months ago. 几个月前,我们赢得那场比赛。

Which side won the battle? 这一战谁打胜了?

But still we weren’t sure we could beat them. 但是我们还不能肯定我们能打赢他们。

Dick beat John and won the game. 狄克打败了约翰,赢得了比赛。

  1. remind v.“提醒,使想起”,及物动词

(1) remind sb. of sth.让我们想起某事The old photo reminds me of my childhood.这张老照片让我想起了我的童年。

(2) remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事My parents often remind me to study hard.我的父母总是提醒我要努力学习

(3) remind sb about sth 提醒某人什么事 eg : He reminds me about cooking (he reminds me to cook 他提醒我做饭

The words that (which) the teacher talk to remind me of my mother

199.What is sb/ sth like?

What is sb like? 还可用来询问某人的品质。What is sth. like?用来询问事物的性质,特别是用来谈论天气状况, like在句中作介词,意为“像”。

—What is Lily like? 莉莉是怎样的一个人?   —She’s a very nice girl. 她是个非常好的女孩。

—What’s the weather like? 今天天气怎么样? —Very fine. 很晴朗。

—What’s this book like? 这本书怎么样?   —Very interesting. 很有趣。

What does sb like?  该句型用来询问某人“喜欢什么”,like为动词“喜欢”。

—What does Li Hua like? 李华喜欢什么?  —He likes swimming. 他喜欢游泳。

What does sb look like? 询问某人的长相   —What does your sister look like?  —She is tall with long hair.

How is sb?询问某人的健康状况 How is your father?  He is fine, thanks.

What is sb?询问某人的职业   What is your mother?  She is a doctor.

  1. do with 和 deal with 有什么区别?
    do with 常与连接代词 what 连用, deal 而 with 常与连接副词how 连用,如:
    1 . I don’t know how they deal with the problem .

(= I don?t know what they do with the problem . )我不知道他们如何处理这个 问题。
He is easy to deal with . (= He is easy to do with . 这时“do”是不及物动词)他是容易 相处的人。
这两个词组在使用时有细微的差 别。一般地说,do with 表示“处置”、“忍受”、 “相处”、“有关”等。如:
① . They found a way to do with(对付)the elephant . 他们找到对付那头大象的办法 了。
② We can’t do with (容忍)such carelessness . 我们不能容忍这种粗枝大叶 的作风。
③We are difficult to do with(相处) the new comer . 我们很难与新来的那个人相 处。
④I have nothing to do with(有关) him . 我跟他无任何关系。
deal with 意义很广,常表示“对付”、“应付”、 “处理”、“安排”、“论述”、“涉及”等。如:
①They could properly deal with all kinds of situations . 他能恰当地应付各种局面。
②Deal with a man as he deals with you . 以其人之道,还治其人之身。

201.set down 放下,记下

set off 出发,起程,引起爆炸,激起,引起 They’ve set off on a trip round the world.

set out (for…) 出发往(…),动身去(…)

set out to do 开始做,着手做Together the four men set out to look for the lost animal.

set up 创立,设立,开办,竖起,支起 We’ll certainly set up a complete modern industrial system.

set sb free 释放某人,解放某人  He was set free after three years in prison.

set fire to sth = set sth on fire 纵火,放火烧  The police are trying to find out who set fire to the building last night.

202.join, join in, take part in 和 attend 的用法比较  这几个词或短语都有“参加”的意思,但用法不同。
1)join有两个用法: (1)指加入某个党派,团体组织等,成为其成员之一,意为:“参军、入团、入党”等。 ①When did your brother join the army? 你哥哥什么时候参军的?
②She joined the Young Pioneers. 她加入了少先队。
(2)和某人一道做某事,其结构为:join sb. in (doing) sth.,根据上下文,in (doing) sth. 也可以省去。如: ①Will you join us in the discussion? 你参加我们的讨论吗?
②He'll join us in singing the song. 他将和我们一道唱歌。
③We're going to the East Lake Park on Sunday. Will you join us? 我们打算星期天去东湖公园。你跟我们一道去好吗?

2)join in多指参加小规模的活动如“球赛、游戏”等,常用于日常口语。如:
①Come along, and join in the ball game. 快,来参加球赛。
②Why didn't you join in the talk last night? 昨晚你为什么没参加座谈?

3)take part in 指参加会议或群众性活动等,着重说明句子主语参加该项活动并在活动中发挥作用。如: ①We'll take part in social practice during the summer vacation.   暑假期间我们将参加社会实践。
②We often take part in physical labour. 我们经常参加体力劳动。
【注意】take part in是惯用词组,part前一般不用冠词,但part前有形容词修饰时,要用不定冠词。如: ①Lincoln took an active part in polities and was strongly against slavery.  林肯积极参加政治活动,强烈反对奴隶制。

4)attend是正式用语,及物动词,指参加会议,婚礼,葬礼,典礼;去上课,上学,听报告等。句子的主语只是去听,去看,自己不一定起积极作用。如:① I attended his lecture. 我听了他的讲课。
②He'll attend an important meeting tomorrow. 他明天要参加一个重要的会议。

203.valuable 与worth  valuable 常指物质金钱方面,强调贵重珍贵 be valuable for/ to sb.对某人又价值    Eg: This experience is valuable to me. 这段经历对我很有价值。

worth 既指物质上的,也指精神上的,强调价值 be worth + n. “值…”be worth doing 某事值得被做

It’s worth our work . 这时值得我们付出劳动。 Eg: The book is well worth reading . 这本书很值得一读。

204.prevent …from doing sth. 与 keep …from doing sth. 意思相同  “ 阻止……做某事”。主动语态from 可以省略,被动语态from 不能省略。What stopped him from from coming here ? 是什么阻止他来这里?

keep …from doing sth. “ 阻止……做某事”。主动语态和被动语态from 都不能省略。

The heavy rain kept us from coming on time. 大雨使我们没有准时来。

protect …from…“保护…不受…侵袭…”,from 后接能带来伤害和损害之物。

You’d better wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the sun. 你最好带上太阳镜以保护你的眼睛免受太阳的照晒。

  1. It is believed that … 人们相信… /  人们认为…It is said that …据说……

It is reported that…据报道…     It is supposed that …据猜测……  It is known that …众所周知……

206.down短语:    go down下降,降低,被载入,传下去     take down记下,写下

die down渐渐消失,平息   let down放下,降低,使失望   lie down躺下,躺倒

write down写下,记下  put down记下,放下,镇压,平定 turn down(把音量)调低   cut down砍倒

fall down倒下,跌倒 up and down上上下下   turn down 把音量)调低      go down the street沿着这条街走

walk down ...沿着...走    look down upon      let sb. down 让某人失望   sit down  坐下

207.besides,except,but,except for,except that/when的区别:
    1)besides表示“除了……以外,还有”。Besides Mr,Wang,we also went to see the film.(王先生也去了)
注意:besides 用于否定句中时,与except,but同义。例如: We have no other books besides(except)these.
2)except表示“只有……除外”。例如: We all went to see the film except Mr.Wang.(王先生没去)
3)but 意为“除了”,与except同义,except强调被排除的部分,but 则强调整句的内容,常修饰否定意义的代词或疑问代词。例如: Nobody knew it but me.   Who would do such a thing but Jack?
4) except for:当except用在句首时,往往后面要加上for。
例如: Except for this,everything is in order. =Everything is in order except this.
还应注意:except for 不在句首时, 有“除了因为……(with the exception of)”的意思,即表示除去整体中的一部分,它所叙述的事实或细节部分地修正句子的主要意思。例如:
The composition is very good except for a few spelling mistakes.
The village is quiet except for some birds singing in the woods.

