人教版初中英语九年级第五单元语法

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2020年10月27日17:25:09 1799字阅读5分59秒

被动语态 

(一)语态:英语的语态是通过动词形式的变化表现出来的。英语中有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。

主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。

Many people speak Chinese.

谓语:speak 的动作是由主语 many people 来执行的。

 

被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,即行为动作的对象。 

Chinese is spoken by many people.

主语 English 是动词 speak 的承受者。

 

(二)被动语态的构成 被动语态由 “助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词” 构成。人称、数和时态的变化是通过 be 的变化表现出来的。

现以speak 为例说明被动语态在各种时态中的构成。 

一般现在时:am/is/are+spoken

一般过去时:was/were+spoken

一般将来时:will/shall be+spoken

现在进行时:am/is/are being+spoken

过去进行时:was/were being+spoken

现在完成时:have/has been+spoken

过去完成时:had been + spoken

 

(三)被动语态的用法 

(1)不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。

Some new computers were stolen last night.

一些新电脑在昨晚被盗了。(不知道是谁偷的)

He is often asked to sing songs.

经常有人叫他唱歌。

 

(2)强调动作的承受者,而不强调动作的执行者。例如:

The glass was broken by Mike.

玻璃杯是迈克打破的。

This book was written by him.

这本书是他写的。

Your homework must be finished on time.

你们的家庭作业必须及时完成。

 

(四)主动语态变被动语态的方法 

(1)把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

(2)把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词) (根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数,以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决定 be 的形式)。

(3)把主动语态中的主语放在介词 by 之后作宾语,将主格改为宾格。

All the people laughed at him.

→ He was laughed at by all people.

 

They make the bikes in the factory.

→ The bikes are made by them in the factory.

 

He cut down a tree.

→ A tree was cut down by him.

 

歌诀总结:

主动变被动,方法要记清;

首先宾变主,然后变谓语:

主语变宾语,有时可省略;

其他留原处,一般不用变。

 

(五)含有情态动词的被动语态 含有情态动词的主动句变成被动句时,由 “情态动词+be+过去分词” 构成。

We can repair this watch in two days.

→This watch can be repaired in two days.

 

They should do it at once.

→It should be done at once.

 

(六)特殊情况

1.He made the boy work for two hours yesterday.

→The boy was made to work by him for two hours yesterday.

 

2.Mother never lets me watch TV .

→I am never let to watch TV by mother.

 

3.Jack gave Peter a Christmas present just now.

→(1)A Christmas present was given to Peter by Jack just now.

→(2)Peter was given a Christmas present by Jack just now.

 

1.---Do you think Shanghai is a _______ city?

---Certainly. It has beautiful buildings, tidy streets and hard-working people.

  1. likely  B. lonely
  2. lively  D. lately

答案:C

2.—Shijiazhuang is becoming much more beautiful.

—Yes. Many trees and flowers _______ in our city every year.

  1. are planting   B. are planted
  2. were planting  D. were planted

答案:B

 

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