人教版初中英语九年级第九单元语法

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2020年12月11日21:06:01 2306字阅读7分41秒
  • that,which,who引导的定语从句
  1. 定义:

 

1) 在复合句中,担当定语功能,修饰主句中的某一名词或代词的从句,叫定语从句。

 

2) 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。

 

3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词。关系词连接先行词与定语从句,并代替先行词在句中作一定的句子成分,分为关系代词和关系副词。

 

  1. 构成:先行词+关系代词+定语从句。

 

  1. 本次课主要讲解关系代词who,that,which引导的定语从句。

 

1) that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

 

Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.(作主语)

 

The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.(作宾语)

 

2) which指物,在定语从句中可作主语、宾语、表语或定语。which在定语从句中也可与介词“of”连用构成“of+which”短语作定语。例如:

 

The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.(作主语)

 

The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. (作宾语)

 

The classroom, the door of which is broken, will soon be repaired. (of which作定语)

 

3) who用于指人,在从句中可用作主语也可作宾语。例如:

 

The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.(作主语)

 

This is the student who I always talk about.(作宾语)

 

注意:

 

1.当定语从句的引导词作介词的宾语,介词放在句末时,who, that, which 可省略。例如:

 

She is the girl (that/who) you are looking for.

 

Here is the box (that/which) you are looking for.

 

2.但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构,此时关系代词不能用that/who。如:

 

This is the house in which we lived last year.

 

The woman to whom she is talking is her mother.

 

  1. 当先行词指物,以下几种情况只能用that,不能用which:

 

1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little等不定代词时;

 

2) 先行词被序数词所修饰时;

 

3) 先行词被形容词最高级或有the only/ the very等修饰时;

 

4) 先行词既有人又有物时。

 

例如:

 

That's all that I know.

 

The first thing that we should do is to make a plan.

 

This is one of the most exciting football games that I have ever seen.

 

She took photos of the things and people that she was interested in.

 

 

  • “..to”

表示否定含义,即“太……而不能……”。其构成通常为:too+形容词/副词+动词不定式。

 

用法一:可表达一个否定的结果,意为“太……而不能……”。

 

例:He is too tired to go on working.

 

他太累了,不能继续工作了。

 

用法二:可在不定式前加介词for引出逻辑主语。

 

例:The box is very heavy. The little boy cannot carry it.

 

=The box is too heavy for the little boy to carry.

 

这个箱子太重了,小男孩搬不动。

 

用法三:“too...to”结构可以和“enough…to”转换。

 

too后的形容词与enough前的形容词意思相反。两者可以进行同义句转换。

 

例:The little girl is too young to go to school.

 

=The little girl is not old enough to go to school.

 

这个小女孩太小了,不能上学。

 

  • not only...but also...

意为“不但……而且……”,连接两个并列的对等成分。如果连接两个主语时,其后谓语动词与靠近的主语的人称和数保持一致。

 

例:She likes not only music but also sport.

 

她不仅喜欢音乐,还喜欢运动。

 

Not only you but also she is going to find a foreign friend.

 

不仅是你,她也要找一位国外的朋友。

 

四.比较级的修饰词

 

比较级常用far(远远),much(……得多),even(甚至更),still(还要,更),a lot(……得多),a bit(有点),a little(一点)等来修饰。

 

如:It's cold this year, but it was even colder last year.

 

今年很冷,但去年甚至更冷。

 

Don't worry. It's going to be much better.

 

别担心,会更好的。

 

His illness is far more serious than we thought.

 

他的病远比我们想象的要严重。

 

Don't go by plane. It's a lot more expensive.

 

不要坐飞机去。那样花费要多得多。

 

Is he any better this morning?

 

他今早稍好一些了吗?

 

【注意】too、quite、very、so等词常用于原级之前。

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