Do you know any other foreign language_____ English? A except    B but    C beside   D besides 解答:D.

208.worth,worthy都为adj,意为“值得”。  1. worth:be worth + n. 当名词为金钱时,表示“……值得……”

be worth doing sth.“……某事值得被做    The question is not worth discussing again and again.

  1. worthy:    be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示“…值得……”
  2. be worthy to be done“某事值得被做”  The question is not worthy to be discussed again and again.

208.alive, living, live与lively

alive 活着,“活的,有生命的,还出气的 可指人也可指物 表语,后置定语, 宾补
living 活着, 尚在人间, 健在的 指人或物 定语或表语
live 活着的,活生生的 指物,不指人 定语
lively 活泼的,活跃,充满生气的 可指人,也可指物 定语、表语或宾补

(    ) 1. Jin Yong is one of the greatest and oldest          writer. He is still        .

  1. living; alive B. living; living   C. alive; living     D. alive; lively

(    )2. —Is his grandmother still      ?—Yes, she is 102 years old!  A. live  B. living  C. alive    D. Lively

209.marry v嫁娶  

(1)A marry B. “A 与B结婚”Bill married Mary on January 1, 1994.

(2) A and B get married = A and B are married  A和B结婚

get married 结婚 Kate and Tom get married last year.

(3) marry A to B “ 把A 嫁给B”  She married her daughter to a rich man.

(4) be married to sb 与……结婚

①.My aunt got________(marry) last year.  ②.When did Sue and Jack___________(结婚).

(   ) ③ — Betty, did your son get married in the year 2000.    — Yes , he _____ for about eight years.

  1. has married    B. has been married   C. has got married  D. was married

210动词不定式 — to do 的具体用法

1.作主语 动词不定式作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,而将真正的主语放在句末。
(1) It +be+ 形容词 +(for sb.) +to do sth.  It’s important for us to protect animals.
(2) It +be+ 形容词 +(of sb.) +to do sth.  It’s clever of you to answer that question.
2.作宾语
(1) 英语中能接不定式作宾语的主要动词口诀
三个希望两答应,(hope, wish, expect, agree,promise )  两个要求莫拒绝。( demand, ask, refuse )
设法学会做决定,( manage, learn, decide )           不要假装在选择。( pretend, choose)
打算提出俩计划,( intend, offer, plan, mean )         申请失败负担起,( apply, fail, afford )
准备愿望又碰巧。( prepare, desire, happen )
(2) 在 find, think, consider, feel, make, regard 等词后跟不定式作宾语时,常用 it 作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放在句末。如:I find it important to learn English.
3.作宾语补足语
动词不定式作宾语补足语时,它与宾语在逻辑上是主谓关系。可用动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise, allow, ask, cause, encourage,expect, force, invite, order, teach, tell, want 等。 My mother asked me to clean my room.
注意: 不定式作宾语补足语省略 to 的动词有:感( feel ),听( hear, listen to ),让( make,let, have ),

看( look at, see, notice, watch )。 但在变被动语态时要加上 to。 I was made to wash my clothes.
4.作定语  I have something important to say.
5.做状语(表目的、原因、结果等)  He studies hard to get good grades.

6.常和疑问词 what, which, when, where, how连用,相当于一个宾语从句。 I don’t know where to go.
211.动词-ing 形式的具体用法
1.作主语 Doing exercise is good for our health.
2.作宾语 (1) 后跟动名词作宾语的词和词组有:
完成实践值得忙(finish, practice, be worth, be busy);继续习惯别放弃(keep on, be used to,give up);考虑建议不禁想 (consider, suggest, can’t help, feel like);喜欢思念要介意(enjoy, miss, mind)。

(2)既可接动词不定式也可用动名词作宾语且在意义上差别很大的词有 forget, remember,regret, stop 等。
① 后接不定式作宾语指该不定式表示的动作还未发生;后接动名词作宾语指该动名词表示的动作已经发生。
I remembered closing the door. 我记着我关过门了。(门已经关了)
I will remember to close the door. 我会记着去关门的。(门还没有关)
② need, want, require 等表示“需要”的动词后接不定式和动名词均可,且含义相同;但是语态不同。接动名词时用主动表被动含义(物作主语);接不定式表被动要用不定式的被动形式。
Those flowers need watering. = Those flowers need to be watered.  3.做表语  My hobby is swimming.
三、分词的具体用法
分词分为现在分词和过去分词。在句中起形容词、副词的作用,可在句中作表语、定语、状语。
1.分词的时态   ① 与主语动作同时发生且与主语动作为主动关系,用现在分词;
② 分词动作先于句子动词的动作,且强调先后,要用 having done;
③分词的否定式为 not+ 分词。 Having finished the work, the man went home.
2.分词的语态  现在分词表主动;过去分词表被动;不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生。
3.分词作定语
①分词前置  China is a developing country and America is a developed country.

②分词后置 被修饰的名词是 something, anything, everything, nothing 等不定代词时,分词放在被修饰名词的后面。There is nothing exciting in today’s newspaper.
注意:过去分词作定语与其所修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。
Most people invited didn’t come. = Most people who were invited didn’t come.
4.分词作状语  ① 现在分词表主动,动作正在进行;过去分词表被动,动作已经完成。
② 选择现在分词还是过去分词关键看主句的主语。如果分词的动作是由主语发出的,就选现在分词;反之,就用过去分词。 Founding no one in the room, he left.  Seen from the top of the mountain, the houses look like match boxes(火柴盒).
5.分词作宾语补足语  可以跟分词作宾语补足语的谓语动词有 see,watch, hear, set, keep, find, have, get 等词。
On my way to school, I saw David playing basketball.
6.分词作表语  The piano is broken. The movie is touching.
7.连词 + 分词(短语) 为使分词短语和主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词 when, while, after, before 等。但切记,分词的主语必须和主句的主语为同一个。 After finishing his work, the man went home.

语法专项复习——主谓一致和there be 结构

212.语法专项复习——简单句

一、简单句的五种基本句型 只包含一个主谓句子的结构叫作简单句。简单句主要有以下五种基本句型:注意:1.表格中句型 1 和句型 2 的区别:句型 1 中的谓语动词是不及物动词,如不及物动词agree, go, work, listen, look, come, die, belong, fall, arrive 等;句型 2 中的谓语动词是及物动词,其后可跟宾语。
2.句型 3 结构可转换为两类:
(1)借助介词 to 接双宾语,侧重指动作的方向,表示“朝着、向着某人”。这类动词有:give,send, offer, pass, lend, show 等。如:I sent a toy car to Jim.= I sent Jim a toy car.
(2)借助介词 for 接双宾语,侧重指动作的受益者,表示“为了某人、替某人”。这类动词有:buy, call, get 等。如:My mother bought me a book.= My mother bought a book for me.
3. 句型 5 中除了系动词 be 以外,还有感官类、表象类、变化类、保持类等系动词。
注: S+V此句型的特点是:谓语动词是不及物动词,本身能表达完整的意思,后面不需跟宾语,但有时可跟副词、介词短语等作状语。如: He laughed.  John has read widely.    He lives in London.

S+V+O此句型的特点是:谓语动词是及物动词,不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语。

Our team beat all the others.   She plays the piano well.

S+V+P此句型的特点是:谓语动词是连系动词,不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语特征、身份、状态的表语。常见的系动词有:be(是),become(成为),get(变得),turn(变得),grow(变得),look(看起来),feel(感到),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),sound(听起来),seem(似乎),keep(保持),stay(保持)等。如: The rose smells sweet.

 S+V+INO+DO此句型的特点是:谓语动词跟有两个宾语,这两个宾语都是动作的对象或承受者,其中指人的是间接宾语,指物的是直接宾语。当间接宾语放在直接宾语之后时,通常需要加介词for或to。可跟双宾语的动词 有:answer,bring,buy,find,get,give,lend,make,pass,pay,send,show,sing,take,teach,tell,write等。如: Mr. Li told us an interesting story.   Would you please give this dictionary to Li Hua?

 S+V+O+OC此句型的特点是:谓语动词虽然跟有一个宾语,但意思还不完整,必须加上另外一个成分(宾语补足语)对宾语进行补充说明。可以用作宾语补足语的有:名词、形容词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语等。如: We must keep our school clean.     They made him their monitor.

【注】S=Subject(主语) V=Verb(谓语动词); P=Predicative(表语);O=Object(宾语);

INO=Indirect Object(间接宾语); DO=Direct Object(直接宾语);OC=Object Complement(宾语补足语)

  1. 简单句的种类
    陈述句 (1)陈述肯定句:She likes English.  (2)陈述否定句:I’m not an English.
    2.疑问句
    (1)一般疑问句    — Can you speak French?      — Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.
    (2)特殊疑问句    How often do you play basketball?

① 问年龄 How old is Lucy? She is twelve.  What’s Lucy’s age?     It’s 12.

② 问种类 What kind of movies do you like?   I like action movies and comedies.

③ 问身体状况 How is your uncle?    He is well/fine.

④ 问方式 How do/can you spell it?   L-double O-K.

⑤ 问原因 Why do you want to join the club?

⑥ 问时间 What’s the time? (=What time is it?) It’s a quarter to ten a.m..

What time do you usually get up, Rick? At five o’clock.     When do you want to go? Let’s go at 7:00.

⑦ 问地方 Where’s my backpack? It’s under the table.

⑧ 问颜色 What color are they? They are light blue.    What’s your favourite color? It’s black.

⑨ 问人物 Who’s that? It’s my sister.        Who is the boy in blue? My brother.

Who isn’t at school? Peter and Emma.        Who are Lisa and Tim talking to?

⑩ 问东西 What’s this/that (in English)? It’s a pencil case.

What else can you see in the picture? I can see some broccoli, strawberries and hamburgers.

11问姓名 What’s your aunt’s name? Her name is Helen./She’s Helen.

What’s your first name?  My first name’s Ben.  What’s your family name? My family name’s Smith.

12 问哪一个 Which do you like? I like one in the box.

13 问字母 What letter is it? It’s big D/small f.

14 问价格 How much are these pants?     They’re 15 dollars. What’s the price of+......?

15 问电话号码 What’s your phone number ? It’s 576-8349.

16 问谓语(动作) What’s he doing?  He’s watching TV.

17 问职业(身份) What do you do? I’m a teacher.  What’s your father? He’s a doctor.

18.问人口  What’s the population of...?
(3)反义疑问句  She doesn’t like drinking milk, does she? 在反义疑问句中,遵循“前肯定后否定,前否定后肯定”的原则。如以上句子。常用的表示否定或半否定的词语还有 hardly, never,no, few, little, nothing 等。如: There are few apples left, are there?

(4)选择疑问句  Which color do you like, blue or white?
3.感叹句
(1)what 引导的感叹句: ① What+a/an+ 形容词 + 可数名词单数 +S+V! What a lovely girl she is!
② What+ 形容词 + 可数名词复数 +S+V!  What beautiful flowers they are!
③ What+ 形容词 + 不可数名词 +S+V!    What cold weather it is!
(2)How 引导的感叹句: How+形容词 /副词 +S+V! How interesting the movie is!
4.祈使句 表达说话人的命令、请求、建议等。常用的结构如下:
(1)Let sb. do sth. Don’t let sb. do sth.
(2)动词原形 + 其他 Don’t+ 动词原形 + 其他  Open the door! Don’t open the door!
(3)Be+ 形容词 Don’t+be+ 形容词  Be quiet! Don’t be late!  (4)No+ 动名词  No parking/smoking/running!

214.中考英语常考重点句型

一、常使用动词不定式的短语

1.It’s time to do sth.\ It’s time for sth 该作某事的时候了.     2.can’t wait to do sth.  迫不及待要作某事

3.ask /tell sb. (not ) to do sth. 要求/告诉某人(不)作某事      4.allow sb. to do sth.   允许某人作某事

5.be supposed to do sth.    应该作某事                   6.Would like /want (sb.) to do sth. 想要作某事

7.have sth/nothing to do 有…时要做/与…无关             8.find it +adj. to do sth.  发觉作某事…

9.prefer to do sth. rather than do sth.  宁愿作某事,而不愿作某事

10.It’s +adj. for sb. to do sth. 作某事对某人来说…          11.It’s better /best to do sth. 最好做某事

12.It takes sb. sometime. to do sth.  某人做某事用了一些时间

二、常用动名词的短语

  1. 1.enjoy /like /love doing sth.   喜欢做某事 2. keep /keep on /carry on / go on doing sth.  继续做某事

3.feel like doing sth.  想要做某事           4.practise  doing  sth.  练习作某事

5.give up doing sth.    放弃作某事         6.be good at= do well in\on doing sth. 擅长作某事

7.pay attention to doing sth.  注意作某事     8.what about/ how about doing sth. ….怎么样(好吗)?

9.Thank you for doing sth. 为…感谢某人     10.mind doing sth.     介意作某事

11.be used for doing sth./ be used to do sth.  被用来作某事  12.spend …(in) doing sth.  花时间作某时

13.be busy doing/ with sth. 忙于作某事      14.finish doing sth.   作完某时

15.look forward to doing.  盼望做某事      16.prefer doing sth. to doing sth. 喜欢…胜过…

17.be/get used to doing sth.  习惯作某事  18.keep / stop/ prevent sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人作某事

三、省略动词不定式的短语

1.一看二听三使役 see/ hear/ feel/ notice/ look at /listen to sb. do sth. 看见/听见/感觉/注意某人作某事

make /let /have sb. do sth.   使/让某人做某事   2.help sb. (to) do sth/ with sth.帮助某人作某事

  1. 3.had better (not) do sth.  最好(不)做某事4.Why don’t you/ not do sth.为什么不作某事

5.Would /Will / Could you please (not) do sth. 请你(不)作某事好吗?  6 .祈使句的开头用动词原形

7.在情态动词后 8.在do、will、would等助动词后用动词原形。 Did everybody want to go there last Monday?

同义词比较

  1. 1.stop to do sth. 停下正在做的事去作另一件事stop doing sth.  停止正在作的事

When the teacher came into the classroom, the students stopped talking. After he worked for an hour, he stopped to have a rest. 2.forget / remember to do sth.忘记/记得要去作某事 forget / remember doing sth.忘记记得曾经做过某事    Please remember to bring my book to school.   I remember doing my homework

  1. 3.used to do sth.   过去常常作某事be used to do sth. 被用来作某事  be used to doing sth.  习惯于作某事

My father used to smoke.    Wood is used to make paper. I am used to getting up early.

4.So +be/助动词/情态动词 + 主语…也一样

So +主语+be/助动词/ 情态动词 是呀,表示赞同别人的观点

Neither + be /助动词/ 情态动词+主语…也不一样(用于否定句)

  1. He has been to Beijing. So have I.It’s a fine day. So it is.She doesn’t like eggs. Neither do I.
  2. 5.too…to do    太…而不能…The boy is too young to go to school.

so +adj. /adv + that(从句)   如此…以致… The boy is so young that he can’t go to school.

such +(a/an +adj.)+n.+ that(从句)  如此…以致…He is such a young boy that he can’t go to school.

(not) enough (for sb.) to do sth.  (对某人来说)做某事(不)够The boy is not old enough to go to school.

五、常考知识点

  1. 1. keep +adj.     保持…状态keep (sb.) doing sth. 继续做某事/使某人老是做某事
  2. Everyone should keep our classroom clean.It’s too late, but he still keeps working.

Lily always keeps us waiting for her.

2.make+ sb. + n.        使某人成为

make + sb. + adj. 使某人…make sb. do sth.   使某人做某事  Sb. be made to sth. 某人被迫做某事

  1. We made Peter our monitor.Books make us happy.

He often makes me laugh.    The workers were made to work 12 hours a day.

3.I don’t think that      我认为…不  eg. I don’t think you are right.

4.It’s /was/has been+ some time +since+一般过去时…   自从…以来有多久了

It has been two years since we met last time.

  1. 6.What do you mean by?=What does .. mean?=what is the meaning of...?是什么意思?
  2. What do you mean by “computer”?=What does “computer” mean?=what is the meaning of "computer"?
  3. 7.What do you think of…/How do you like …?你认为…怎么样?
  4. What do you think of this film /How do you like this film?
  5. 8.What is/was/will …be like?    ..怎么样? What is the weather like?

What will the life in the future be like?

  1. 9.It’s said/ reported that…    据说/据报道It's well known that  众所周知

It's thought that   大家认为 It’s said that the population of the word would be 6 billion in 2050.

10.one of the +形容词最高级+名词复数 …其中之一 eg. Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China.

11.neither…nor… 既不…也不(两者都不)  Neither you nor he has been to the USA.

either…or…要么…要么/或者…或者/不是…就是 Either he or you go to the park.

not  only…but also… 不但…而且   Not only my mother but also my father is a teacher.

以上三个词做主语时,要用就近原则

neither of  两者都不    either of  两者选一   none of  没有一个  以上三个做主语时,谓语动词用单数

All of 全部       Both of 两者都    以上二个做主语时,谓语动词用复数

12.比较级+ than +any other +名词单数   …比其余任何一个…

比较级+ than + the other+名词复数

  1. Shanghai is bigger than any other city=shanghai is bigger than the other cities in China.

13.When(当…的时候), if (如果), as soon as(一…就), until(直到…才), unless(除非/如果…不)这几个词引导的时间或条件状语从句时,主句要用一般将来时. 从句一般现在时

  1. I will call you when he comes.If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will have a picnic.

As soon as I get to Beijing, I’ll come to see you.  He won’t go to bed until his parents come back.

Unless you work hard, you won’t catch up with others.

(2) both…and 和, 既…也…   Both my parents and I went there.

(3) but 但是,而      I'm sad, but he is happy.

(4) either…or 或…或…, 要么…要么…   Either you're wrong, or I am.

(5) for因为   I asked him to stay, for I had something to tell him.

(6) however 然而,可是   Af first, he didn't want to go there. Later, however, he decided to go

(7) neither…nor 既不…也不   Neither my parents nor my aunt agrees with you.

(8) not only…but(also) 不但…而且…   He not only sings well, but also dances well.

(9) or 或者,否则  Hurry up, or you'll be late.   Are you a worker or a doctor?

(10) so 因此,所以 It's getting late, so I must go.

(11) although 虽然  Although it was late, they went on working.

(12) as soon as 一 …就   I'll tell him as soon as I see him.

(13) because 因为  He didn't go to school, because he was ill.

(14)unless 除非,如果不   I won't go unless it is fine tomorrow.

(15)until 直到…  He didn't leave until eleven. (瞬间动词用于not… until 结构)   He stayed there until eleven.

(16)while 当…时候,而 (表示对比)  While I stayed there, I met a friend of mine. (while后不可用瞬间动词)

(17) since自从…           I have lived here since my uncle left.

(18) hardly… when 一… 就  I had hardly got to the station when the train left.

(19) as far as 就… 来说   As far as I know, that country is very small.

215补全对话   考点1.打电话用语:

一、拨电话方的交际用语: 1.Could /May/Can I speak to …,please ?  请找…接电话,好吗?

2.Who’s that (speaking) ? 你是哪一位呀?

3.This is …(speaking)./This is …here./ …here speaking .我是…….

4.Could you ask him / her to call me back ? 你能让他、她给我回电话吗?

5.I’m calling to ask / tell you to … .我打电话给你是想告诉你去…….

6.That’s very kind of you ( to help me ) . 你能帮助我真是太好了。

二、接电话方的交际用语:

1.Hello! 6098724.    你好!这里是6098724.   2.This is …..(speaking).  我就是……

3.Who’s that (speaking )?  请问你是哪位 ?

4.Yes, it is .    是的,我就是。    No, this is …. 不, 我是……

5.Hold on (for a moment ), please . / One moment ,please .  请稍后,别挂机。

6.I’m sorry / afraid he’s /she’s out (isn’t in )at the moment / right now . 对不起,他/她现在不在。

7.Can I take a message ( for you ) ?  我能替你稍话吗?

8.I’ll leave a message on his / her desk .  我会在他/她的桌上留个便条。

9.What’s your telephone number ?   你的电话是多少?

10.I’ll give / take her the message .  我会稍信给她的。

考点2.购物用语:

一、营业员常用的交际用语:

1.Can I help you ? /What can I do for you ?/ Is there anything I can do for you? 你要买什么?

2.Which would you like ?    你喜欢哪一个?

3.How many / much …. Do you want ?   你要多少?

4.Is that all ?    就买这些吗?   5.What about this one ?   这件怎么样?

6.Do you like …. ?   你喜欢……吗?

7.What color/ size / kind do you like / want ?  你喜欢/想要什么颜色/尺寸/种类的?

8.Which one / color do you like / want ?   你喜欢/想要哪个/哪种颜色?

9.I’m afraid we haven’t got any … In that size at the moment .恐怕我们现在没有那个尺寸的…

10.I’m sorry , we have sold out the …. In your size . 对不起,你要的尺寸我们已经卖完了。

11.Here you are .  给你。         12.No hurry . 别着急。

13.please take your time .   慢慢来。 14.Let me see , twenty yuan, please. 我看一下,20元。

15.You haven’t paid for it yet .  你还没有付钱。

16.That’s the cheapest / most expensive one we have , I’m afraid . 恐怕这是我们最便宜/最贵的

二、顾客常用的交际用语:

1.I want / would like to buy some ….(for ….).  我想买一些…..  I need ......

2.I’ll have a look at the …. 我想看看…  3  .Thank you ,that’s all .  谢谢你。就这些吧。

4.I like the color , but it’s/they’re too …. 我喜欢这颜色,但它/ 他们太…..

5.It’s great ,but it’s not …. enough .  不错,但它不够…..

6.No, the color is too …..  不,颜色太…..

7.I prefer ….but this ….is too…我喜欢….,但这个….太…..

8.That’s too light    太浅了。      9.Yes, that’s just right .  好的,这个正合适。

10.Have you got any other kind / color /size ?  你有其他种类/ 颜色/ 尺寸的吗?

11.That looks nice /great .    看起来不错。

12.Have you got anything cheaper ?   你有更便宜点的吗?

13.That’s a bit expensive . I’ll think about it .   有点贵,我要考虑一下。

14.How much does it cost ? /How much do they cost ?/How much are these things ? 多少钱。

15.That’s much too expensive .I’m afraid .   恐怕太贵了。

16.That’s (quite) cheap /dear .   这不算贵/ 这相当贵。

17.I like it ,but it costs too much .   我喜欢它,但是太贵了。

18.I can’t decide . 我决定不了。   19.That’s fine .I’ll take it / them .  不错,我买了。

20.Can / May I try them / it on ,please ?  我能试一试吗?

21.I don’t think I’ll take it .  我觉得不会买。  22.Here is the money .  买单。

考点3问路及应答的用语:  一、问路的交际用语:

1.Excuse me ,where’s …?   劳驾,…在哪儿?  2.How can I get to ….?  我怎么去….?

3.Which is the way to the … ?  去… 是哪一条路?

4.Can you tell me the way to the …?  你能告诉我去…..的路吗?

5.Could you tell me how to get to the ……?   你能告诉我怎样去….吗?

6.Could you tell me how I can get to the …..?   你能告诉我怎样去.吗?

7.Which bus can take me to the … ?   哪路公共汽车可以带我去…?

8.Which bus can I catch to the ….?   我可以乘几路公共汽车去…?

9.Which number do I need ?   我需要乘几路车?  10.Is it far from here ?    离这儿远吗?

11.How far is it ?    有多远?   12.Thank you ./ Thank you all the same .  谢谢。

二、指路的交际用语:

1.It’s over there . It’s over there on the left / right .在那儿左边/右边

2.It’s next to the ./ in front of the …./ behind the …../outside the ….它在…的旁边/前面/后面/外边

3.It’s between …. And …..它在….和…之间。   4.It’s at the end of the street .  在街尾。

5.Walk /Go along/ down the road/ the street , and take the second turning on the left/ right .沿这条路/街,然后在第二个转弯处朝左/右拐。

6.It’s about a hundred meters along on the left / right . 大约在前方100米处左/右。

7.It’s about 4 kilometers away . 大约有4,000米远。

8.You had better take / catch a bus . 你最好乘坐公共汽车。

9.Go down this street until you reach the second traffic lights .沿着这条街一直走到第二个交通灯那儿。

10.At the end of the road you’ll see the …..  至路尾你就会看到……

11.It will take you about half an hour .   大约要花半个小时到那儿。

12.Go across the bridge .   从桥上走过去。  13.Go up this road to the end . 沿着这条路走到尽头。

14.Turn left / right at the second crossing . 在第二个十字路口朝左/右拐。

15.Take the No.3 bus and it will take you straight there . 乘3路公共汽车,会把你直接带到那儿

16.The No.72 bus will take you there . 72路公共汽车会把你带到那儿。

17.You’d better take No.10 bus to the hospital. 你最好乘坐10路公共汽车去医院。

18.You can’t miss it .  你不会错过的。  19.It’s about 15 minutes’ walk . 步行大约15分钟。

考点4.看病的用语:

一、医生常用的交际用语: 1.What’s wrong with you ?   What’s the matter ?  你怎么哪?

2.How long have you been like this ?  你像这样有多久?

3.Have you taken your temperature ? 你量过体温吗? 4.Do you sleep very well ?  睡觉好吗?

5.What do eat for your meals ?  你三餐吃过什么?

6.Have you had anything to eat this morning ? 早晨吃过什么?

7.Have you got/ had a headache / cough ?  你头痛/咳嗽吗?

8.Maybe you have caught a bit of a cold ? 也许你有点感冒。 9.There is nothing serious . 不严重。

10.You’d better have more/ less food and take some exercise . 你最好多/少吃食物并且参加一些锻炼。

11.Take this medicine and stay in bed for a few days . 吃这个药并卧床休息几天。

12.Take this medicine every four hours and drink more hot water .每4小时吃一次这个药并多喝开水。

13.Do you smoke ? You’d better stop smoking . 你抽烟吗? 最好戒烟。

14.You will get better soon . You will be all right /well soon . 你会很快好起来的。

二、病人常用的交际用语:

1.I have got a headache / cough . 我头痛/咳嗽。  2.I’ve got a pain here . 我这儿痛。

3.I’m not feeling well . I don’t feel very well .I feel terrible . 我感觉不舒服。

4.Is it serious ?  严重吗?    5.I’ve been like this ever since last night . 我从昨天晚上起一直这样。

6.There’s something wrong with …  我… 不舒服。  7.This place hurts .   这儿疼。

考点5.问候的交际用语:

1.Hello! Hi !    2.Good morning/ afternoon / evening    3.How do you do !

4.How are you ? Fine ,thank you .And you ?    5.How is your father /mother ?

6.How is everything ? How is it going ?

考点6.介绍的交际用语:

1.What’s your name ?    2.May I know your name ?    3.My name is Jones .

4.What’s your first name ?   5.Nice to meet you .  6.I’m pleased /happy /glad to meet you .

考点7.告别的交际用语:

1.Goodbye ! Bye-bye !   2.Good night !   3.I’m afraid I have to go now . It’s getting late .

4.Let’s get together soon !    5.See you soon /later /tomorrow .    6.We had a good time .

7.Thank you for having us .    8.It’s a pleasure .    9.Take care !

考点8.感谢和应答的交际用语: 1.Thank you /Thank you very much .  2.It’s very kind of you .

3.Not at all /That’s OK /That’s all right /You’re welcome /It’s a pleasure /My pleasure .

考点9.祝愿、祝贺和应答的交际用语:

1.Good luck to you !.   2.Merry Christmas!    3.Happy New Year !  4.Happy birthday !

5.Enjoy yourself !   6.Have fun !   7.Have a good time !   8.Congratulations !

9.Thank you , and you too !    10.The same to you !

考点10.意愿及应答的交际用语:

1.I’m ging to pick some apples . 2.I’d like you to meet my parents , too .

3.I want to take some books to the classroom . 4.I hope to see you soon .

5.I hope you have a good time .  6.Thank you    7.I’m sorry I can’t  8.I’m afraid I can’t .

考点11.道歉与应答的交际用语:

1.I’m sorry.   2. I’m sorry for ….   3.Never mind    4.It doesn’t matter   5.Forget it

考点12.遗憾和同情的交际用语:

1.I’m sorry to hear that . 2.I know how you feel .   3.Don’t worry about it

4.oh ,come on .Cheer up .  5.That’s too bad    6. What a pity !

考点13.邀请与应答的交际用语:

1.Do you want to …..?    2.Would you like to ….?   3.That sounds great .

4.That sounds like fun    5.I’m afraid I can’t come to your party .  6.Maybe some other day

考点14.提供(帮助)和应答的交际用语:

1.Can I help you ?         2.What can I do for you ?        3.Let me help you

4.Thanks .That would be nice    5.That’s very kind of you    6.Thanks for your help

7.Would you like some …..?    8.Yes, please  / No, thanks

考点15.请求允许和应答的交际用语:

1.Can / Could /May I ….?   2.Yes ./ certainly / Yes , do please ./ Of course / OK ? All right .

3.I’m sorry , but ….. / You’d better not ….

考点16.表示同意和不同意的交际用语:

1.Certainly / Sure  ? Of course    2.Yes, please   3.Yes, I think so .  4.All right / OK .

5.That’s a good idea .   6.I agree (with you ).  7.No ,I don't think so   8.I’m afraid not

9.I disagree (with you )

考点17.表示肯定和不肯定的交际用语:

1.I’m sure .   2.I’m sure that …..     3.I’m not sure .   4.I’m not sure if … 5.Maybe . / Perhaps .

考点18.喜欢和厌恶的交际用语:

1.Do you like ….?      2.Which do you like better , …or …? I like … better than ….

3.Which do you like best , …,….or ….? I like …best . 4.I like/ love ….a lot /very much /a little .

5.I don’t like …at all     6.I hate ….    7.I prefer to…rather than ….

考点19.谈论天气的交际用语:

1.What’s the weather like today ?   2.How is the weather ?    3.It’s fine / cloudy /windy /rainy

4.It’s rather warm / cold / hot , isn’t it ?    5.Lovely weather , isn’t it ?  6.What a heavy rain !

7.What a strong wind !

考点20.询问时间或日期和应答的交际用语:

1.What day is it today ?   2.What’s the date today ?  3.What time is it ?/ What’s the time ?

4.It’s Monday   5.It’s July 1st    6.It’s six o’clock / half pass six /a quarter to eight .

7.It’s time for …..  / It’s time to do sth .

考点21.请求的交际用语1.Can /Could you …. for me ?  2.Will you please … ? 3.May I have …?

4.Please give /pass me ….    5.Please wait (here/ a moment )   6.Please hurry .

考点22.劝告和建议的交际用语:

1.You’d better ask the man .2.Why don’t you go to the park ? 3.How /What going out for a walk ? 4.All right . thanks   5.Right . I’ll do that    6.That’s a good idea .Thank you

7.You are right    8.Shall we play together ?  9.You shouldn’t stay up too late .  10.I don’t mind .

考点23.禁止和警告的交际用语:

1.You can’t do that    2.If you don’t get up , you’ll be late for school .  3.Be careful / Take care

4.Make sure you lock the door when you leave .  5.Don’t walk there . The floor is wet .

考点24.表示感情的交际用语:

1.I’m glad /pleased /happy to meet you .   2.That’s nice    3.That’s wonderful/ great .

4.She’s worried .   5.Oh, what should I do ?    6.Really ?    7.Oh, dear !  8.Is that so ?

考点25.就餐的交际用语: 1.What would you like to have ?

2.Would you like something to eat/ drink ?  3.I’d like a cup of coffee .  4.Help yourself to some fish . 5.Thank you ,I’ve full enough.   6.Just a little ,please !

考点26.约会的交际用语:

1.Are you free this afternoon / evening ?      2.How about tomorrow morning /afternoon/evening?

3.Shall we meet at 4:30 at the school gate ?    4.Let’s make it six o’clock tomorrow .

5.Yes, I’ll be free then .   6.No, I won’t be free then   7.All right . See you then .

8.It doesn’t matter . We can make it some time next week .  9.When can you make it ?

考点27.传递信息的交际用语:  1.Will you please give this note/ message to Kate ?

2.He asked me to give you note .   3.Thanks for the message .

考点28.求助的交际用语:1.Help ! / Fire ! Thief ! 2.What’s the matter ?3.Could you give me a hand ?

4.Would you help me ?     5.Do you mind helping me with my English ?

考点29.处理交际中的障碍:  1.Pardon . 请再说一遍。  2.Please say that again / more slowly .

3.I’m sorry I can’t follow you   4.I’m sorry I know only a little English . 5.What do you mean by ….?

考点30.常见的标志和说明:

1.BUSINESS HOURS    2.OFFICE HOURS     3.OPEN      4.CLOSED       5.PULL        6.PUSH  7.NO SMOKING    8.NO PHOTO    9.NO PARKING    10.DANGER  11.ON     12.OFF    13.PLAY     14.ENTRANCE     15.EXIT      16.PAUSE    17.SHUT

18.MEN’S (WOMEN’S)   19.SOS      20.EMS     21.VACANT    22.OCCUPIED

23.NO ADMITTANCE       24.BATHING PROHIBITED

216.七年级至九年级的非谓语动词    一.接动词不定式 ( to do/ do sth )

1.like to do sth   喜欢干某事             2.like sb to do sth   喜欢某人干某事

3.Let’s (not ) do sth   让我们(不)干某事  4.want to do sth    想干某事

5.want sb to do sth   想叫某人干某事       6.love to do sth   爱干某事

7.ask sb (not ) to do sth    叫某人(不要)干某事   8.stop to do sth  停下来干某事

9.tell sb (not ) to do sth  告诉某人(不要)干某事   10.watch sb do sth   看见某人干某事

11.It’s time (for sb) to do sth 该某人干某事          12.help sb (to ) do sth   帮助某人干某事

13.help do sth    帮助干某事                 14.make sb do sth  叫、 让某人干某事

15.decide (not ) to do sth  决定(不要)干某事  16.find it +adj + to do sth  发现干某事....的

17.have to do sth   必须干某事               18.try (not ) to do sth   尽力干某事

19.try one’s best to do sth  尽最大能力干某事  20.It’s +adj +(for)of +sb + to do sth    对某人来说干某事是....的

21.plan to do sth    计划干某事      22.S.p.+be a good place to do sth  某地是干某事的最好地方

23.It takes sb +some time + to do sth    干某事花费某人多少时间

24.send sb to do sth  派某人干某事    25.invite sb to do sth 邀请某人干某事

26.forget to do sth   忘记某人干某事  27.live to be +时间   活....时间

28.be able to do sth   能干某事       29.have sth to do 让、叫某人干某事

30.seem to do sth  看起来似乎干某事  31.get sb /sth to do sth

32.疑问词+ to do sth                 33.need sth to do sth 需要干某事

34.use sth to do sth  用某物干某事     35.follow sb to sth  跟着某人干某事

36.need to do sth  需要干某事        37.a good time to do sth 干某事的好时间

38.the best time to do sth   干某事的最好时间  39.the best way to do sth   干某事的最好方式

40.be the first / last one to do sth 干某事的第一、最后一个 41.would like to do sth   想干某事

42.be excited /surprised to do sth   做某事感到兴奋  43.be useful to do sth  做某事是有用的

44.be allowed to do sth   被允许干某事  45.allow sb to do sth   允许某人干某事

46.It’s better to do sth  干某事是比较好的 47.It’s best to do sth 干某事是最好的

48.take care (not) to do sth   小心干某事  49.see sb do sth  看见某人干某事

50.why not do sth ?为什么不.....呢?      51.have enough time to do sth 有足够的时间干某事

52.too… to do sth   太...以至于不能     53.not… enough to do sth  对于做某事而言不是足够.. .

54.encourage sb to do sth   鼓励某人干某事  55.choose to sth 选择干某事

56.wait to do sth  等待干某事             57.be happy/glad/pleased to do sth   高兴干某事

58.make it +adj + to do sth 使它做起来....   59.be careful to do sth  小心做某事

60.be afraid to do sth   害怕去做某事      61.It’s our duty to do sth   做...是我们的责任

62.used to do sth 过去常常干某事         63.can’t afford to do sth   负担不起干某事

64.make a decision to do sth   决定干某事  65.have an opportunity to do sth  有机会干某事

66.wait for sb to do sth 等某人干某事   67.would do sth rather than do sth 宁愿干某事也不愿干某事

68.would rather do sth than do sth  宁愿干某事也不愿干某事

69.hurry to do sth   匆匆忙忙干某事      70.refuse to do sth  拒绝干某事

71.agree to do sth  同意干某事           72.pretend to do sth 假装干某事

73.pretend to be doing sth  假装在干某事  74.prefer not to do sth  更(不)喜欢干某事

76.prefer to do sth raher than do sth  宁愿干某事也不愿干某事

77.be willing to do sth  乐意干某事    78.volunteer +时间/ 钱 + to do sth 自愿花时间、钱干某事

79.volunteer to do sth 自愿干某事      80.offer to do sth  提供干某事

81.rush to do sth  跑去干某事          82.in order (not ) to do sth  为了干某事

83.be certain to do sth 一定干某事      84.be sure to do sth  确定干某事

85.make plans to do sth  计划干某事

86.go out of their way to do sth  不辞辛苦去做某事        使我们感到宾至如归

They went out of their way to make us feel at home when we were in London
我们在伦敦期间,他们想尽办法使我们感到想到了家一样

87.lead sb to do sth  领导某人干某事

88.It’s one’s job to do sth  做某事是某人的工作  89.It’s one’s turn to do sth  是该某人干某事了

90.urge sb to do sth  敦促某人做某事  They urged us to give our support. 他们敦促我们给予支持。

91.Could /Would you please (not) do sth ? 请问你可以(愿意)干某事吗?

92.be supposed to do sth  应该干某事   93.warn sb to do sth 警告某人干某事

94.had better(not)do 最好(不要)干某事 You’d better not be late for school.

二、接动名词  (doing sth )

1.like doing sth   喜欢干某事            2.enjoy doing sth  喜欢干某事

3.have fun doing sth  开心的干某是       4.be interested in doing sth  对做某事感兴趣

5.Thanks for doing sth  因做某事而感谢    6.look at sb doing sth   看见某人干某事

7.stop sb doing sth  阻止某人干某事       8.stop sb from doing sth   阻止某人干某事

9.go + v-ing   去干某事  go shopping     10.do the (some )+v-ing   做某事 do some shopping

11.What/How doing sth ?  ....怎么样?     12.practice doing sth 练习干某事

13.watch sb doing sth  看见某人干某事    14.find sb doing sth  发现某人干某事

15.mind (one’s ) doing sth 反对某人干某事  16.can’t stand doing sth 不能忍受干某事

17.think about doing sth  考虑干某事      18.spend … (in)doing sth   花费时间干某事

19.finish doing sth  完成干某事           20.be busy doing sth 忙于干某事

21.keep doing sth  保持干某事            22.keep sb from doing sth  阻止某人干某事

23.keep sb doing sth  保持某人干某事      24.be good at doing sth  擅长于干某事

25.hate doing sth  讨厌干某事            26.There be +名词+doing sth   有某人或某物在干某事

27.make a living by doing sth 通过干什么事谋生

28.have a difficult time doing sth 做某事很吃力 她退休后,他们也许得花好大劲才能找到人来代替她

They may have a difficult time finding her replacement after she retires

29.feel like doing sth 想干某事       30.allow doing sth 允许干某事

31.see sb doing sth 看见某人干某事   32.by doing sth  通过做....

  1. end doing sth=finish doing sth 结束做某事

As long as you study hard ,you will end up failing the exam

We thought of watching a movie last weekend, but we ended up staying home.

34.do a survey about doing sth  做关于某事的调查

35.be afraid of doing sth 害怕 干某事   36.be used to doing sth 习惯于干某事

37.be terrified of doing sth 害怕干某事   38.give up doing sth  放弃干某事

39.instead of doing sth 而不是干某事

Why don't you play football instead of just looking on? 你为什么不参加踢足球而只是看热闹?

40.have nothing against doing sth  不反对做某事

41.be serious about doing sth 认真对待做某事 42.have a chance of doing sth   干某事有机会

44.start doing sth 开始干某事    45.have a lot of experience doing sth  有很多做某事的经验

46.prefer doing sth  喜欢干某事   47.consider doing sth 考虑干某事

48.dream of / about doing sth   I wouldn't dream of hurting you.  我做梦也不会想到伤害你

dream of/about sth/doing sth 梦见某事物。 I dreamt about flying last night. 我昨夜梦见我在飞...

49.continue doing sth  继续干某事   50.put off doing sth 推迟干某事

51.be used for doing sth =be used to do sth 被用来干某事

52.prefer doing sth to doing sth  比起干什么事来,更喜欢干某事 53.without doing sth  没有干某事

54.be comfortable doing sth 非常舒适的安逸的安闲的做某事 I feel comfortable talking with her for she is so nice  55.can’t stop/help doing sth 忍不住干某事   56.look forward to doing sth 期望干某事

57.be against doing sth  反对干某事 58.have trouble/problems/difficulty (in) doing sth   有麻烦、问题困难干某事   59.suggest doing sth  建议干某事     60.be busy doing sth   忙于干某事  61.be worth doing sth  值得干某事

217动词的四种形式
1.动词原形:
动词原形就是不用to的动词不定式,也就是词典中出现的动词原来的形式。例如:be(是),work(工作),study(学习),write(写)等。动词原形用法很多,经常在中考考查的用法有:
(1)在一般现在时中主语不是第三人称单数形式,其谓语动词接动词原形。例如:
We often watch TV at home after supper.晚饭后我们经常在家看电视。
(2)在句型why not的后面接动词原形,表示建议, Why not go there on foot?为什么不步行去那里?
(3)在had better后面要用动词原形。 You’d better finish your homework before supper.你最好在晚饭前完成作业。
(4)在句型Let somebody的后面接动词原形。 Let’s play volleyball after school!咱们放学后打排球吧!
(5)感官动词和使役动词后接动词原形作宾语补足语。 Your words make me feel angry.你的话让我感到生气。
(6)在祈使句的开头用动词原形。 Come and buy your books at our book shop.到我们的书店来买你需要的书。
(7)在情态动词后。 Can you swim across this river in an hour?你能在一小时内游过那条河吗?
(8)在do、will、would等助动词后用动词原形Did everybody want to go there last Monday?上周一每个人都想去那里吗?
2.第三人称单数形式:
动词的第三人称单数形式就是句子的主语是第三人称单数形式,并且谓语是一般现在时,谓语动词应该用第三人称单数形式,即动词原形的后面加-s或者-es。例如:
My sister often watches TV with us at home.我妹妹经常和我们一起在家看电视。
动词的第三人称单数形式的构成:
(1)一般情况下在动词后加字母-s。例如 work-works write-writes take-takes
(2)以字母s,x,ch,sh结尾或以字母o结尾的动词加-es。例如:
watch-watches pass-passes catch-catches do-does go-goes
(3)以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,先把字母y变为i再加-es。例如: carry-carries try-tries
3.现在分词:
动词的现在分词形式由动词原形+ing构成,一般和be动词连用构成现在进行时、过去进行时或用作非谓语动词。例如: The girl is studying English at home now.这个小女孩正在家里学习英语。
I saw a boy lying on the ground.我看见一个男孩躺在地上。
现在分词的构成:
(1)一般情况下直接加-ing。  buy-buying drink-drinking find-finding
(2)以不发音的字母-e结尾的动词,去掉字母e加-ing。例如:
take-taking come-coming become-becoming
(3)以重读闭音节结尾的单词,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,双写此辅音字母,再加-ing。例如:
sit-sitting stop-stopping begin-beginning forget-forgetting
(4)部分以ie结尾的单音节动词,先把ie变为y,然后加-ing。 die-dying tie-tying lie-lying
4.过去式和过去分词:
动词的过去式和过去分词是中考的重要知识点,动词的过去式主要用来构成一般过去时;过去分词是用来构成现在完成时、过去完成时和被动语态的,也可用作非谓语动词。规则动词的过去式和过去分词变化如下:
(1)一般情况下直接加-ed。 work-worked-worked help-helped-helped
(2)以不发音字母e结尾的动词,直接加字母-d。 live-lived-lived like-liked-liked
(3)以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,先把字母y变为i,再加-ed。 carry-carried-carried study-studied-studied try-tried-tried
(4)以重读闭音节结尾,且末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写此辅音字母,然后加-ed。例如:
permit-permitted-permitted prefer-preferred-preferred
不规则的变化:
英语中有一些动词的过去式和过去分词是不规则变化。不规则变化的动词有二百多个,但它们的使用频率特别高。不规则的变化可以分为以下几种形式:
(1)A-A-A形式动词原形、过去式和过去分词三个形式一样。例如:
cut-cut-cut put-put-put cost-cost-cost   let-let-let set-set-set hit-hit-hit
(2)A-B-B形式过去式和过去分词一样 bring-brought-brought buy-bought-bought catch-caught-caught
build-built-built find-found-found leave-left-left
(3)A-B-A形式动词原形和过去分词一样。 come-came-come run-ran-run become-became-become
(4)A-B-C形式动词原形、过去式和过去分词都不一样。例如:
begin-began-begun do-did-done go-went-gone see-saw-seen
这一部分可以分为两种:
A.过去分词在动词原形的基础上变化。 go-went-gone(gone由go变成)rise-rose-risen(risen由rise变成)。
B.过去分词是由过去式变化来的。 choose-chose-chosen break-broke-broken

218.…to warn people about sharks in the water. ……警告人们当心水里的鲨鱼。

[用法] warn用作动词,意思是“警告”、“警戒”。

[搭配]1)warn sb.+ that从句           2)warn sb. of sth. 警告某人某事

  • warn sb. to do sth.告诫某人做某事  4)warn sb. against(doing) sth.告诫某人当心某事/不要做某事

219.before long与long before

  1. before long 不久,很快。I’ll be back before long. 不久我就回来。Before long he got married. 不久他就结婚了。
  2. long before

(1) 老早,早就(单独使用,表示比过去某时早得多的时间)。如:

She had left long before. 她老早就离开了。  That had happened long before. 那事老早就发生了。

注:long ago 表示“很久以前”,指的是从现在算起的很久以前,通常与一般过去时连用:

I met him long ago. 我很久以前就认识他了。

(2) 在……的很久以前,在还没有……的很久以前。如:

She had left long before his return [he returned]. 在他回来的很久以前她就走了。

He had worked in the factory long before he got married. 在他还没有结婚的很久以前他就在这家工厂工作了。

注:此时的主句谓语通常用过去完成时,但有时也可用一般过去时(因为 before 已体现了动作的先后关系)。如:

This happened long before you were born. 这事在你还没出生以前很久就发生了。

220.1besides except  but基本区别

三者均可表示“除了”,但 besides 表示一种累加关系,意指“除了什么之外,还有…”;而 except 或 but 则表示一种排除关系,意指“除了什么之外,不再有…”:

Mary knows Japanese besides French. 除法语外,玛丽还懂日语。

She eats everything except [but] fish. 她什么都吃,但不包括鱼。

但是,在否定句中,besides 也表示“除…外不再有… ”,与but, except 同义:

No one writes to me besides [except] you. 除你之外,没有人给我写信。

but用法的限制,but 通常用于no, no one, nobody, nothing, any, anyone, anything, every, everyone, everything, all, none, who, what等词语后:  Nobody knew her name but me. 除我之外,没人知道她的名字。

I have told this to no one but you. 除你之外,这事我没告诉任何人。

Who but a fool would do such a thing? 除了傻子谁会干那种事?

He eats nothing but fruit. 他除了吃水果外,其他的什么都不吃。

221.with的用法

1.同, 与, 和, 跟  talk with a friend 与朋友谈话  learn farming with an old peasant 跟老农学习种田

fight [quarrel, argue] with sb. 跟某人打架  [争吵, 辩论] [说明表示动作的词, 表示伴随]随着, 和...同时

change with the temperature 随着温度而变化 increase with years 逐年增加 be up with the dawn 黎明即起

W-these words he left the room. 他说完这些话便离开了房间。

2.表示使用的工具, 手段 defend the motherland with one's life 用生命保卫祖国

dig with a pick 用镐挖掘   cut meat with a knife 用刀割肉

3.说明名词, 表示事物的附属部分或所具有的性质]具有; 带有; 加上; 包括...在内

tea with sugar 加糖的茶水    a country with a long history 历史悠久的国家

4.表示一致]在...一边, 与...一致; 拥护, 有利于  vote with sb. 投票赞成某人

with的复合结构作独立主格,表示伴随情况时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构:

with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语。例如:

He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raise.他举手着站在那儿。

典型例题 The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back

  1. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied   D. tied

答案D.  with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用

with来引导。由于本句中名词\"手\"与分词\"绑\"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.

注意: sympathize with sb. 同情某人   be with sb. 赞成某人, 在某人一边

5.[表示随身携带]在...身边  Have you some money with you ? 你(身上)带钱了吗?

Take an umbrella with you. 随身带把伞去   [表示行为方式]以..., 带着

Handle with care! 小心轻放! with accuracy 精确地 with smile 面带微笑地

serve the people with one's whole heart 全心全意地为人民服务

6.[后面加复合宾语, 表示伴随关系]

walk with a stick in one's hand 手拿拐棍走路  sleep with the window open 开着窗睡觉

7.[表示原因 条件, 结果, 让步等关系]由于, 因为; 当(有)...情况下; 如果有; 虽然, 尽管

jump with joy 高兴得跳起来  shake with cold 冷得发抖  She was dying with hunger. 她饿得要死了。

With all his money, he is unhappy. 尽管他有那么多钱, 他也并不愉快。

对于, 关于, 就...来说

They are friendly with us. 他们对我们很友好。  We are pleased with the house.我们对这所房屋很满意。

It is day with us while it is night with them. 对于我们此时是白天, 而对于他们则是夜晚。

8.[与副词连用, 构成祈使句]

On with your shoes! 穿上鞋!  Off with your clothes! 把衣服脱下来!  Down with terrorism! 打倒恐怖主义!

communicate with sb  sb with (together with )sb +is  /sb and sb +are    take with 和.交谈
play with 和.玩     walk with the traches 用拐杖走路 along with 和.一起

with the help of sb 在某人的帮助下  be friends with sb 和某人交朋友 compare...with 把...与....作比较
agree with sb 同意某人的意见      be angry with sb 愤怒,生某人的
be busy with sth 忙于....           be covered with/by 为......所覆盖 fall in love with 爱上
be filled with 用......装满          be in love with 与......相爱  have to do with 与...有关
be popular with sb 深受......欢迎   content with 对……感到满意
be strict with(in) 对某人(物)要求严格 be tired with/from 因......感到厌倦
be strict with 对.严格要求..be sorry with 意思:对什么抱歉 be filled with 意思:被什么充满

222 go  go about 流传;开始做(复杂的事);继续   go after 追求;追逐

go along 配合:she decided to go along with their plans for the surprise party. go beyond 超出;胜过

go around 足够供应,谣言流传;四处走动  go by 凭……判断;顺便拜访   go down 下降;下跌;消肿;被记住(铭记)   go off 消失;变质;爆炸,发出响声  go off on me 对我发脾气 go on with = go ahead 继续

go out 出去;泄密;过时;停止运转,熄灭;约会   go out of one’s way to do sth.不辞辛苦做...

go over 参观;复习;仔细检查;被接受(得到赞许);   go through 通过;经历;完成

go through with 把…进行到底,完成,实现  go steady (和某人)正式确定恋爱关系 go up 上升;增长;上涨

go under 倒闭,失败,垮掉      go all out 全力以赴;竭尽全力   go out of business 歇业;停业

go without saying 不用说,不言而喻  on the go 忙个不停的   go through a lot of money 花了很多钱

223.get across 穿过;清楚表达;使理解    get accustomed to = get used to 习惯于

get along 进展;相处;度日    get at 暗示;够得着,触及;    get away with 逃脱

get bored doing 厌倦做某事    get by (勉强)对付过去,(勉强)过活;溜走;勉强过得去

get down to 开始处理;开始认真对待    get down 使难过    get hurt 受伤

get one’s hopes up 使某人产生希望   get even with 扯平   get in the way 挡道

get in 进入,被允许进入;到达  get in touch with 与……建立联系  get somewhere/nowhere 有(无)进展

get off the ground 有所进展;突破    get off 被允许离开;逃脱惩罚,逃避义务;

get on one’s nerves 使……心烦     get on 和睦相处;变老;继续,继续进行,进步;

 

继续阅读
weinxin
初中生提分
用微信扫描加好友,获取更多初中学习资料
匿名

发表评论

匿名网友 填写信息

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: